Citation(s) from the literature library

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford. 2003 ‘Background to Violence.’ Small Arms in the Pacific; Occasional Paper No. 8, pp. 45-6. Geneva: Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva. 31 March

Relevant contents

In January 1998, the parties signed the Lincoln Agreement on Peace, Security and Development on Bougainville (Lincoln Agreement) in Christchurch, New Zealand. This provided for a formal international peacekeeping force to monitor an official cease-fire.

The cease-fire became 'permanent and irrevocable' on 30 April 1998. Under the endorsement of the UN Security Council, an Australian-led Peace Monitoring Group (PMG) replaced the TMG. A UN Observer Mission was dispatched to Bougainville, and a Peace Process Consultative Committee (PPCC), chaired by the leader of the UN Observer Mission, was formed.

The PMG, an unarmed delegation comprising civilian and defence personnel from Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga, and Vanuatu, has operated since this time from a number of bases throughout Bougainville.

ID: Q648

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