Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

United States — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

Federal firearm legislation is limited (below). Many municipalities and all states regulate gun use with their own local law (Go To).

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the United States is 265,000,0001 2 to 393,347,0003 4 5

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in the United States is

2017: 120.503
2007: 101.054 6 2

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In the United States, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 87,079,0001 to 110,000,0004

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In the United States, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 53,371,0001 to 86,000,0004

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In the United States, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 111,300,0001 to 114,000,0004

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the United States ranked at No. 17

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the United States ranked at No. 12

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2017: 42.0%8 9
2016: 39.0%
2015: 41.0%
2014: 31.0%10
2013: 37%11
2012: 33.1%10 11 12 13
2010: 31.1%
2008: 34.0%
2006: 33.1%
2004: 34.7%
2002: 33.5%
2000: 32.4%
1998: 34.8%
1996: 40.1%
1994: 40.6%
1993: 42.0%
1991: 39.6%
1990: 42.2%
1989: 46.0%
1988: 39.8%
1987: 46.0%
1985: 44.2%
1984: 44.9%
1982: 45.3%
1980: 47.3%
1977: 50.4%
1976: 46.5%
1974: 46.1%
1973: 47.0%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

2012: 20.5%14
2010: 19.4%
2008: 25.2%
2006: 20.4%
2004: 21.0%
2002: 22.2%
2000: 21.6%
1998: 22.5%
1996: 25.8%
1994: 27.3%
1993: 25.7%
1991: 27.8%
1990: 27.8%
1989: 29.6%
1988: 27.3%
1987: 30.0%
1985: 31.4%
1984: 29.6%
1982: 32.5%
1980: 31.2%
1977: 33.5%
1976: 30.5%
1974: 28.4%
1973: 30.8%

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

2012: 21.4%15
2010: 19.7%
2008: 25.4%
2006: 20.3%
2004: 20.0%
2002: 23.2%
2000: 20.0%
1998: 22.1%
1996: 27.2%
1994: 27.1%
1993: 29.7%
1991: 29.0%
1990: 28.6%
1989: 30.6%
1988: 26.4%
1987: 30.9%
1985: 30.3%
1984: 28.7%
1982: 32.7%
1980: 33.0%
1977: 34.8%
1976: 30.5%
1974: 29.0%
1973: 29.0%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2012: 21.9%16
2010: 19.6%
2008: 26.2%
2006: 20.0%
2004: 20.7%
2002: 21.0%
2000: 20.5%
1998: 20.5%
1996: 23.7%
1994: 26.2%
1993: 26.1%
1991: 22.1%
1990: 24.9%
1989: 26.8%
1988: 24.4%
1987: 26.1%
1985: 24.1%
1984: 21.4%
1982: 22.9%
1980: 24.9%
1977: 21.3%
1976: 22.2%
1974: 20.3%
1973: 20.3%

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in the United States is reported to be

2019: 1,268,16517
2017: 1,073,7433

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,18 but in the United States there are estimated to be

2017: 392,273,2573

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the United States are reported to have 4,535,38019 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In the United States, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms20 21 22 23

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the United States are reported to have 1,016,00024 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2017: 39,77325
2016: 38,65826
2015: 36,247
2014: 33,594
2013: 33,635
2012: 33,563
2011: 32,35126 27
2010: 31,67226
2009: 31,347
2008: 31,593
2007: 31,224
2006: 30,896
2005: 30,694
2004: 29,569
2003: 30,136
2002: 30,242
2001: 29,573
2000: 28,663
1999: 28,874

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 12.2125
2016: 11.96
2015: 11.28
2014: 10.54
2013: 10.64
2012: 10.69
2011: 10.38
2010: 10.26
2009: 10.22
2008: 10.39
2007: 10.37
2006: 10.35
2005: 10.39
2004: 10.10
2003: 10.39
2002: 10.51
2001: 10.38
2000: 10.19
1999: 10.35

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2017: 34,06225
2016: 32,994
2015: 31,027
2014: 28,715
2013: 28,793
2012: 28,838
2011: 27,738
2010: 27,356
2009: 26,921
2008: 27,336
2007: 27,047
2006: 26,712
2005: 26,657
2004: 25,498
2003: 26,124
2002: 26,098
2001: 25,480
2000: 24,582
1999: 24,700

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2017: 21.2325
2016: 20.74
2015: 19.61
2014: 18.30
2013: 18.50
2012: 18.67
2011: 18.10
2010: 18.02
2009: 17.85
2008: 18.29
2007: 18.27
2006: 18.22
2005: 18.36
2004: 17.73
2003: 18.34
2002: 18.48
2001: 18.21
2000: 17.81
1999: 18.06

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2017: 5,71125
2016: 5,664
2015: 5,220
2014: 4,879
2013: 4,842
2012: 4,725
2011: 4,613
2010: 4,316
2009: 4,426
2008: 4,257
2007: 4,177
2006: 4,184
2005: 4,037
2004: 4,071
2003: 4,012
2002: 4,144
2001: 4,093
2000: 4,081
1999: 4,174

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2017: 3.4525
2016: 3.45
2015: 3.20
2014: 3.01
2013: 3.02
2012: 2.96
2011: 2.91
2010: 2.75
2009: 2.84
2008: 2.75
2007: 2.73
2006: 2.76
2005: 2.69
2004: 2.73
2003: 2.72
2002: 2.83
2001: 2.82
2000: 2.85
1999: 2.93

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual homicides by any means28 total

2017: 19,26925
2016: 19,103
2015: 17,525
2014: 15,625
2013: 15,863
2012: 16,443
2011: 16,010
2010: 16,008
2009: 16,550
2008: 17,580
2007: 17,128
2006: 18,573
2005: 18,124
2004: 17,357
2003: 17,732
2002: 17,638
2001: 20,308
2000: 16,765
1999: 16,88926 29 30
1998: 14,27629 30
1997: 18,20831 30
1996: 19,645
1995: 21,606

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of homicide by any means32 per 100,000 population is

2017: 5.9225
2016: 5.91
2015: 5.45
2014: 4.90
2013: 5.02
2012: 5.24
2011: 5.14
2010: 5.18
2009: 5.39
2008: 5.78
2007: 5.69
2006: 6.22
2005: 6.13
2004: 5.93
2003: 6.11
2002: 6.13
2001: 7.13
2000: 5.96
1999: 6.0526 29 30
1998: 5.1929 30
1997: 6.730
1996: 7.3
1995: 8.1
1993: 9.9333

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual male homicides by any means total

2017: 15,31725
2016: 15,25326
2015: 14,051
2014: 12,334
2013: 12,516
2012: 13,002
2011: 12,552
2010: 12,558
2009: 12,916
2008: 13,925

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2017: 9.5525
2016: 9.59
2015: 8.88
2014: 7.86
2013: 8.04
2012: 8.42
2011: 8.19
2010: 8.27
2009: 8.56
2008: 9.32
2007: 9.06

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual female homicides by any means total

2017: 3,95225
2016: 3,85026
2015: 3,474
2014: 3,291
2013: 3,347
2012: 3,441
2011: 3,458
2010: 3,450
2009: 3,634
2008: 3,655
2007: 3,678

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2017: 2.3925
2016: 2.35
2015: 2.13
2014: 2.03
2013: 2.09
2012: 2.16
2011: 2.18
2010: 2.20
2009: 2.33
2008: 2.36

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, annual firearm homicides34 total

2017: 14,54225
2016: 14,41526
2015: 12,974
2014: 11,008
2013: 11,207
2012: 11,62226 35
2011: 11,06826 27 36 35
2010: 11,07826 36 35 30 37
2009: 11,493
2008: 12,179
2007: 12,632
2006: 12,79126 30 37
2005: 12,35226 35 30 37
2004: 11,62426 30 37
2003: 11,920
2002: 11,82926 38 37
2001: 11,348
2000: 10,80126
1999: 10,82826 29
1998: 9,25729

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population39 is

2017: 4.4625
2016: 4.46
2015: 4.04
2014: 3.45
2013: 3.55
2012: 3.70
2011: 3.55
2010: 3.59
2009: 3.75
2008: 4.01
2007: 4.19
2006: 4.29
2005: 4.18
2004: 3.97
2003: 4.11
2002: 4.1126 38 37
2001: 3.98
2000: 3.8426
1999: 3.8826 29
1998: 3.3729
1993: 7.0740

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 60%35
2011: 69.6%41 35 42 43
2010: 68.1%41 35
2009: 68.4%
2008: 68.3%
2007: 68.8%
2006: 68.9%
2005: 68.2%
2004: 67.0%41
2003: 67.2%
2002: 67.1%
2001: 55.9%
2000: 64.4%
1999: 64.1%
1998: 65.9%
1997: 68.0%
1996: 68.0%
1995: 69.0%
1994: 71.4%
1993: 71.2%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual male firearm homicides total

2017: 12,22025
2016: 12,21326
2015: 11,024
2014: 9,278
2013: 9,444
2012: 9,797
2011: 9,270
2010: 9,340
2009: 9,615
2008: 10,361

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 7.6225
2016: 7.68
2015: 6.97
2014: 5.91
2013: 6.07
2012: 6.34
2011: 6.05
2010: 6.15
2009: 6.38
2008: 6.93

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual female firearm homicides total

2017: 2,32225
2016: 2,20226
2015: 1,950
2014: 1,730
2013: 1,763
2012: 1,825
2011: 1,798
2010: 1,738
2009: 1,878
2008: 1,818

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.4025
2016: 1.34
2015: 1.19
2014: 1.07
2013: 1.10
2012: 1.14
2011: 1.14
2010: 1.11
2009: 1.20
2008: 1.18

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, according to figures44 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), annual handgun homicides total

2017: 7,03236 45
2016: 7,102
2015: 6,434
2014: 5,545
2013: 5,768
2012: 6,404
2011: 6,251
2010: 6,115
2009: 6,501
2008: 6,800
2007: 7,398
2006: 7,836
2005: 7,565
2004: 7,286
2003: 7,745
2002: 7,294
2001: 6,931
2000: 6,778
1999: 6,658

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, according to figures46 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 2.166
2016: 2.20
2015: 2
2014: 1.74
2013: 1.82
2012: 2.04
2011: 2.01
2010: 1.98
2009: 2.12
2008: 2.24
2007: 2.46
2006: 2.63
2005: 2.56
2004: 2.49
2003: 2.67
2002: 2.54
2001: 2.43
2000: 2.40
1999: 2.39

Handgun Homicides (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual handgun homicides total

2017: 1,07625
2016: 1,05347
2015: 984
2014: 78545
2013: 853
2012: 872
2011: 843
2010: 899
2009: 1,013
2008: 961
2007: 976
2006: 997
2005: 1,074
2004: 1,011
2003: 1,011
2002: 1,024
2001: 1,014
2000: 1,068
1999: 1,082

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.3325
2016: 0.33
2015: 0.31
2014: 0.25
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.28
2011: 0.27
2010: 0.29
2009: 0.33
2008: 0.32
2007: 0.32
2006: 0.33
2005: 0.36
2004: 0.35
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.36
2001: 0.36
2000: 0.38
1999: 0.39

Male Handgun Homicide Victims (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual male handgun homicides total

2017: 87225
2016: 85526
2015: 801
2014: 618
2013: 669
2012: 725
2011: 655
2010: 714
2009: 832
2008: 789

Rate of Male Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of male handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.5425
2016: 0.54
2015: 0.51
2014: 0.39
2013: 0.43
2012: 0.47
2011: 0.43
2010: 0.47
2009: 0.55
2008: 0.53

Female Handgun Homicide Victims (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual female handgun homicides total

2017: 20425
2016: 19826
2015: 183
2014: 167
2013: 184
2012: 147
2011: 188
2010: 185
2009: 181
2008: 172

Rate of Female Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of female handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1225
2016: 0.12
2015: 0.11
2014: 0.10
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.09
2011: 0.12
2010: 0.12
2009: 0.12
2008: 0.11

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, according to figures48 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), annual long gun homicides total

2017: 66736 45
2016: 636
2015: 520
2014: 506
2013: 593
2012: 608
2011: 694
2010: 733
2009: 774
2008: 822
2007: 910
2006: 928
2005: 967
2004: 910
2003: 846
2002: 974
2001: 897
2000: 896
1999: 931

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, according to figures49 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.206
2016: 0.20
2015: 0.16
2014: 0.16
2013: 0.19
2012: 0.19
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.24
2008: 0.27
2007: 0.30
2006: 0.31
2005: 0.33
2004: 0.31
2003: 0.29
2002: 0.34
2001: 0.31
2000: 0.32
1999: 0.33

Long Gun Homicides (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual long gun homicides total

2017: 52025
2016: 52250
2015: 475
2014: 455
2013: 495
2012: 489
2011: 543
2010: 576
2009: 640
2008: 664
2007: 682
2006: 768
2005: 765
2004: 714
2003: 687
2002: 744
2001: 758
2000: 694
1999: 693

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1625
2016: 0.16
2015: 0.15
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.16
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.17
2010: 0.19
2009: 0.21
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.23
2006: 0.26
2005: 0.26
2004: 0.24
2003: 0.24
2002: 0.26
2001: 0.27
2000: 0.25
1999: 0.25

Male Long Gun Homicide Victims (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual male long gun homicides total

2017: 38625
2016: 40626
2015: 347
2014: 336
2013: 367
2012: 373
2011: 399
2010: 437
2009: 473
2008: 514

Rate of Male Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of male long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.2425
2016: 0.26
2015: 0.22
2014: 0.21
2013: 0.24
2012: 0.24
2011: 0.26
2010: 0.29
2009: 0.31
2008: 0.34

Female Long Gun Homicide Victims (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual female long gun homicides total

2017: 13425
2016: 11626
2015: 128
2014: 119
2013: 128
2012: 116
2011: 144
2010: 139
2009: 167
2008: 150

Rate of Female Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of female long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0825
2016: 0.07
2015: 0.08
2014: 0.07
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.09
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.11
2008: 0.10

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures51 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), annual firearm homicides (other) total

2017: 3,28336 52
2016: 3,232
2015: 2,633
2014: 2,052
2013: 2,077
2012: 1,885
2011: 1,708
2010: 2,026
2009: 1,924
2008: 1,906
2007: 1,821
2006: 1,461
2005: 1,626
2004: 1,189
2003: 1,068
2002: 1,260
2001: 1,062
2000: 987
1999: 891

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, according to figures53 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the annual rate of firearm homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.016
2016: 1.00
2015: 0.82
2014: 0.64
2013: 0.66
2012: 0.60
2011: 0.55
2010: 0.65
2009: 0.63
2008: 0.63
2007: 0.60
2006: 0.49
2005: 0.55
2004: 0.41
2003: 0.37
2002: 0.44
2001: 0.37
2000: 0.35
1999: 0.32

Gun Homicides (Other) (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual firearm homicides (other) total

2017: 12,94625
2016: 12,84054 45
2015: 11,515
2014: 9,768
2013: 9,859
2012: 10,261
2011: 9,682
2010: 9,603
2009: 9,840
2008: 10,554
2007: 10,974
2006: 11,026
2005: 10,513
2004: 9,899
2003: 10,222
2002: 10,061
2001: 9,576
2000: 9,039
1999: 9,053

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of firearm homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 3.9725
2016: 3.97
2015: 3.58
2014: 3.06
2013: 3.12
2012: 3.27
2011: 3.11
2010: 3.11
2009: 3.21
2008: 3.47
2007: 3.64
2006: 3.70
2005: 3.56
2004: 3.38
2003: 3.52
2002: 3.50
2001: 3.36
2000: 3.21
1999: 3.24

Male Gun Homicide Victims (Other) (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual male firearm homicides (other) total

2017: 10,96225
2016: 10,95226
2015: 9,876
2014: 8,324
2013: 8,408
2012: 8,699
2011: 8,216
2010: 8,189
2009: 8,310
2008: 9,058

Rate of Male Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of male firearm homicides (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 6.8325
2016: 6.88
2015: 6.24
2014: 5.30
2013: 5.40
2012: 5.63
2011: 5.36
2010: 5.40
2009: 5.51
2008: 6.06

Female Gun Homicide Victims (Other) (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, annual female firearm homicides (other) total

2017: 1,98425
2016: 1,88826
2015: 1,639
2014: 1,444
2013: 1,451
2012: 1,562
2011: 1,466
2010: 1,414
2009: 1,530
2008: 1,496

Rate of Female Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) figures, the annual rate of female firearm homicides (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.2025
2016: 1.15
2015: 1
2014: 0.89
2013: 0.90
2012: 0.98
2011: 0.93
2010: 0.90
2009: 0.98
2008: 0.97

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual suicides by any means total

2017: 47,10725
2016: 44,87626
2015: 44,145
2014: 42,756
2013: 41,060
2012: 40,531
2011: 39,442
2010: 38,307
2009: 36,837
2008: 35,969
2007: 34,598
2006: 33,300
2005: 32,63726 55 56
2004: 32,43926 56
2003: 31,484
2002: 31,655
2001: 30,62226 57 56
2000: 29,35026 56
1999: 29,19926

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2017: 14.4625
2016: 13.89
2015: 13.73
2014: 13.41
2013: 12.99
2012: 12.91
2011: 12.66
2010: 12.41
2009: 12.01
2008: 11.83
2007: 11.4926 56
2006: 11.16
2005: 11.0426 55 56
2004: 11.0826 56
2003: 10.8526 58 56
2002: 11.0126 56
2001: 10.7526 57 56
2000: 10.4326 56
1999: 10.4626
1993: 12.0659

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual male suicides by any means total

2017: 36,72625
2016: 34,65626
2015: 33,959
2014: 33,107
2013: 31,991
2012: 31,727
2011: 30,946
2010: 30,234
2009: 29,033
2008: 28,402

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2017: 22.9025
2016: 21.79
2015: 21.46
2014: 21.10
2013: 20.55
2012: 20.54
2011: 20.19
2010: 19.92
2009: 19.25
2008: 19

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual female suicides by any means total

2017: 10,38125
2016: 10,22026
2015: 10,186
2014: 9,649
2013: 9,069
2012: 8,804
2011: 8,496
2010: 8,073
2009: 7,804
2008: 7,567

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2017: 6.2825
2016: 6.23
2015: 6.24
2014: 5.96
2013: 5.65
2012: 5.52
2011: 5.37
2010: 5.14
2009: 5
2008: 4.89

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the United States, annual firearm suicides total

2017: 23,85425
2016: 22,93826
2015: 22,018
2014: 21,386
2013: 21,175
2012: 20,666
2011: 19,99026 27
2010: 19,39226
2009: 18,735
2008: 18,223
2007: 17,352
2006: 16,883
2005: 17,00226 60
2004: 16,75026
2003: 16,907
2002: 17,108
2001: 16,86926 57
2000: 16,58626
1999: 16,599

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 7.3225
2016: 7.10
2015: 6.85
2014: 6.71
2013: 6.70
2012: 6.58
2011: 6.42
2010: 6.28
2009: 6.11
2008: 5.99
2007: 5.76
2006: 5.66
2005: 5.7526 6
2004: 5.7226
2003: 5.83
2002: 5.95
2001: 5.9226 57
2000: 5.8926
1999: 5.95
1993: 7.3561

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual male firearm suicides total

2017: 20,61525
2016: 19,64726
2015: 18,910
2014: 18,383
2013: 18,241
2012: 17,910
2011: 17,320
2010: 16,962
2009: 16,307
2008: 15,931

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 12.8525
2016: 12.35
2015: 11.95
2014: 11.71
2013: 11.72
2012: 11.59
2011: 11.30
2010: 11.18
2009: 10.81
2008: 10.66

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual female firearm suicides total

2017: 3,23925
2016: 3,29126
2015: 3,108
2014: 3,003
2013: 2,934
2012: 2,756
2011: 2,670
2010: 2,430
2009: 2,428
2008: 2,292

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.9625
2016: 2.01
2015: 1.90
2014: 1.85
2013: 1.83
2012: 1.73
2011: 1.69
2010: 1.55
2009: 1.56
2008: 1.48

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn the United States, annual handgun suicides total

2017: 6,22725
2016: 6,112
2015: 5,751
2014: 5,386
2013: 5,388
2012: 5,079
2011: 4,806
2010: 4,603
2009: 4,474
2008: 4,119
2007: 3,801
2006: 3,655
2005: 3,654
2004: 3,609
2003: 3,672
2002: 3,597
2001: 3,489
2000: 3,520
1999: 3,476

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.9125
2016: 1.89
2015: 1.79
2014: 1.69
2013: 1.70
2012: 1.62
2011: 1.54
2010: 1.49
2009: 1.46
2008: 1.35
2007: 1.26
2006: 1.22
2005: 1.24
2004: 1.23
2003: 1.27
2002: 1.25
2001: 1.22
2000: 1.25
1999: 1.25

Male Handgun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual male handgun suicides total

2017: 5,26125
2016: 5,16726
2015: 4,853
2014: 4,529
2013: 4,523
2012: 4,312
2011: 4,070
2010: 3,912
2009: 3,756
2008: 3,494

Rate of Male Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 3.2825
2016: 3.25
2015: 3.07
2014: 2.89
2013: 2.91
2012: 2.79
2011: 2.66
2010: 2.58
2009: 2.49
2008: 2.34

Female Handgun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual female handgun suicides total

2017: 96625
2016: 94526
2015: 898
2014: 857
2013: 865
2012: 767
2011: 736
2010: 691
2009: 718
2008: 625

Rate of Female Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.5825
2016: 0.58
2015: 0.55
2014: 0.53
2013: 0.54
2012: 0.48
2011: 0.46
2010: 0.44
2009: 0.46
2008: 0.40

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn the United States, the number of long gun suicides is

2017: 2,86425
2016: 2,89062
2015: 2,906
2014: 3,042
2013: 3,025
2012: 3,012
2011: 2,961
2010: 2,957
2009: 2,924
2008: 2,952
2007: 2,758
2006: 2,758
2005: 2,915
2004: 2,798
2003: 2,668
2002: 2,908
2001: 2,814
2000: 2,684
1999: 2,776

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.8825
2016: 0.89
2015: 0.90
2014: 0.95
2013: 0.96
2012: 0.96
2011: 0.95
2010: 0.96
2009: 0.95
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.92
2006: 0.92
2005: 0.99
2004: 0.96
2003: 0.92
2002: 1.01
2001: 0.99
2000: 0.95
1999: 0.99

Male Long Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual male long gun suicides total

2017: 2,71525
2016: 2,71426
2015: 2,713
2014: 2,857
2013: 2,829
2012: 2,830
2011: 2,773
2010: 2,812
2009: 2,766
2008: 2,795

Rate of Male Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.6925
2016: 1.71
2015: 1.71
2014: 1.82
2013: 1.82
2012: 1.83
2011: 1.81
2010: 1.85
2009: 1.83
2008: 1.87

Female Long Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual female long gun suicides total

2017: 14925
2016: 17626
2015: 193
2014: 185
2013: 196
2012: 182
2011: 188
2010: 145
2009: 158
2008: 157

Rate of Female Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0925
2016: 0.11
2015: 0.12
2014: 0.11
2013: 0.12
2012: 0.11
2011: 0.12
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.10
2008: 0.10

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn the United States, annual gun suicides (other) total

2017: 14,76325
2016: 13,93663
2015: 13,361
2014: 12,958
2013: 12,762
2012: 12,575
2011: 12,223
2010: 11,832
2009: 11,337
2008: 11,152
2007: 10,793
2006: 10,470
2005: 10,433
2004: 10,343
2003: 10,567
2002: 10,603
2001: 10,566
2000: 10,382
1999: 10,347

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 4.5325
2016: 4.31
2015: 4.16
2014: 4.06
2013: 4.04
2012: 4.01
2011: 3.92
2010: 3.83
2009: 3.70
2008: 3.67
2007: 3.58
2006: 3.51
2005: 3.53
2004: 3.53
2003: 3.64
2002: 3.69
2001: 3.71
2000: 3.69
1999: 3.71

Male Gun Suicide (Other) Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual male gun suicides (other) total

2017: 12,63925
2016: 11,76626
2015: 11,344
2014: 10,997
2013: 10,889
2012: 10,768
2011: 10,477
2010: 10,238
2009: 9,785
2008: 9,642

Rate of Male Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of male gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 7.8825
2016: 7.40
2015: 7.17
2014: 7.01
2013: 7
2012: 6.97
2011: 6.83
2010: 6.75
2009: 6.49
2008: 6.45

Female Gun Suicide (Other) Victims

ChartIn the United States, annual female gun suicides (other) total

2017: 2,12425
2016: 2,17026
2015: 2,017
2014: 1,961
2013: 1,873
2012: 1,807
2011: 1,746
2010: 1,594
2009: 1,552
2008: 1,510

Rate of Female Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of female gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.2825
2016: 1.32
2015: 1.24
2014: 1.21
2013: 1.17
2012: 1.13
2011: 1.10
2010: 1.02
2009: 1
2008: 0.98

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2017: 48625
2016: 495
2015: 489
2014: 461
2013: 505
2012: 548
2011: 59126 27
2010: 60626 64
2009: 55426
2008: 592
2007: 613
2006: 642
2005: 78926 60
2004: 64926
2003: 730
2002: 762
2001: 80226 57
2000: 77626
1999: 824

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1525
2016: 0.15
2015: 0.15
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.16
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.19
2010: 0.20
2009: 0.18
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.20
2006: 0.22
2005: 0.2726 6
2004: 0.2226
2003: 0.25
2002: 0.26
2001: 0.2826 57
2000: 0.2826
1999: 0.30
1993: 0.5965

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2017: 42325
2016: 42426
2015: 418
2014: 397
2013: 441
2012: 475
2011: 511
2010: 515
2009: 497
2008: 510

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.2625
2016: 0.27
2015: 0.26
2014: 0.25
2013: 0.28
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.33
2010: 0.34
2009: 0.33
2008: 0.34

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2017: 6325
2016: 7126
2015: 71
2014: 64
2013: 64
2012: 73
2011: 80
2010: 91
2009: 57
2008: 82

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0425
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.04
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2017: 9225
2016: 96
2015: 83
2014: 92
2013: 79
2012: 69
2011: 68
2010: 91
2009: 81
2008: 89
2007: 90
2006: 107
2005: 107
2004: 93
2003: 83
2002: 108
2001: 108
2000: 120
1999: 130

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0325
2016: 0.03
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.03
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.05

Unintentional Male Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional male shooting deaths by handgun total

2017: 8125
2016: 8226
2015: 74
2014: 83
2013: 70
2012: 62
2011: 58
2010: 86
2009: 72
2008: 86

Rate of Unintentional Male Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0525
2016: 0.05
2015: 0.05
2014: 0.05
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.06

Unintentional Female Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional female shooting deaths by handgun total

2017: 1125
2016: 1426
2015: 9
2014: 9
2013: 9
2012: 7
2011: 10
2010: 5
2009: 9
2008: 3

Rate of Unintentional Female Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0125
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.01
2012: 0
2011: 0.01
2010: 0
2009: 0.01
2008: 0

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2017: 5425
2016: 56
2015: 64
2014: 54
2013: 81
2012: 67
2011: 98
2010: 83
2009: 98
2008: 101
2007: 92
2006: 73
2005: 104
2004: 95
2003: 105
2002: 119
2001: 148
2000: 131
1999: 112

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0225
2016: 0.02
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.04

Unintentional Male Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional male shooting deaths by long gun total

2017: 4925
2016: 4726
2015: 49
2014: 47
2013: 71
2012: 60
2011: 92
2010: 68
2009: 91
2008: 90

Rate of Unintentional Male Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0325
2016: 0.03
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.03
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.06

Unintentional Female Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional female shooting deaths by long gun total

2017: 525
2016: 926
2015: 15
2014: 7
2013: 10
2012: 7
2011: 6
2010: 15
2009: 7
2008: 11

Rate of Unintentional Female Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2017: 025
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0
2013: 0.01
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0.01
2009: 0
2008: 0.01

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2017: 34025
2016: 34366
2015: 342
2014: 315
2013: 345
2012: 412
2011: 425
2010: 432
2009: 375
2008: 402
2007: 431
2006: 462
2005: 578
2004: 461
2003: 542
2002: 535
2001: 546
2000: 525
1999: 582

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1025
2016: 0.11
2015: 0.11
2014: 0.10
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.13
2011: 0.14
2010: 0.14
2009: 0.12
2008: 0.13
2007: 0.14
2006: 0.15
2005: 0.20
2004: 0.16
2003: 0.19
2002: 0.19
2001: 0.19
2000: 0.19
1999: 0.21

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional male shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2017: 29325
2016: 29526
2015: 295
2014: 267
2013: 300
2012: 353
2011: 361
2010: 361
2009: 334
2008: 334

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1825
2016: 0.19
2015: 0.19
2014: 0.17
2013: 0.19
2012: 0.23
2011: 0.24
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.22
2008: 0.22

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional female shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2017: 4725
2016: 4826
2015: 47
2014: 48
2013: 45
2012: 59
2011: 64
2010: 71
2009: 41
2008: 68

Rate of Unintentional Female Handgun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0325
2016: 0.03
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.03
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.04

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 33825
2016: 30026
2015: 282
2014: 275
2013: 281
2012: 256
2011: 24826 27
2010: 25226
2009: 232
2008: 273
2007: 276
2006: 220
2005: 221
2004: 235
2003: 232
2002: 243
2001: 23126 57
2000: 23026
1999: 324

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1025
2016: 0.09
2015: 0.09
2014: 0.09
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.07
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.0826 58
2002: 0.0826
2001: 0.0826 57
2000: 0.0826
1999: 0.12
1993: 0.2267

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 27825
2016: 22226
2015: 210
2014: 217
2013: 221
2012: 203
2011: 199
2010: 203
2009: 191
2008: 220

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1725
2016: 0.14
2015: 0.13
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.14
2012: 0.13
2011: 0.13
2010: 0.13
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.15

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 6025
2016: 7826
2015: 72
2014: 58
2013: 60
2012: 53
2011: 49
2010: 49
2009: 41
2008: 53

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0425
2016: 0.05
2015: 0.04
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 4125
2016: 5268
2015: 31
2014: 39
2013: 33
2012: 32
2011: 33
2010: 37
2009: 29
2008: 32
2007: 39
2006: 26
2005: 27
2004: 31
2003: 47
2002: 33
2001: 36
2000: 40
1999: 70

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0125
2016: 0.02
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03

Male Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual male deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 3625
2016: 3826
2015: 22
2014: 31
2013: 27
2012: 25
2011: 26
2010: 29
2009: 23
2008: 24

Rate of Male Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause male handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0225
2016: 0.02
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02

Female Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual female deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 525
2016: 1426
2015: 9
2014: 8
2013: 6
2012: 7
2011: 7
2010: 8
2009: 6
2008: 8

Rate of Female Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause female handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 025
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0.01
2009: 0
2008: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 2425
2016: 2169
2015: 25
2014: 23
2013: 31
2012: 23
2011: 25
2010: 23
2009: 24
2008: 31
2007: 24
2006: 23
2005: 31
2004: 21
2003: 26
2002: 27
2001: 21
2000: 24
1999: 33

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0125
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01

Male Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual male deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 1625
2016: 1926
2015: 20
2014: 19
2013: 25
2012: 20
2011: 23
2010: 21
2009: 21
2008: 27

Rate of Male Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause male long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0125
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02

Female Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual female deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 825
2016: 226
2015: 5
2014: 4
2013: 6
2012: 3
2011: 2
2010: 2
2009: 3
2008: 4

Rate of Female Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause female long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 025
2016: 0
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 27325
2016: 22770
2015: 226
2014: 213
2013: 217
2012: 201
2011: 190
2010: 192
2009: 179
2008: 210
2007: 213
2006: 171
2005: 163
2004: 183
2003: 159
2002: 183
2001: 174
2000: 166
1999: 221

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0825
2016: 0.07
2015: 0.07
2014: 0.07
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.08

Male Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual male deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 22625
2016: 16526
2015: 168
2014: 167
2013: 169
2012: 158
2011: 150
2010: 153
2009: 147
2008: 169

Rate of Male Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause male gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1425
2016: 0.10
2015: 0.11
2014: 0.11
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.10
2010: 0.10
2009: 0.10
2008: 0.11

Female Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual female deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 4725
2016: 6226
2015: 58
2014: 46
2013: 48
2012: 43
2011: 40
2010: 39
2009: 32
2008: 41

Rate of Female Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause female gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0325
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.04
2014: 0.03
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.03

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2017: 55325
2016: 510
2015: 484
2014: 464
2013: 467
2012: 471
2011: 454
2010: 344
2009: 333
2008: 326
2007: 597
2006: 578
2005: 53571
2004: 587
2003: 616
2002: 574
2001: 599
2000: 473
1999: 500
1998: 563
1997: 646
1996: 617
1995: 657

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

ChartIn the United States, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries72 is

2013: 84,25873
2012: 81,396
2011: 73,88373 74
2010: 73,50573 75 74
2009: 66,76973 76 74
2008: 78,62273 74
2007: 69,863
2006: 71,417
2005: 69,825
2004: 64,389
2003: 65,834
2002: 58,841
2001: 63,012

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury72 per 100,000 population is

2013: 26.6573
2012: 25.93
2011: 23.7173
2010: 23.8173 6
2009: 21.76
2008: 25.8573
2007: 23.19
2006: 23.93
2005: 23.63
2004: 21.99
2003: 22.69
2002: 20.46
2001: 22.11

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the United States, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence77 78 79 80 81

Number of Small Arms Manufactured

ChartThe reported annual number of small arms manufactured in the United States is

2018: 8,669,25982
2017: 8,327,79283
2016: 11,497,441
2015: 9,358,66184 85
2014: 9,050,62686
2013: 10,844,79287
2012: 8,578,610
2011: 6,541,886
2010: 5,459,24088 89
2009: 5,555,81890
2008: 4,498,944
2007: 3,922,613
2006: 3,653,324
2005: 3,241,494
2004: 3,099,025
2003: 3,308,404
2002: 3,366,895
2001: 2,932,655
2000: 3,793,541
1999: 4,047,747
1998: 3,713,590
1997: 3,593,504
1996: 3,854,439
1995: 4,316,342
1994: 5,173,217
1993: 5,055,637
1992: 4,175,836
1991: 3,563,106
1990: 3,959,968
1989: 4,418,393
1988: 3,963,877
1987: 3,559,663
1986: 3,040,934

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, the United States was ranked 'major'91 92

Home-made Guns

In the United States, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high93

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In the United States, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law94 95

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from the United States is reported by manufacturers to be

2018: 540,05482
2017: 488,30096
2016: 376,818
2015: 343,45697 98
2014: 420,93299 98
2013: 393,121100 98
2012: 287,554
2011: 296,888
2010: 241,977101 98
2009: 194,744
2008: 228,488
2007: 204,782
2006: 367,521
2005: 194,682101
2004: 139,920
2003: 141,912
2002: 150,756
2001: 172,611
2000: 172,627
1999: 220,318
1998: 203,344
1997: 275,081
1996: 331,997
1995: 424,221
1994: 404,473
1993: 431,204
1992: 403,791
1991: 401,165
1990: 361,625
1989: 261,282
1988: 257,182
1987: 288,045
1986: 217,448

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the United States is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 1,094,000,000102
2015: 2,072,795,626103
2014: 2,296,279,158
2013: 2,080,887,092
2012: 1,861,966,248103 104 105
2011: 844,462,435106
2010: 821,000,000107
2001: 603,000,000104 108 109

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, the United States was categorized as 'major'110 111 112 113 109 114

Firearm Imports

In the United States, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law94 95 79 78 115 116

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to the United States is reported to be

2018: 4,305,851117
2017: 4,492,256
2016: 5,137,771118 98
2015: 3,930,211119 98
2014: 3,625,268120 98
2013: 5,539,539
2012: 4,844,590
2011: 3,252,404121 98
2010: 2,839,947
2009: 3,607,10690 98
2008: 2,606,386
2007: 2,743,993
2006: 2,432,522
2005: 2,106,67590
2004: 1,910,859
2003: 1,466,502
2002: 1,629,237
2001: 1,366,896
2000: 1,096,782
1999: 891,799
1998: 999,810
1997: 939,415
1996: 881,578
1995: 1,103,404
1994: 1,880,902
1993: 3,043,321
1992: 2,846,710
1991: 720,657
1990: 843,809
1989: 1,007,781
1988: 1,276,268
1987: 1,063,513
1986: 701,000

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the United States is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 2,510,000,000122
2015: 4,128,518,744103
2014: 4,496,815,238
2013: 5,185,692,436
2012: 3,843,168,772103 123 110 124 125
2011: 1,390,792,761106 112 126
2010: 1,340,000,000127
2001: 662,000,000123 128

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the United States is moderate129

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the United States, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law130 95

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in the United States include131 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, the United States scored

2019: 16.25132
2018: 15.75133
2017: 14.25134
2016: 15.25135
2014: 15.75136
2013: 15.00137
2012: 15.00138
2011: 16.25139
2010: 16.25140
2009: 16.25141
2008: 16.50142
2007: 16.50143
2006: 16.75144
2005: 16.25145
2004: 16.50146

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the United States is categorised as permissive147

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the United States includes the National Firearms Act of 1934,97 the Gun Control Act 1968148 as amended149 and the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act 1993.150 This is Federal legislation only, each US state and territory enacts its own gun law

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the United States are regulated by the federal, state, and local authorities148

Right to Possess Firearms

In the United States, the right to private gun ownership is conditionally guaranteed by the US Constitution,151 as limited by federal law.152 153 For similar local rights, see each state.

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the United States, civilians are not allowed to possess machine-guns, sawn-off shotguns and rifles, silencers, and armour-piercing ammunition without appropriate registration154 155 156

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the United States, private possession of fully automatic weapons is permitted subject to federal licensing and registration155 156 42

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the United States, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted without a licence in almost all jurisdictions157

Regulation of Handguns

In the United States, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted without a licence in almost all jurisdictions155 80 42

Law Regulates Long Guns

In the United States, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law155 42

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the United States, non-prohibited persons of minimum age158 159 42 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the United States is regulated by state or local authorities according to weapon type, but is 18 years to purchase shotguns and rifles, or 21 years to purchase all other firearms, according to Federal law160 161 162

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the United States stipulates163 164 159 that firearm possession should be denied or guns seized

Licensing Records

In the United States, authorities do not maintain a record165 of individual civilians permitted to acquire, possess, carry, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the United States, the law does not require166 165 115 167 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the United States, licensed firearm dealers are required168 169 115 167 170 95 171 78 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In the United States, licensed gun makers are required168 115 167 95 171 78 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the United States, State agencies are required172 173 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the United States, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted174 77 159

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the United States, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful77 78 159

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in the United States is not obliged174 158 175 176 159 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in the United States is obliged177 178 179 180 181 182 78 159 80 81 183 42 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in the United States is reported to be

2019: 129,615184
2018: 133,306185
2017: 134,853186
2016: 137,464187
2015: 139,840188
2014: 141,116189
2013: 139,244
2012: 130,956
2011: 123,587190
2010: 118,487
2009: 115,395
2008: 112,943
2007: 108,933
2006: 107,316
2005: 106,432
2004: 106,214
2003: 104,105
2002: 103,411
2001: 102,913
2000: 103,157
1999: 103,942
1998: 105,536
1997: 107,554
1996: 135,794
1995: 191,495
1994: 250,833
1993: 283,925
1992: 284,117
1991: 276,116
1990: 269,079
1989: 264,063
1988: 272,953
1987: 262,022
1986: 267,166
1985: 248,794
1984: 222,443
1983: 230,613
1982: 211,918
1981: 190,296
1980: 174,619
1979: 171,216
1978: 169,052
1977: 173,484
1976: 165,697
1975: 161,927

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In the United States, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined177 81

Regulation of Gun Shows

In the United States, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated191 192 176 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in the United States include193 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by non-disqualified individuals

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the United States include173 194 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the United States include195 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the United States, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed with or without a permit depending on the jurisdiction, and prohibited in others148 42

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the United States, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed with or without a permit depending on the jurisdiction, and prohibited in others148 42

Exempting Hidden Handgun Permit Holders from Background Checks

Although under US federal law, gun owners with a valid permit to carry a hidden handgun are exempt from background checks when buying from a licensed gun dealer,196 197 many state laws are more restrictive

Gun Free Zones

In the United States, private guns are prohibited in federal facilities,198 schools199 and National Parks (unless otherwise specifically permitted)200

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the United States, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm201 is 10 years in prison202

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), the United States adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified203 204 by the United States

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists205 the United States as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed206 by the United States.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified207 by the United States

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed208 by the United States

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the United States committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects209

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the United States against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 28210 211 212 213 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the United States have submitted one or more national reports214 215 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the United States, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated216 215

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the United States, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated215

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the United States submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent215

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated215 by the United States to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the United States has declared217 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the United States have been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945218

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists219 the United States as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,220 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in the United States, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in the United States are known to have221 116 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn the United States, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 320,261222
2016: 288,160
2015: 269,346
2014: 244,705
2013: 245,044

Small Arms Destroyed

In the United States, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be more than 1,000,000223 (military only, 1993-2015)224 221

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the United States, it is state policy225 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In the United States, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law79 171 172 226

Firearm Tracing

In the United States, state authorities carry out171 172 227 228 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In the United States, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are229 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where the United States ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Azrael, Deborah, Lisa Hepburn, David Hemenway, and Matthew Miller.2017.‘The Stock and Flow of U.S. Firearms: Results from the 2015 National Firearms Survey.’ Journal of the Social Sciences.Boston MA:Russell Sage Foundation,5 October. (Q13289)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

4.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘How Many Guns Are in the United States? - Number.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6676)Full Citation

5.

Christopher Ingraham. 2015. ‘There Are Now More Guns than People in the United States.’ Washington Post. 5 October. (N395) Full Citation

6.

GunPolicy.org.2018.‘Calculated Rates - United States.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,25 July. (Q4337)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

8.

Parker, Kim, Juliana Horowitz, Ruth Igielnik, Baxter Oliphant, and Anna Brown.2017.‘The Demographics of Gun Ownership - Gun Ownership is Most Common Among Men, Whites.’ America's Complex Relationship With Guns: An In-depth Look at the Attitudes and Experiences of U.S. Adults.Washington DC:Pew Research Center (U.S. Politics & Policy),22 June. (Q13288)Full Citation

9.

Gallup.2018.‘Question: Do you have a gun in your home? - All responses.’ Gallop Historical Trends: Guns.Washington DC:Gallup, USA,8 May. (Q13290)Full Citation

10.

Smith, Tom W. and Son Jaesok.2015.‘Question: Do You Happen to Have in Your Home (or Garage) Any Guns or Revolvers?.’ General Social Survey: Trends in Gun Ownership in the United States, 1972-2014.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,1 March. (Q8323)Full Citation

11.

Pew Research Center.2013.‘Section 3: Gun Ownership Trends and Demographics.’ Why Own A Gun? Protection Is Now Top Reason.Washington DC:Pew Research Center (U.S. Politics & Policy),12 March. (Q11359)Full Citation

12.

Siegel, Michael, Craig S. Ross and Charles King III.2013.‘Table A1: Average Gun Ownership Levels (Measured by Percentage of Suicides Committed Using Firearms) by State and Decade.’ The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010.Washington, DC:American Journal of Public Health,1 November. (Q8324)Full Citation

13.

Sabrina Tavernise and Robert Gebeloff. 2013. ‘Share of Homes with Guns Shows 4-Decade Decline.’ New York Times. 9 March. (N315) Full Citation

14.

General Social Survey.2013.‘Question 237a: If Yes: Is It a Pistol, Shotgun, Rifle, or What? - Rifle.’ General Social Survey Cumulative Datafile 1972-2012.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,16 December. (Q8354)Full Citation

15.

General Social Survey.2013.‘Question 237a: If Yes: Is It a Pistol, Shotgun, Rifle, or What? - Shotgun.’ General Social Survey Cumulative Datafile 1972-2012.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,16 December. (Q8355)Full Citation

16.

General Social Survey.2013.‘Question 237a: If Yes: Is It a Pistol, Shotgun, Rifle, or What? - Pistol.’ General Social Survey Cumulative Datafile 1972-2012.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,16 December. (Q8353)Full Citation

17.

ATF.2019.‘National Firearms Act Registered Weapons by State (May 2019).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 September. (Q14078)Full Citation

18.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

19.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

20.

USA.2004.‘Exemption of Qualified Law Enforcement Officers from State Laws Prohibiting the Carrying of Concealed Firearms.’ Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act of 2004, Public Law 108–277, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,22 July. (Q6771)Full Citation

21.

Reaves, Brian A..2012.‘Methodology.’ Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,1 June. (Q6768)Full Citation

22.

FBI.2013.‘What Kinds of Guns Do FBI Agents Use?.’ Frequently Asked Questions.Washington, DC:Federal Bureau of Investigation,16 May. (Q6770)Full Citation

23.

US Customs and Border Protection Information Center.2011.‘What Are the Qualifications to Becoming a CBP Officer?.’ Find an Answer: Career as a CBP Officer.Washington, DC:US Customs and Border Protection,31 May. (Q6769)Full Citation

24.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

25.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,1 December. (Q6875)Full Citation

26.

CDC.2017.‘Injury Mortality Reports 1999 and Onwards (USA).’ Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System / CDC WISQARS.Atlanta:National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC,20 December. (Q1377)Full Citation

27.

Hoyert, Donna L. and Jiaquan Xu.2012.‘Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2011 - Selected Causes.’ National Vital Statistics Reports (NVSS).Hyattsville, MD:US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control Prevention, Division of Vital Statistics,10 October. (Q6492)Full Citation

28.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Number of Homicides (any method).’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 17 July.
(G17) Full Citation

29.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

30.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - United States.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6340)Full Citation

31.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

32.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method).’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 10 May.
(G18) Full Citation

33.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

34.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Number of Gun Homicides.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 17 July.
(G19) Full Citation

35.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in the United States.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q8902)Full Citation

36.

FBI.2017.‘Crime in the United States / CIUS.’ Uniform Crime Reports / UCR.Washington, DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation,1 September. (Q1978)Full Citation

37.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

38.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

39.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 10 May.
(G20) Full Citation

40.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

41.

Schroeder, Matt.2014.‘Percentage of Violence Involving a Firearm in the United States, by Type of Crime, 1993 - 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10995)Full Citation

42.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: United States of America.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9476)Full Citation

43.

Schroeder, Matt.2014.‘Armed Violence in the United States.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11040)Full Citation

44.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Number of Handgun Homicides.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G142) Full Citation

45.

Rokaw, William M., James A. Mercy and Jack C. Smith.1990.‘Comparing Death Certificate Data with FBI Crime Reporting Statistics on US Homicides.’ Public Health Reports.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),1 September. (Q6535)Full Citation

46.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G155) Full Citation

47.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Assault by Handgun Discharge.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q8366)Full Citation

48.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Number of Long Gun Homicides.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G143) Full Citation

49.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G156) Full Citation

50.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Assault by Rifle, Shotgun and Larger Firearm Discharge.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q8367)Full Citation

51.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Number of Gun Homicides (Other).’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G144) Full Citation

52.

Rokaw, William M., James A. Mercy and Jack C. Smith.1990.‘Comparing Death Certificate Data with FBI Crime Reporting Statistics on US Homicides.’ Public Health Reports.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),1 September. (Q6536)Full Citation

53.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G157) Full Citation

54.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Assault by Other and Unspecified Firearm Discharge.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q8368)Full Citation

55.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

56.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

57.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

58.

Richardson, Erin G. and David Hemenway.2011.‘Table 1: Death Rates in the United States per 100,000 Population, Overall and by Gender, 2003.’ Homicide, Suicide, and Unintentional Firearm Fatality: Comparing the United States With Other High-Income Countries, 2003.Los Angeles, CA:The Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care,1 January. (Q4878)Full Citation

59.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

60.

Curfman, Gregory D, Stephen Morrissey and Jeffrey M Drazen.2008.‘Handgun Violence, Public Health, and the Law.’ New England Journal of Medicine.Massachusetts:Massachusetts Medical Society,3 April. (Q1975)Full Citation

61.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

62.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Intentional Self-harm by Rifle, Shotgun and Larger Firearm Discharge (ICD-10 Code: X73).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q6484)Full Citation

63.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Intentional Self-harm by Other and Unspecified Firearm Discharge (ICD-10 Code: X74).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q6485)Full Citation

64.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

65.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

66.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Discharge from Other and Unspecified Firearms, Accidental Injury (ICD-10 Code: W34).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q6482)Full Citation

67.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

68.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Handgun Discharge, Undetermined Intent (ICD-10 Code: Y22).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q6489)Full Citation

69.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Rifle, Shotgun and Larger Firearm Discharge, Undetermined Intent (ICD-10 Code: Y23).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q6490)Full Citation

70.

CDC.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Other and Unspecified Firearm Discharge, Undetermined Intent (ICD-10 Code: Y24).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,20 December. (Q6491)Full Citation

71.

Fox, James Alan and Marianne W. Zawitz.2010.‘Trends in Justifiable Homicide by Police and Citizens 1995-2005.’ Homicide Trends in the United States.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,25 January. (Q6808)Full Citation

72.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Airgun-related Mortality and Morbidity in the United States.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 16 January.
(G186) Full Citation

73.

CDC WISQARS.2013.‘Nonfatal Injury Reports, 2001 - 2013.’ Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System / CDC WISQARS.Atlanta, GA:National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC,28 March. (Q6766)Full Citation

74.

Planty, Michael and Jennifer L. Truman.2013.‘Nonfatal Firearm Injuries, 2001–2011.’ Firearm Violence, 1993-2011.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,1 May. (Q6767)Full Citation

75.

Webster, Daniel W and Jon S Vernick.2013.‘Introduction.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6733)Full Citation

76.

Wintemute, Garen J, and Anthony A Braga.2011.‘Opportunities for State-Level Action to Reduce Firearm Violence: Proceeding From the Evidence.’ American Journal of Public Health.Stanford, CA:American Public Health Association,1 September. (Q6734)Full Citation

77.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1390)Full Citation

78.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Licensed Dealers and Firearms Transfers.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6687)Full Citation

79.

USA.2012.‘Marking of All SALW at Time of Manufacture.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6784)Full Citation

80.

Cook, Philip J and Jens Ludwig.2013.‘The Limited Impact of the Brady Act - Introduction of the Brady Act.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6716)Full Citation

81.

Cook, Philip J and Jens Ludwig.2013.‘The Limited Impact of the Brady Act - No Evidence of Reduction in Deaths.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6717)Full Citation

82.

ATF.2019.‘Year 2018 Interim.’ Annual Firearms Manufacturing and Export Report.Washington DC:Washington DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),22 July. (Q14080)Full Citation

83.

ATF.2019.‘Firearms Manufactured (1986-2017).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 September. (Q14079)Full Citation

84.

ATF.2017.‘Firearms Manufactured (1986-2015).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States - Annual Statistical Update 2017.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),6 September. (Q13291)Full Citation

85.

Huffington Post (USA). 2016. ‘The Easiest States to Buy a Gun.’ 13 May. (N578) Full Citation

86.

USA.2016.‘Firearms Manufactured (1986 - 2014).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2016.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),9 August. (Q13203)Full Citation

87.

USA.2016.‘Firearms Manufactured (1986 - 2013).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2015.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),15 March. (Q13202)Full Citation

88.

USA.2012.‘Firearms Manufactured (1986-2010).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States - Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6724)Full Citation

89.

Leshner, Alan I., Bruce M. Altevogt, Arlene F. Lee, Margaret A. McCoy, and Patrick W. Kelley.2013.‘Availability of Firearms.’ Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence.Washington, DC:National Academy of Sciences (NAS),1 June. (Q7164)Full Citation

90.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘How Many Guns Are in the United States? - Imports.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6677)Full Citation

91.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

92.

Cook, Philip J, Wendy Cukier and Keith Krause.2009.‘Firearms and Firearm Regulation in North America: United States.’ The Illicit Firearms Trade in North America.London:Criminology & Criminal Justice,1 August. (Q1980)Full Citation

93.

Alain Stephens. 2019. ‘What Makes a Gun a Ghost Gun?.’ The Trace. 5 December. (N745) Full Citation

94.

USA.2012.‘Export and Import Licensing.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6782)Full Citation

95.

USA.2012.‘"Record Keeping" on Manufacture, Holding and Transfer.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6783)Full Citation

96.

ATF.2019.‘Firearms Manufacturers' Exports (1986 -2017).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 September. (Q14081)Full Citation

97.

ATF.2017.‘Firearms Manufacturers' Exports (1986-2015).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States - Annual Statistical Update 2017.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),6 September. (Q13292)Full Citation

98.

UN Register of Conventional Arms.2018.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports - United States.’ UNROCA - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q13380)Full Citation

99.

USA.2016.‘Firearms Manufacturers' Exports (1986 - 2014).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2016.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),9 August. (Q13205)Full Citation

100.

USA.2016.‘Firearms Manufacturers' Exports (1986 - 2013).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2015.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),15 March. (Q13204)Full Citation

101.

USA.2012.‘Firearms Manufacturers' Exports (1986-2010).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6725)Full Citation

102.

Picard, Michael, Paul Holtom and Fiona Mangan.2019.‘Annexe A1: Annual Authorized Small Arms and Light Weapons Exports by Major Exporter.’ Trade Update 2019: Transfers, Transparency, and South-east Asia Spotlight.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,12 December. (Q14071)Full Citation

103.

United Nations.2018.‘National Customs Data on Small Arms Exports and Imports - United States.’ UN Comtrade International Trade Statistics Database.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,1 January. (Q13457)Full Citation

104.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

105.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

106.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

107.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

108.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

109.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

110.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11068)Full Citation

111.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

112.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

113.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

114.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

115.

USA.1976.‘Registration of Firearms.’ The National Firearm Act of 1934, Public Law 90-618, Title 26, Chapter 53, United States Code - Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and Certain Other Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,4 October. (Q6831)Full Citation

116.

Schroeder, Matt.2014.‘Illicit Weapons in The United States - Main Findings.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11039)Full Citation

117.

ATF.2019.‘Firearms Imports (1986 -2018).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 September. (Q14082)Full Citation

118.

ATF.2017.‘Firearms Imports (1986-2016).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States - Annual Statistical Update 2017.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),6 September. (Q13293)Full Citation

119.

USA.2016.‘Firearms Imports (1986 - 2015).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2016.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),9 August. (Q13207)Full Citation

120.

USA.2016.‘Firearms Imports (1986 - 2014).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2015.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),15 March. (Q13206)Full Citation

121.

USA.2012.‘Firearms Imports (1986-2011).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6722)Full Citation

122.

Picard, Michael, Paul Holtom and Fiona Mangan.2019.‘Annexe A2: Annual Authorized Small Arms and Light Weapons Imports by Major Importers.’ Trade Update 2019: Transfers, Transparency, and South-east Asia Spotlight.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,12 December. (Q14070)Full Citation

123.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

124.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

125.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

126.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

127.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

128.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Importing States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 November. (Q5997)Full Citation

129.

Schroeder, Matt.2016.‘Introduction.’ Dribs and Drabs: Mechanisms of Small Arms Trafficking from the United States.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 March. (Q13285)Full Citation

130.

USA.2012.‘Regulation of Arms Brokers, Legal and Enforcement Tools.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6779)Full Citation

131.

USA.2012.‘End-user Certification; Legal and Enforcement Measures.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6781)Full Citation

132.

Picard, Michael, Paul Holtom and Fiona Mangan.2019.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2019.’ Trade Update 2019: Transfers, Transparency, and South-east Asia Spotlight.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,12 December. (Q14069)Full Citation

133.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

134.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2017.‘United States.’ Trade Update 2017: Out of the Shadows.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 September. (Q13294)Full Citation

135.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

136.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

137.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

138.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

139.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

140.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

141.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

142.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

143.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

144.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

145.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

146.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

147.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

148.

USA.1968.‘Gun Control Act: Purpose.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1379)Full Citation

149.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Federal Regulation of Firearms.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6678)Full Citation

150.

USA.1993.‘Short Title.’ Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993, Public Law 103-159, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington DC:Congress of the United States,11 November. (Q13296)Full Citation

151.

USA.1791.‘Second Amendment to the Constitution.’ Constitution of the United States, The Bill of Rights.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States of America,15 December. (Q1954)Full Citation

152.

Scalia, J.2008.‘District of Columbia et al. v. Heller.’ Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.Washington, DC:Supreme Court of the United States,26 June. (Q8502)Full Citation

153.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Overview of Legislative Action in the 111th Congress.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6744)Full Citation

154.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1391)Full Citation

155.

ATF.2010.‘National Firearms Act (NFA).’ Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives - National Firearms Act Branch.Martinsburg, VA:US Department of Justice,8 July. (Q2036)Full Citation

156.

USA.1926.‘Definitions.’ US Code, Title 26E, Chapter 53: Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and Certain Other Firearms [Code as 2006].Washington, DC:Office of the Law Revision Counsel, United States House of Representatives,30 June. (Q3157)Full Citation

157.

LCAV.2009.‘Federal Law Summary: Assault Weapons.’ Legal Community Against Violence.San Francisco, CA:Legal Community Against Violence / LCAV,25 November. (Q1984)Full Citation

158.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearm.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1389)Full Citation

159.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Firearms Transfer and Possession Eligibility.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6685)Full Citation

160.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1902)Full Citation

161.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts -Transfer to a Juvenile.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6841)Full Citation

162.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Age Eligibility.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6686)Full Citation

163.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - Domestic Violence.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6788)Full Citation

164.

USA.2006.‘Impediments to Record Checks.’ Survey of State Procedures Related to Firearm Sales, 2005.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics,1 November. (Q6801)Full Citation

165.

USA.2013.‘Retention and Destruction of Records in the System.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 28, Chapter I, Judicial Administration, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,11 June. (Q6832)Full Citation

166.

USA.1968.‘Rules and Regulations.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1392)Full Citation

167.

ATF.2013.‘The Types of Firearms that Must Be Registered in the National Firearm Registration and Transfer Record Are Defined in the NFA and 27 CFR, Part 479. What Are Some Examples?.’ FAQ: National Firearms Act (NFA) - Firearms.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),10 June. (Q6833)Full Citation

168.

USA.1968.‘Licensing.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1955)Full Citation

169.

USA.1968.‘Licensing - Multiple Sales.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6826)Full Citation

170.

ATF.2011.‘Report of Multiple Sale or Other Disposition of Certain Rifles.’ Agency Information Collection Activities - Proposed Collection Comments Requested.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF),29 April. (Q6827)Full Citation

171.

USA.2008.‘Implementing of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1588)Full Citation

172.

USA.2008.‘Implementing of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1590)Full Citation

173.

USA.2007.‘Management and Security of National Stockpiles.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,17 July. (Q1597)Full Citation

174.

USA.1968.‘Purpose.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q4168)Full Citation

175.

EFSGV.2002.‘Summary: The Benefits of Requiring a Criminal Background Check for Every Gun Sale.’ Closing Illegal Gun Markets: Extending Criminal Background Checks to All Gun Sales.Washington, DC:Educational Fund to Stop Gun Violence (EFSGV),1 May. (Q6822)Full Citation

176.

Cook, Philip J and Jens Ludwig.2013.‘The Limited Impact of the Brady Act - Discussion.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6718)Full Citation

177.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act: Background Check.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6790)Full Citation

178.

USA.2008.‘Sales or Deliveries of Firearms On and After November 30, 1998.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Chapter II, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,2 October. (Q6815)Full Citation

179.

FBI.2013.‘National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS).’ Federal Bureau of Investigation - Fact Sheet.Clarksburg:Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division,22 May. (Q6800)Full Citation

180.

Brand, Rachel L.2007.‘Authority to Obtain Relevant Records for the Databases Checked by the NICS.’ Lethal Loopholes: Deficiencies in State and Federal Gun Purchase Laws.Washington, DC:United States Department of Justice,10 May. (Q6824)Full Citation

181.

USA.2000.‘Allowing More Research Time for Background Checks.’ Gun Control: Implementation of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System.Washington, DC:United States General Accounting Office (GAO),1 February. (Q6821)Full Citation

182.

USA.2007.‘Identify Groups and Individuals Associated with Illicit SALW Activities.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,17 July. (Q1592)Full Citation

183.

Swanson, Jeffrey W, Allison Gilbert Robertson, Linda K Frisman, Michael A Norko, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Marvin S Swartz and Philip J Cook.2013.‘Preventing Gun Violence Involving People with Serious Mental Illness - Legacy of 1968 Law.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6721)Full Citation

184.

ATF.2019.‘Federal Firearms Licensees 2019.’ Report of Active Firearms Licenses - License Type by State Statistics.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),10 December. (Q14077)Full Citation

185.

ATF.2018.‘Federal Firearms Licensees 2018.’ Report of Active Firearms Licenses - License Type by State Statistics.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),10 December. (Q14076)Full Citation

186.

ATF.2017.‘Federal Firearms Licensees 2017.’ Report of Active Firearms Licenses - License Type by State Statistics.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),11 December. (Q14075)Full Citation

187.

ATF.2017.‘Federal Firearms Licensees Total (1975-2016).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States - Annual Statistical Update 2017.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),6 September. (Q13297)Full Citation

188.

USA.2016.‘Federal Firearms Dealers Total (1975 - 2015).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2016.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),9 August. (Q13209)Full Citation

189.

USA.2016.‘Federal Firearms Dealers Total (1975 - 2014).’ ATF Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2015.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),15 March. (Q13208)Full Citation

190.

USA.2012.‘Federal Firearms Licensees Total (1975-2011).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6726)Full Citation

191.

USA.1968.‘Licensing.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1393)Full Citation

192.

USA.1988.‘Conduct of Business Away from Licensed Premises.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Chapter II, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,31 March. (Q6835)Full Citation

193.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - Secure Gun Storage or Safety Device.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6802)Full Citation

194.

USA.2008.‘Gaps in Implementation of the UN Program of Action.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1591)Full Citation

195.

USA.1968.‘Interstate Transportation of Firearms.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1394)Full Citation

196.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act: Background Check.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6828)Full Citation

197.

USA.2008.‘Sales or Deliveries of Firearms On and After November 30, 1998.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Chapter II, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,2 October. (Q6829)Full Citation

198.

USA.1968.‘Possession of Firearms and Dangerous Weapons in Federal Facilities.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1395)Full Citation

199.

USA.1990.‘Unlawful Acts.’ The Gun Free School Zones Act of 1990, Public Law 101-647, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6785)Full Citation

200.

USA.1983.‘Weapons, Traps and Nets.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Chapter I, National Park Service, Department of the Interior.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,30 June. (Q6839)Full Citation

201.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

202.

USA.1968.‘Penalties.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6840)Full Citation

203.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

204.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

205.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

206.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

207.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

208.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

209.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

210.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

211.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

212.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

213.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

214.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

215.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

216.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

217.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

218.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

219.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation

220.

United Nations.2017.‘Relevant Targets & Indicators.’ Sustainable Development Goal 16.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,6 July. (Q14093)Full Citation

221.

Karp, Aaron.2008.‘Inconspicuous Disarmament: Introduction.’ Contemporary Security Policy: Inconspicuous disarmament: The politics of destroying surplus small arms and ammunition.Arlington, VA:Routledge / Taylor & Francis,1 April. (Q1990)Full Citation

222.

UNODC.2020.‘Arms Seized, Found, and Surrendered, by Type.’ Illicit Arms Flows Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,7 January. (Q14056)Full Citation

223.

Cody Derespina. 2016. ‘Meet 'Captain Crunch,' the Pentagon Gun Muncher that Has Destroyed 1M Firearms.’ Fox News (USA). 25 February. (N442) Full Citation

224.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q11758)Full Citation

225.

USA.2012.‘Destruction of Surplus, Confiscated, Seized and Collected SALW.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6780)Full Citation

226.

USA.2007.‘Marking of All SALW at Time of Manufacture.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,17 July. (Q1593)Full Citation

227.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Marking and Tracing.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:UN Development Programme / UNDP, UN Institute for Disarmament Research / UNIDIR, UN Office for Disarmament Affairs / UNODA, Small Arms Survey,1 November. (Q1977)Full Citation

228.

Wintemute, G J.2009.‘Introduction.’ Disproportionate Sales of Crime Guns Among Licensed Handgun Retailers in the United States: A Case-Control Study.London:BMJ Journals: Injury Prevention,5 October. (Q1979)Full Citation

229.

ATF.2018.‘National Integrated Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN).’ Tools & Services for Law Enforcement.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),27 April. (Q13298)Full Citation