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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Zambia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Zambia is

2017: 158,0001
2007: 230,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Zambia is

2017: 0.901
2007: 8.92

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Zambia, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 32,2773

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Zambia, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 43,2953

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Zambia, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 11,0703

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Zambia ranked at No. 1124

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Zambia ranked at No. 682

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Zambia is reported to be

2017: 86,6421
2004: 86,6423 2

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Zambia is

2004: 0.785

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,6 but in Zambia there are estimated to be

2017: 71,3581

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Zambia are reported to have 41,0407 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Zambia are reported to have 16,0008 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Zambia, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 8539
2014: 825
2013: 867
2012: 885
2011: 863
2010: 814
2009: 812
2008: 694
2007: 413
2006: 386
2005: 354
2004: 357
2000: 79710 11
1999: 1,07210
1998: 872

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Zambia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 5.669
2014: 5.64
2013: 6.10
2012: 6.40
2011: 6.43
2010: 6.24
2009: 6.40
2008: 5.63
2007: 3.4
2006: 3.3
2005: 3.1
2004: 3.210 12
2003: 3.7012
2002: 8.06
2000: 7.810 11
1999: 10.810
1998: 9.0

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Zambia, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 68513
2010: 63313

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Zambia, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 8.5813

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Zambia, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 16813
2010: 181

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Zambia, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.0713

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Zambia, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 2810
2009: 19
2008: 25
2007: 19
2006: 19
2005: 19
2004: 20

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Zambia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.410
2009: 0.2
2008: 0.3
2007: 0.3
2006: 0.3
2005: 0.3
2004: 0.3

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Zambia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2010: 11.7%10
2009: 4.8%
2008: 7.4%
2007: 4.6%
2006: 4.9%
2005: 5.4%
2004: 5.6%

Suicides (any method)

In Zambia, annual suicides by any means total

1995: 5514

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Zambia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1995: 0.5114

Gun Suicides

In Zambia, annual firearm suicides total

1995: 514

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Zambia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

1995: 0.0514

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Zambia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

1995: 214

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Zambia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

1995: 0.0214

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Zambia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited15 16 17 18

Home-made Guns

In Zambia, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate15 19

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Zambia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Zambia is reported by manufacturers to be

2018: 027
2016: 0
2015: 0

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Zambia is reported by Customs to be US$5,17028 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Zambia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law29 30 31 21 23 24 25 18

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Zambia is reported to be

2018: 027
2016: 0

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Zambia is reported by Customs to be US$1,035,79328 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Zambia is low15 32

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Zambia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law33

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Zambia do not include34 23 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Zambia is categorised as permissive35

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Zambia includes the Firearms Act36 3

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Zambia are regulated by the Minister21 and the Firearms Registrar23

Right to Possess Firearms

In Zambia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law37 38 39

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Zambia, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and 7.62 mm and .303 calibre rifles40 41 42

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Zambia, civilian possession of automatic weapons is not regulated by law43

Regulation of Handguns

In Zambia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence44 43

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Zambia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is not regulated by law43

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Zambia, only licensed gun owners39 45 46 24 3 43 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Zambia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection (antiques only), personal protection, security46 45 3

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Zambia is 21 years47

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Zambia must pass a background check which considers criminal, health and mental health46 45 43 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Zambia, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required34

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Zambia does not stipulate34 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Zambia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required46 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Zambia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years48

Licensing Records

In Zambia, authorities maintain a record49 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Zambia are permitted to possess 1 firearm per firearm certificate45

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Zambia are permitted to possess only 100 rounds of ammunition3

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Zambia, the law requires49 50 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Zambia, licensed firearm dealers are required51 18 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Zambia, State agencies are required50 52 53 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Zambia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited54 55

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Zambia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful54 56 55 24 3 18

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Zambia, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to one firearm per firearm certificate39 45

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

The number of licensed firearm dealers in Zambia is reported to be

2003: 518

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Zambia, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined34

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Zambia, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated34 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Zambia include57 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Zambia include58 18 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Zambia include59 52 53 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Zambia include44 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Zambia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law60 23 24 61 62

Firearm Tracing

In Zambia, state authorities carry out63 61 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Zambia, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law43

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Zambia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm64 is 15 years in prison39 3

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Zambia are known to have65 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

In Zambia, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be

2003/00: 2,50065

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Zambia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2003: 72065

Small Arms Destroyed

In Zambia, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2016: 1,50066

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Zambia, it is state policy67 52 68 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Zambia adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200669 70

Southern African Development Community

As a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Zambia signed the SADC Declaration Concerning Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials in March 2001. This laid the ground for the August, 2001 adoption of the legally binding SADC Protocol on Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials71

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200772 by Zambia.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified73 by Zambia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified74 by Zambia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Zambia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects75

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Zambia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 9376 77 78 79 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Zambia has submitted one or more national reports80 81 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Zambia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated82 81

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Zambia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated81

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Zambia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent83

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated81 by Zambia to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been provided84 to Zambia by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Zambia has not declared85 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Zambia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196486

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list87 Zambia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Zambia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Zambia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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