Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Zimbabwe — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Zimbabwe is

2017: 455,0001
2007: 400,0002 3 4

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Zimbabwe is

2017: 2.801
2007: 3.445

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Zimbabwe ranked at No. 896

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Zimbabwe ranked at No. 1062

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Zimbabwe is reported to be

2017: 190,6851

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,7 but in Zimbabwe there are estimated to be

2017: 264,3151

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Zimbabwe are reported to have 91,5808 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In Zimbabwe, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms9

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Zimbabwe are reported to have 23,00010 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Zimbabwe, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 1,64511
2015: 1,585
2014: 1,537
2013: 1,488
2012: 98112
2011: 1,438
2010: 711
2008: 1,77513
2007: 645
2006: 921
2005: 1,089
2004: 1,09214
2003: 1,028
2000: 91215
1999: 873
1998: 778

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Zimbabwe, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 10.3111
2015: 10.17
2014: 10.10
2013: 10.00
2012: 7.5612
2011: 10.11
2010: 5.59
2008: 14.313
2007: 5.2
2006: 7.4
2005: 8.7
2004: 8.713 16
2003: 8.2
2002: 11.3016
2000: 7.2415 13
1999: 7.04
1998: 6.38
1997: 6.813
1996: 6.4
1995: 6.5

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Zimbabwe, annual male homicides by any means total

2012: 82717
2010: 51117

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Zimbabwe, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 11.5517

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Zimbabwe, annual female homicides by any means total

2012: 15417
2010: 201

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Zimbabwe, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 2.0417

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Zimbabwe, annual firearm homicides total

2007: 1913
2006: 19
2005: 19
2004: 20
2000: 59815
1999: 596
1998: 562

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Zimbabwe, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.313
2006: 0.3
2005: 0.3
2004: 0.3
2000: 4.7515
1999: 4.81
1998: 4.61

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Zimbabwe, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 2%18
2007: 4.6%13
2006: 4.9%
2005: 5.4%
2004: 5.6%
2000: 65.6%
1999: 68.3%
1998: 72.2%

Suicides (any method)

In Zimbabwe, annual suicides by any means total

1990: 76819

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Zimbabwe, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1990: 7.565

Gun Suicides

In Zimbabwe, annual firearm suicides total

1995: 1220

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Zimbabwe, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

1995: 0.0920

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Zimbabwe, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited without Government permission21 22 23 24 25

Home-made Guns

In Zimbabwe, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high26

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Zimbabwe, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law27 28

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Zimbabwe is reported by Customs to be US$14,28129 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Zimbabwe was categorized as 'unknown'30

Firearm Imports

In Zimbabwe, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law23 31

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Zimbabwe is reported by Customs to be US$392,58229 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Zimbabwe is moderate32

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Zimbabwe, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law33

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Zimbabwe include27 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Zimbabwe is categorised as restrictive34

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Zimbabwe includes the

Firearms Act, Chapter 10:0935 36

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Zimbabwe are regulated by the Minister of Home Affairs37

Right to Possess Firearms

In Zimbabwe, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law38 39 40

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Zimbabwe, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms41

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Zimbabwe, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence42

Regulation of Handguns

In Zimbabwe, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence42

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Zimbabwe, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law18

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Zimbabwe, only licensed gun owners40 43 36 18 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Zimbabwe are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm43 31

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Zimbabwe is 14 years44

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Zimbabwe must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and addiction43 36 18 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Zimbabwe, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required42

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Zimbabwe does not stipulate42 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Zimbabwe, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required42 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Zimbabwe, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years43

Licensing Records

In Zimbabwe, authorities maintain a record45 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Zimbabwe are permitted to possess 1 firearm per firearm certificate43

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Zimbabwe are permitted to possess the quantity of ammunition specified in the firearm certificate43

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Zimbabwe, the law requires45 23 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Zimbabwe, licensed firearm dealers are required46 23 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Zimbabwe, licensed gun makers are required23 47 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Zimbabwe, State agencies are required23 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Zimbabwe, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a valid firearms licence48

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Zimbabwe, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful49 50

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Zimbabwe, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to one firearm per firearm certificate40 43

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

The number of licensed firearm dealers in Zimbabwe is reported to be

2003: 1253

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Zimbabwe, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined42

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Zimbabwe, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated42 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Zimbabwe include51 52 53 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Zimbabwe include54 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Zimbabwe include55 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Zimbabwe include56 57 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Zimbabwe, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is not required by law23 36

Firearm Tracing

In Zimbabwe, state authorities carry out58 59 60 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Zimbabwe, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law18

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Zimbabwe, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm61 is five years in prison and/or a fine62

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Zimbabwe are known to have3 36 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Zimbabwe, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be 2004 (2003)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Zimbabwe, it is state policy23 63 36 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Zimbabwe adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200664 65

Southern African Development Community

As a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Zimbabwe signed the SADC Declaration Concerning Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials in March 2001. This laid the ground for the August, 2001 adoption of the legally binding SADC Protocol on Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials66

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists67 Zimbabwe as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200768 by Zimbabwe.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified69 by Zimbabwe

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed70 by Zimbabwe

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Zimbabwe committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects71

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Zimbabwe against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 8072 73 74 75 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Zimbabwe has submitted one or more national reports76 77 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Zimbabwe, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated78 77

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Zimbabwe, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated78

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Zimbabwe submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent78 79

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated77 by Zimbabwe to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Zimbabwe has not declared80 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Zimbabwe has been a Member State of the United Nations since 198081

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list82 Zimbabwe as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Zimbabwe, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Zimbabwe ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace.2004.‘Firearm Ownership - Zimbabwe.’ Hide and Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,1 October. (Q8829)Full Citation

4.

Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace.2004.‘Number of Firearms Recovered - Zimbabwe.’ Hide and Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,1 October. (Q8832)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2014.‘Calculated Rates - Zimbabwe.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,24 January. (Q4328)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

9.

Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace.2004.‘Routine Arming of Police - Zimbabwe.’ Hide and Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,1 October. (Q8830)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

11.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.2018.‘GBD Results Tool.’ Global Health Data Exchange.Seattle WA:University of Washington,8 August. (Q13503)Full Citation

12.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Zimbabwe.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6408)Full Citation

14.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 - 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

16.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3812)Full Citation

17.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

18.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Zimbabwe.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9483)Full Citation

19.

WHO.2010.‘Number of Suicides by Age Group and Gender, Zimbabwe, 1990.’ World Health Organization Mental Health Data.Geneva:World Health Organization,12 September. (Q2470)Full Citation

20.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

21.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Restrictions on Manufacturing of Firearms.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2437)Full Citation

22.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Restrictions on Manufacture of Ammunition.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2436)Full Citation

23.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Marking Practice.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3247)Full Citation

24.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Legislation, Regulation, Administration Procedures.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3256)Full Citation

25.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Legislation, Regulation, Administration Procedures - Production.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3265)Full Citation

26.

Florquin, Nicolas, Sigrid Lipott and Francis Wairagu.2019.‘Excerpts on Illicit/Craft Production - Zimbabwe.’ Weapons Compass: Mapping Illicit Small Arms Flows in Africa.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 January. (Q14015)Full Citation

27.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Export Control.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3224)Full Citation

28.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Legislation, Regulation, Administration Procedures - Export.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3252)Full Citation

29.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

30.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

31.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Legislation, Regulation, Administration Procedures - Import.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3253)Full Citation

32.

Florquin, Nicolas, Sigrid Lipott, and Francis Wairagu.2019.‘Excerpts on Trafficking - Zimbabwe.’ Weapons Compass: Mapping Illicit Small Arms Flows in Africa.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 January. (Q14016)Full Citation

33.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3260)Full Citation

34.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

35.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Arrangement of Sections, Preliminary, Short Title and Interpretation.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2432)Full Citation

36.

Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace.2004.‘The Firearms Act of 1957 - Zimbabwe.’ Hide and Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,1 October. (Q8831)Full Citation

37.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Regulations.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2449)Full Citation

38.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

39.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

40.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Penalty for Purchasing Firearms or Ammunition Without Firearm Certificate.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2433)Full Citation

41.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Special Provisions Relating to Certain Types of Weapons and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2442)Full Citation

42.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Arrangement of Sections, Preliminary, Short Title and Interpretation.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q4366)Full Citation

43.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Grant of Firearm Certificate.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2434)Full Citation

44.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Restrictions on Possession of Firearms and Ammunition by Young Persons.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2444)Full Citation

45.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Keeping of Central Register.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2448)Full Citation

46.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Register of Transactions for Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2441)Full Citation

47.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Record Keeping.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3248)Full Citation

48.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Legislation, Regulation, Administration Procedures - Retransfer.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3266)Full Citation

49.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Penalty for Dealing in Firearms Without Being Registered.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2438)Full Citation

50.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Registration of Firearms Dealers.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2439)Full Citation

51.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Safeguarding of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2445)Full Citation

52.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Information Regarding Firearms.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2446)Full Citation

53.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Power to Enter Premises and Obtain Information.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2447)Full Citation

54.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Registration of Places of Business of Firearms Dealers.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2440)Full Citation

55.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3258)Full Citation

56.

Zimbabwe.1957.‘Removal and Transportation of Firearms and Ammunition Within Zimbabwe.’ Firearms Act, Chapter 10:09.Harare:Republic of Zimbabwe,1 January. (Q2443)Full Citation

57.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Legislation, Regulation, Administration Procedures - Transit.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3254)Full Citation

58.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Tracing Requests.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3250)Full Citation

59.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Co-operation in Tracing.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3249)Full Citation

60.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Responses to Tracing Requests.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3264)Full Citation

61.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

62.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Law Enforcement/Criminalisation.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3257)Full Citation

63.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Collections and Disposal.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3259)Full Citation

64.

African Union / UNODA.2005.‘Windhoek Common Position.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:African Union / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 December. (Q3216)Full Citation

65.

African Union.2015.‘Member States.’ African Union: A United and Strong Africa.Addis Ababa:African Union,10 August. (Q10548)Full Citation

66.

SADC / UNODA.2001.‘Protocol on Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Southern African Development Community Secretariat / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 August. (Q3217)Full Citation

67.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

68.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

69.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

70.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

71.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

72.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

73.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

74.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

75.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

76.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

77.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

78.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

79.

Zimbabwe.2008.‘Cooperation with Civil Society and NGOs.’ National Report of Zimbabwe on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Zimbabwe to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3261)Full Citation

80.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

81.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

82.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation