Citation(s) from the GunPolicy.org literature library
USA. 2012 ‘End-user Certification; Legal and Enforcement Measures.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), p. 8. New York, NY: Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations. 3 August
Section II, para 12: End-user Certification; Legal and Enforcement Measures
U.S. Laws and Policies Supportive of the UN POA
The United States monitors arms transfers, investigates suspicious activity, and acts quickly to curtail exports to those recipients who do not meet the strict criteria for responsible use. A sample U.S. Non-transfer and Use Certificate (DSP-83) can be found at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov.
Through the "Blue Lantern" End-use Monitoring Program, the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance works with U.S. embassy staff worldwide to conduct periodic end-use inquiries on commercial SALW exports (as well as other U.S.-origin defense articles) to ensure that the exported items are being used according to the terms authorized by the license and by a bona fide end-user. Inquiries may include interviews with end-users, site visits, and physical inspections. Over 11,000 end-use checks have been performed since the inception of this program in 1990, including 2,069 from 2010 to 2011 in over 100 countries. Unfavorable Blue Lantern checks can result in denial or revocation of export licenses, debarment or other, civil penalties under the AECA and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). Evidence of potential criminal activity is referred to U.S. federal law enforcement officials for their consideration. Annual Blue Lantern End-Use Monitoring reports to the U.S. Congress can be found at www.pmddtc.state.gov
The "Golden Sentry" program, administered by Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), performs similar checks on military-to-military arms transfers (http://www.dsca.osd.mil/ ). For MANPADS, the U.S. conducts full annual on-site inventories of U.S.-origin items exported to foreign end-users.
[AECA = Arms Export Control Act; SALW = Small Arms and Light Weapons; MANPADS = Man-Portable Air-Defense Systems]