Trouvez des Faits

Prévention de la violence armée, lois sur le contrôle des armes à feu et commerce des armes légères :

Guns in Brunei Darussalam

In Brunei, possession of all firearms by civilians is prohibited.1 2 Military and police personnel may apply for a licence to keep a private firearm by establishing a genuine reason, such as sport shooting or gun collecting.2 3 Hunting, personal protection and property protection are not acceptable reasons for gun ownership.4 5 6

An estimated 5,400 firearms are privately held, at a rate of 1.4 guns per 100 population. This ranks Brunei 137th among 179 nations surveyed for the rate of private possession of small arms.7

State-owned weapons are estimated to include 2,450 guns for 1,750 police,8 along with 9,690 small arms for 5,100 military personnel and reservists.9 AK-47 assault rifles have been priced locally at US$1200-1500.10

Gun Death, Injury and Crime

Brunei reported five homicides in 2004, for an annual rate of 1.37 homicides per 100,000 people.11 12 In the years 1993-97, homicides by any method averaged six to seven each year, but only one of those, in 1997, was a gun homicide.2 Thus in 1997, Brunei had a gun homicide rate of 0.28 per 100,000 people.13

The frequency of gun suicide, unintentional shootings, non-fatal firearm-related injury and gun crime are not known to have been internationally reported.

Trafficking and Smuggling

Authorities report no evidence of illegal local manufacture,14 illicit sales or distribution of firearms, their components or ammunition,15 few examples of known illegal imports,16 and no cases of illegal exports.17

Gun Control Law

Brunei's gun laws are ranked as restrictive, not permissive.18 The Arms and Explosives Act19 and Rules20 form the country's national firearm legislation.21 Requirements for lawful possession of long guns and handguns include gun owner licensing,22 a permit to purchase,23 and the registration of all firearms.24 In a comparison of South East Asian (ASEAN) countries, aspects of Brunei's gun regulation remain largely undetermined.25

Gun Owner Licensing

Applicants for private firearm possession must prove a genuine reason for gun ownership which is acceptable under the law, provide proof of identity, a photo, a curriculum vitae and one or more references, show certification of completed training, undergo a background check, supply information on proposed gun storage and pay a licence fee. Successful applicants obtain a permit to purchase or to acquire a firearm.26 27 28 Exemptions apply to authorised shooting club rifles, and a licence to possess an airgun costs BND$1 per annum.2

Background checks require proof of citizenship and minimum age. Prohibitions or restrictions on gun ownership exist for those with a previous history of crime, domestic violence or mental illness.29 27 3

Firearms are not permitted to be in the possession of anyone other than the gun's licensed owner. In response to a United Nations survey Brunei reported no measures to regulate the storage or transportation of firearms and ammunition, nor to prevent licensed owners from carrying their guns, either openly or concealed.30

Record Keeping and Tracing

Brunei maintains a computerised national firearm registry to record both civilian gun owner licensing and gun registration data. Public access to registry records is not allowed.22 24 31 Law enforcement personnel are trained in firearm identification, but do not employ firearm tracing technology.32

Penalties

The maximum penalty for violating the firearm licensing Act is a fine of up to US$1,000.2 33 Lesser offences under the Rules attract a fine of BND$3,000, while serious offences attract no less than five years in prison and no more than 15 years, plus 3-12 strokes of the whip.20 In 2005, a former soldier in possession of an unlicensed, home-made rifle was sentenced to six years in prison, plus five strokes of the cane.34

Production and Trade

Brunei is not a manufacturer of firearms, components or ammunition.35 Moderate quantities of guns and ammunition, in particular shotgun shells are imported,36 37 but few are exported.36 38

The laws of Brunei prohibit or restrict by type the manufacture, import and export of all firearms, their parts and ammunition.39 40 41 42

International Agreements

Brunei has not signed or ratified the Illicit Firearms Protocol to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.43 It has never filed a national report to the UN Programme of Action on illicit small arms (UNPoA), and has yet to establish a National Point of Contact or a National Coordinating Agency under the terms of this 2001 agreement.44 45 Brunei is reported to have provided little, if any country information to the UNPoA46 process, and is not a party to any other known international agreements to curb the proliferation of illicit firearms.47

Références

1.

United Nations.1998.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q2)Full Citation

2.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

3.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘Genuine Reason.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q24)Full Citation

4.

United Nations.1998.‘Purposes for Which Firearm Possession Permitted.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q40)Full Citation

5.

United Nations.1998.‘Purposes for Which Handgun Ownership Permitted.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q33)Full Citation

6.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘General Preconditions for Licence Applications.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q75)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

10.

World Bank.2007.‘Available Kalashnikov Prices for Specific Countries and Periods.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q3)Full Citation

11.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 - 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

12.

United Nations.1998.‘Homicide Rates from Three Different Data Sources.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q72)Full Citation

13.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

14.

United Nations.1998.‘Illegal Manufacture Frequency.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q47)Full Citation

15.

United Nations.1998.‘Illegal Sales and Distribution.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q48)Full Citation

16.

United Nations.1998.‘Illegal Import Frequency.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q45)Full Citation

17.

United Nations.1998.‘Illegal Export Frequency.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q46)Full Citation

18.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

19.

Brunei.1927.‘Arms and Explosives Act.’ Laws of Brunei, 1 of 1927 (Cap. 58 of 1951), 1984 Ed. Cap. 58. Amended by S 99/59, S 7/91, Revised Edition 2002.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,8 April. (Q76)Full Citation

20.

Brunei.2002.‘Arms and Explosives Act (Chapter 58): Arms and Explosives Rules.’ Laws of Brunei, B.R.O.N. 26.11.28 and Amendments - Subsidiary Legislation.Brunei:Sultan of Brunei,30 November. (Q77)Full Citation

21.

United Nations.1998.‘Distribution of Legislative Authority with Respect to Regulation of Firearms.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q31)Full Citation

22.

United Nations.1998.‘Characteristics of Administrative System on Civilian Firearm Owners.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q37)Full Citation

23.

United Nations.1998.‘Existence of Requirements for the Purchase of Firearms, by Coverage.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q34)Full Citation

24.

United Nations.1998.‘Characteristics of Administrative System on Firearms Owned by Civilians.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q38)Full Citation

25.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘Aspects of Arms Control Regulated to Some Degree by ASEAN Countries.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q78)Full Citation

26.

United Nations.1998.‘Purchasing Process.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q35)Full Citation

27.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘Criteria for Being Issued a Licence.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q79)Full Citation

28.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘Domestic Transfers.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q80)Full Citation

29.

United Nations.1998.‘Prohibitions and/or Restrictions on Firearm Ownership.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q36)Full Citation

30.

United Nations.1998.‘Regulations on the Possession of Firearms.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q41)Full Citation

31.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘Firearm Registers.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q81)Full Citation

32.

United Nations.1998.‘Firearms Identification and Tracing Technology.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q49)Full Citation

33.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘Penalty Comparison.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q83)Full Citation

34.

Rol Ezam. 2005. ‘Jail, Cane for Ex-Army Man.’ BruDirect.com / Borneo Bulletin. 22 November. (N5) Full Citation

35.

United Nations.1998.‘Manufacture of Firearms, Firearms Components and Ammunition.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q42)Full Citation

36.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

37.

United Nations.1998.‘Import of Firearms.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q44)Full Citation

38.

United Nations.1998.‘Export of Firearms.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q43)Full Citation

39.

United Nations.1998.‘Countries that Prohibit or Restrict the Manufacture of Firearms, Firearm Components or Ammunition.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q30)Full Citation

40.

United Nations.1998.‘Countries that Prohibit or Restrict the Import of Firearms.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q27)Full Citation

41.

United Nations.1998.‘Countries that Prohibit or Restrict the Export of Firearms.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q28)Full Citation

42.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

43.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

44.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

45.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘States That Have Never Reported.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q21)Full Citation

46.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

47.

United Nations.1998.‘International Agreements.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,1 August. (Q32)Full Citation