Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

United Kingdom — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

British gun laws vary by country, and each has its own statistics.
For more detail by jurisdiction, choose from the Go To menu.

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the United Kingdom is

2017: 3,260,6091 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in the United Kingdom is

2017: 5.033

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In the United Kingdom, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 524,4894 5 6

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In the United Kingdom, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 1,537,9677 8 5

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In the United Kingdom, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 14,5015 9

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In the United Kingdom, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 2%10

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 6.0%11
1999/2003: 3.0%
1995/98: 4.1%
1989: 5.2%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 0.4%11
1999/2003: 0.1%
1995/98: 0.4%
1989: 0.5%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in the United Kingdom is reported to be

2017: 710,21112 13 14
2015: 821’646 1516 17
2010: 859,47718 4 19 6 20
2009: 852,035
2008: 816,562

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in the United Kingdom is

2017: 1.103
2010: 1.37
2009: 1.37
2008: 1.32

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in the United Kingdom is reported to be

2017: 2,229,344 21 8 2 14
2010: 2,157,44318 4 22 6 20
2009: 2,146,971
2006: 2,045,532
2005: 2,051,017

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in the United Kingdom is

2017: 3.393
2010: 3.45
2009: 3.46
2006: 3.36
2005: 3.39

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,23 but in the United Kingdom there are estimated to be

2017: 1,031,2652
2010: 215,74424 18 4 22 6 20
2009: 214,697
2006: 204,553
2005: 205,102

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,23 but in the United Kingdom the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2017: 1.593

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the United Kingdom are reported to have 539,68025 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In the United Kingdom, police officers on routine patrol do not carry a firearm in England, Wales and Scotland, but carry one or more firearms in Northern Ireland26 27 28 29 30

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the United Kingdom are reported to have 43,00031 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2016: 10732
2015: 12632
2014: 118
2013: 14433 34 35 36 37
2012: 128
2011: 136
2010: 159
2009: 142
2008: 166
2007: 135
2006: 200
2005: 168
2004: 177
2003: 172
2002: 16938 39 40
2001: 183
2000: 23441 42 43
1999: 21244 45 46
1998: 19647 48 49
1997: 18750 51 52
1996: 24753 54 55

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.1732
2015: 0.20
2014: 0.19
2013: 0.23
2012: 0.20
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.26
2009: 0.23
2008: 0.27
2007: 0.22
2006: 0.33
2005: 0.28
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.29
2002: 0.28
2001: 0.31
2000: 0.40
1999: 0.36
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.32
1996: 0.42

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2016: 10332
2015: 11932
2014: 111
2013: 13732
2012: 125
2011: 127
2010: 150
2009: 135
2008: 159
2007: 125
2006: 188
2005: 158
2004: 170
2003: 164
2001: 163

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.3232
2015: 0.38
2014: 0.35
2013: 0.44
2012: 0.40
2011: 0.41
2010: 0.49
2009: 0.44
2008: 0.52
2007: 0.42
2006: 0.63
2005: 0.53
2004: 0.58
2003: 0.56
2001: 0.56

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2016: 432
2015: 7
2014: 7
2013: 7
2012: 3
2011: 9
2010: 9
2009: 7
2008: 7
2007: 10
2006: 12
2005: 10
2004: 7
2003: 8
2001: 20

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0132
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2001: 0.07

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual homicides by any means total

2018: 80956
2017: 803
2016: 791
2015: 652
2014: 589
2013: 603
2012: 627
2011: 641
2010: 756
2009: 706
2008: 762
2007: 873
2006: 83257 58 59 60
2005: 958
2004: 914
2003: 1,11257 58 59 60 61
2002: 95857 58 62 60
2001: 919
1999: 82857 58 62 63

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.1256
2017: 1.21
2016: 1.19
2015: 0.99
2014: 0.90
2013: 0.93
2012: 0.97
2011: 1
2010: 1.19
2009: 1.14
2008: 1.24
2007: 1.43
2006: 1.38
2005: 1.60
2004: 1.53
2003: 1.87
2002: 1.62
2001: 1.56
1999: 1.413

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 49356
2017: 559
2016: 586
2015: 454.69
2014: 451
2013: 373
2012: 383
2011: 447
2010: 465
2009: 480
2008: 461
2007: 523

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.4956
2017: 1.70
2016: 1.79
2015: 1.40
2014: 1.40
2013: 1.17
2012: 1.21
2011: 1.42
2010: 1.49
2009: 1.56
2008: 1.52
2007: 1.74

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 26156
2017: 250
2016: 203
2015: 197.31
2014: 138
2013: 230
2012: 244
2011: 194
2010: 291
2009: 225
2008: 300
2007: 349

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.7756
2017: 0.74
2016: 0.60
2015: 0.59
2014: 0.62
2013: 0.70
2012: 0.74
2011: 0.60
2010: 0.90
2009: 0.71
2008: 0.95
2007: 1.12

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 3256
2014: 23
2013: 35
2012: 35
2011: 50
2010: 65
2009: 18
2008: 32
2007: 22
2006: 6164 65 66 33
2005: 3867 68 69 33
2004: 3670 71 72 33
2003: 2973 74 75 33
2002: 3938 39 40 33
2001: 3876 77 78 33
2000: 7141 42 43
1999: 4544 45 46 33
1998: 3347 48 49 33
1997: 4550 51 52
1996: 8453 54 55

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0232
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.10
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.10
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.10
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.12
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.083
1996: 0.14

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In the United Kingdom, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 8%79

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male firearm homicides total

2016: 432
2015: 5
2014: 6
2013: 16
2012: 7
2011: 23
2010: 17
2009: 13
2008: 24
2007: 13
2006: 36
2005: 29
2004: 40
2003: 31
2001: 23

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 32
2018:
2017:
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.12
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.13
2003: 0.11
2001: 0.08
2000:

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 332
2014: 232
2013: 532
2012: 1056
2011: 1
2010: 5
2009: 2
2008: 2
2007: 1
2006: 5
2005: 2
2004: 2
2003: 4
2001: 6

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0132
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 133
2012: 1
2008: 480 81 33
2007: 282 33
2006: 364 65 33
2005: 368 33
2004: 271 33
2003: 374 33
2001: 177 33

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0033
2012: 0.00
2008: 0.013 33
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.00

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual long gun homicides total

2013: 633
2012: 4
2011: 1083
2010: 684 33
2009: 485 86 33
2008: 480 81 33
2007: 687 82 88 33
2006: 864 65 66 33
2005: 667 68 69 33
2004: 1170 71 72 33
2003: 673 75 33
2002: 838 40 33
2001: 876 77 33

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0133
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.023 33
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual gun homicides (other) total

2013: 1633
2012: 7
2011: 2883 89 90 33
2010: 2784 91 92 33
2009: 2285 86 93 33
2008: 3280 81 94 33
2007: 782 88 33
2006: 5064 65 66 33
2005: 2967 68 69 33
2004: 2370 71 72 33
2003: 2073 74 75 33
2002: 3138 39 40 33
2001: 2976 78 33

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0333
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.043 33
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.05

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 4,87132
2015: 5,011
2014: 4,878
2013: 4,926
2012: 4,535
2011: 4,484
2010: 4,295
2009: 4,346
2008: 4,379
2007: 3,997
2006: 4,252
2005: 4,154
2004: 4,298
2003: 4,091
2002: 5,826
2001: 4,247
2000: 6,124
1999: 6,255
1998: 6,354
1997: 5,816
1996: 5,877
1995: 6,083
1994: 6,045
1993: 6,212
1992: 6,378
1991: 6,317
1990: 6,437

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 032
2018: 0
2017: 0
2016: 7.56
2015: 7.82
2014: 7.65
2013: 7.77
2012: 7.19
2011: 7.15
2010: 6.89
2009: 7.01
2008: 7.10
2007: 6.53
2006: 6.99
2005: 6.87
2004: 7.15
2003: 6.84
2002: 12.1
2001: 7.15
2000: 0
1999: 13.2
1998: 13.5
1997: 12.4
1996: 12.4
1995: 13.0
1994: 12.8
1993: 13.3
1992: 13.7
1991: 13.6
1990: 13.9

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 3,75932
2015: 3,830
2014: 3,806
2013: 3,932
2012: 3,602
2011: 3,520
2010: 3,330
2009: 3,410
2008: 3,415
2007: 3,118
2006: 3,312
2005: 3,155
2004: 3,273
2003: 3,159
2001: 3,308

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 11.7332
2015: 12.02
2014: 12.01
2013: 12.48
2012: 11.50
2011: 11.31
2010: 10.77
2009: 11.10
2008: 11.19
2007: 10.29
2006: 11.01
2005: 10.56
2004: 11.03
2003: 10.71
2001: 11.32

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 1,11232
2015: 1,181
2014: 1,072
2013: 994
2012: 933
2011: 964
2010: 965
2009: 936
2008: 964
2007: 879
2006: 940
2005: 999
2004: 1,025
2003: 932
2001: 939

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.4332
2015: 3.67
2014: 3.34
2013: 3.12
2012: 2.94
2011: 3.05
2010: 3.07
2009: 2.99
2008: 3.10
2007: 2.84
2006: 3.06
2005: 3.26
2004: 3.37
2003: 3.07
2001: 3.11

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual firearm suicides total

2016: 8532
2015: 10132
2014: 91
2013: 10634
2012: 92
2011: 9383 89 90 34
2010: 10984 91 92 34
2009: 10185 86 93 34
2008: 12080 81 94 34
2007: 10087 82 88 34
2006: 13064 65 66 34
2005: 107
2004: 115
2003: 112
2002: 10838 39 40 34
2001: 120
2000: 13441 42 43
1999: 14044 45 46 34
1998: 13647 48 49 34
1997: 13750 51 52
1996: 13353 54 55
1995: 18495 96 97

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.1332
2015: 0.16
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.17
2012: 0.15
2011: 0.15
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.16
2008: 0.20
2007: 0.16
2006: 0.21
2005: 0.18
2004: 0.19
2003: 0.19
2002: 0.18
2001: 0.20
2000:
1999: 0.243 34
1998: 0.23
1997: 0.233
1996: 0.23
1995: 0.32

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male firearm suicides total

2016: 8332
2015: 98
2014: 90
2013: 104
2012: 91
2011: 88
2010: 107
2009: 97
2008: 115
2007: 93
2006: 126
2005: 101
2004: 111
2003: 109
2001: 110

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.2632
2015: 0.31
2014: 0.28
2013: 0.33
2012: 0.29
2011: 0.28
2010: 0.35
2009: 0.32
2008: 0.38
2007: 0.31
2006: 0.42
2005: 0.34
2004: 0.37
2003: 0.37
2001: 0.38

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female firearm suicides total

2016: 232
2015: 3
2014: 1
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 5
2010: 2
2009: 4
2008: 5
2007: 7
2006: 4
2005: 6
2004: 4
2003: 3
2001: 10

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0132
2015: 0.01
2014: 0
2013: 0.01
2012: 0
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.03

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual handgun suicides total

2013: 234
2012: 1
2011: 189 34
2010: 192 34
2008: 480 81 34
2007: 187 34
2006: 264 65 34
2005: 168 34
2003: 473 74 34
2002: 338 39 34
2001: 276 78 34

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0034
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.003 34
2010: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the number of long gun suicides is

2013: 5434
2012: 40
2011: 4383 89 90 34
2010: 5984 91 92 34
2009: 5585 86 93 34
2008: 6480 81 94 34
2007: 5287 82 88 34
2006: 7364 65 66 34
2005: 5667 68 69 34
2004: 5070 71 72 34
2003: 5973 74 75 34
2002: 5238 39 40 34
2001: 5976 77 78 34

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0834
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.073 34
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.12
2005: 0.09
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.09
2001: 0.10

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual gun suicides (other) total

2013: 5034
2012: 51
2011: 4983 89 90 34
2010: 4984 91 92 34
2009: 4685 86 93 34
2008: 5280 81 94 34
2007: 4787 82 88 34
2006: 5564 65 66 34
2005: 5467 68 69 34
2004: 5270 71 72 34
2003: 5473 74 75 34
2002: 5338 39 40 34
2001: 4676 77 78 34

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0834
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.083 34
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.09
2005: 0.09
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.09
2002: 0.09
2001: 0.08

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2016: 632
2015: 7
2014: 8
2013: 535
2012: 6
2011: 283 90 35
2010: 884 35
2009: 1185 35
2008: 580 35
2007: 387 88 35
2006: 564 65 66 35
2005: 3
2004: 4
2003: 473 74 35
2002: 238 40 35
2001: 6
2000: 1241 42
1999: 644 35
1998: 735
1996: 254
1995: 1495 96

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0132
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0
2006: 0.01
2005: 0
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.01
2000:
1999: 0.013 35
1998: 0.0135
1996: 0.003
1995: 0.02

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2016: 632
2015: 6
2014: 7
2013: 5
2012: 6
2011: 1
2010: 8
2009: 10
2008: 5
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 3
2004: 4
2003: 4
2001: 6

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0232
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.02

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2015: 132
2014: 1
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 1
2010: 0
2009: 1

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 032
2014: 0
2011: 0
2009: 0

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2013: 135
2006: 164 35
2000: 241

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0035
2006: 0.003
2000: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 235
2012: 3
2011: 190 35
2010: 384 35
2009: 585 35
2008: 380 35
2007: 188 35
2006: 265 66 35
2005: 167 35
2003: 273 74 35
2002: 238 40 35
2001: 176 35

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0035
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.003 35
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2013: 235
2012: 3
2011: 183 35
2010: 584 35
2009: 685 35
2008: 280 35
2007: 287 35
2006: 264 35
2005: 235
2004: 370 72 35
2003: 273 35
2002: 135
2001: 276 77 35

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0035
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.003 35
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2016: 832
2015: 7
2014: 6
2013: 1036
2012: 13
2011: 1083 90 36
2010: 1184 92 36
2009: 885 36
2008: 780 36
2007: 1187 88 36
2006: 1364 66 36
2005: 16
2004: 11
2003: 17
2002: 2038 40 36
2001: 17
2000: 1741 43
1999: 2144 45 46
1998: 2747 48 49
1997: 552
1996: 2853 54 55
1995: 3295 96

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2019: 032
2018: 0
2017: 0
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.033
1999: 0.04
1998: 0.05
1997: 0.01
1996: 0.05
1995: 0.06

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2016: 832
2015: 732
2014: 6
2013: 1032
2012: 13
2011: 9
2010: 11
2009: 8
2008: 7
2007: 11
2006: 13
2005: 15
2004: 11
2003: 16
2001: 17

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0232
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.05
2001: 0.06

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 032
2012: 0
2011: 1
2010: 0
2005: 1
2003: 1

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 032
2005: 0
2003: 0

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 136
2004: 1
2003: 173 36
2002: 138
2001: 136

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0036
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.003 36
2002: 0.003
2001: 0.0036

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 336
2012: 6
2011: 683 90 36
2010: 684 92 36
2009: 485 36
2008: 380 36
2007: 287 88 36
2006: 464 66 36
2005: 767 69 36
2004: 870 72 36
2003: 573 75 36
2002: 1438 40 36
2001: 776 78 36

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0036
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.013 36
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 636
2012: 7
2011: 483 90 36
2010: 584 92 36
2009: 485 36
2008: 480 36
2007: 987 88 36
2006: 964 36
2005: 467 36
2004: 770 36
2003: 773 74 75 36
2002: 538 36
2001: 176 36

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0136
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.013 36
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2014: 132
2013: 037
2012: 8
2011: 5
2010: 5
2009: 485 86
2008: 3
2007: 182
2006: 264
2005: 167

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the United Kingdom, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence98 99 100

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, the United Kingdom was ranked 'medium'101

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In the United Kingdom, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law102 103 104 105

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from the United Kingdom is reported by manufacturers to be

2020: 26,558106
2019: 38,537
2018: 40,274107
2017: 33,627
2016: 36,076
2015: 101,022
2014: 87,652106
2013: 98,498
2012: 131,894
2011: 27,513
2010: 66,997
2009: 59,965
2008: 277,550
2007: 255,847
2006: 358,904

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the United Kingdom is reported by Customs to be US$

2021: 92,050,000108
2020: 81,565,000
2019: 90,042,000
2018: 99,409,000
2017: 76,863,000
2016: 76,190,000
2015: 79,834,000
2014: 101,499,000
2013: 93,837,000
2012: 87,134,000
2011: 76,909,000
2010: 70,691,000
2009: 63,088,000
2008: 73,130,000
2007: 82,828,000
2006: 64,593,000
2005: 59,077,000
2004: 54,803,000
2003: 49,525,000
2002: 48,951,000
2001: 61,000,000109

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, the United Kingdom was categorized as 'major'110 111 112

Firearm Imports

In the United Kingdom, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law104 113 114

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to the United Kingdom is reported to be

2020: 0107
2019: 0
2013: 30,061106

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the United Kingdom is reported by Customs to be US$

2021: 115,073,000115
2020: 95,197,000
2019: 128,999,000
2018: 138,786,000
2017: 126,917,000
2016: 112,557,000
2015: 112,463,000
2014: 119,882,000
2013: 101,388,000
2012: 109,497,000
2011: 106,941,000
2010: 122,142,000
2009: 98,100,000
2008: 111,955,000
2007: 117,076,000
2006: 94,374,000
2005: 92,982,000
2004: 91,361,000
2003: 81,108,000
2002: 64,541,000
2001: 71,000,000116 117

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the United Kingdom is moderate118 119

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the United Kingdom, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law120 121 122

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in the United Kingdom include105 123 103 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, the United Kingdom scored

2020: 19.25
2019: 18.25124
2018: 20.00125
2017: 19.25126
2016: 19.75127
2014: 19.50128
2013: 19.25129
2012: 19.75130
2011: 20.00131
2010: 18.75132
2009: 19.00133
2008: 19.25134
2007: 16.00135
2006: 13.75136
2005: 16.50137
2004: 15.00138

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the United Kingdom is categorised as restrictive139

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the United Kingdom includes the Firearms Act of 1968,140 the Offensive Weapons Act of 2019,141 the Export Control Act of 2002,102 the Export Control Order of 2008,142 the Import, Export and Customs Powers (Defence) Act of 1939,104 the Import of Goods (Control) Order of 1954,113 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms,143 and the Policing and Crime Act of 2017144

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the United Kingdom are regulated by the Chief Officer of the Police145

Right to Possess Firearms

In the United Kingdom, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law146 147 145

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the United Kingdom, civilians are not allowed to possess semi automatic and automatic firearms, handguns and armour piercing, and expanding ammunition148 149 150

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the United Kingdom, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited148 149 79

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the United Kingdom, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited148 149

Regulation of Handguns

In the United Kingdom, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited148 149 79

Law Regulates Long Guns

In the United Kingdom, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law151 148 79

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the United Kingdom, only licensed gun owners152 145 153 154 79 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in the United Kingdom are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting or collection145 151 155 156

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the United Kingdom is 14 years for licence, 17 years for purchase, or 21 years to purchase shotguns157 158

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in the United Kingdom must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and addiction159 160 161 79 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In the United Kingdom, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required162 161

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the United Kingdom stipulates163 164 165 166 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In the United Kingdom, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required167 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In the United Kingdom, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years168 161 154

Licensing Records

In the United Kingdom, authorities maintain a record18 4 19 6 20 149 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in the United Kingdom are permitted to possess only an approved number of firearms145

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in the United Kingdom are permitted to possess only approved quantities of ammunition145

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the United Kingdom, the law requires169 18 4 22 6 20 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the United Kingdom, licensed firearm dealers are required170 149 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In the United Kingdom, licensed gun makers are required170 100 149 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the United Kingdom, State agencies are required171 169 172 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the United Kingdom, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a permit to acquire98 173

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the United Kingdom, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful98 174

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in the United Kingdom is obliged160 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in the United Kingdom is obliged160 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in the United Kingdom include175 176 161 177 178 179 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in the United Kingdom do not include167 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the United Kingdom include171 180 181 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the United Kingdom include182 176 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the United Kingdom, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited183 79

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the United Kingdom, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited183 79

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the United Kingdom, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm184 is five to 10 years in prison, depending on gun type185 178 179

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, the United Kingdom is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament186 187

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, the United Kingdom is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that the United Kingdom has submitted one or more national reports188 on its arms transfers

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists189 the United Kingdom as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006190 by the United Kingdom.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified191 by the United Kingdom

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified192 by the United Kingdom

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the United Kingdom committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects193

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the United Kingdom against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 35194 195 196 197 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the United Kingdom has submitted one or more national reports198 199 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the United Kingdom, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated199

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the United Kingdom, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated199

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the United Kingdom submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent200 201 199

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated199 by the United Kingdom to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the United Kingdom has declared202 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the United Kingdom has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945203

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists204 the United Kingdom as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,205 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual homicides by any means total

2018: 80956
2017: 803
2016: 791
2015: 652
2014: 589
2013: 603
2012: 627
2011: 641
2010: 756
2009: 706
2008: 762
2007: 873
2006: 83257 58 59 60
2005: 958
2004: 914
2003: 1,11257 58 59 60 61
2002: 95857 58 62 60
2001: 919
1999: 82857 58 62 63

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.1256
2017: 1.21
2016: 1.19
2015: 0.99
2014: 0.90
2013: 0.93
2012: 0.97
2011: 1
2010: 1.19
2009: 1.14
2008: 1.24
2007: 1.43
2006: 1.38
2005: 1.60
2004: 1.53
2003: 1.87
2002: 1.62
2001: 1.56
1999: 1.413

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 49356
2017: 559
2016: 586
2015: 454.69
2014: 451
2013: 373
2012: 383
2011: 447
2010: 465
2009: 480
2008: 461
2007: 523

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.4956
2017: 1.70
2016: 1.79
2015: 1.40
2014: 1.40
2013: 1.17
2012: 1.21
2011: 1.42
2010: 1.49
2009: 1.56
2008: 1.52
2007: 1.74

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 26156
2017: 250
2016: 203
2015: 197.31
2014: 138
2013: 230
2012: 244
2011: 194
2010: 291
2009: 225
2008: 300
2007: 349

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.7756
2017: 0.74
2016: 0.60
2015: 0.59
2014: 0.62
2013: 0.70
2012: 0.74
2011: 0.60
2010: 0.90
2009: 0.71
2008: 0.95
2007: 1.12

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 3256
2014: 23
2013: 35
2012: 35
2011: 50
2010: 65
2009: 18
2008: 32
2007: 22
2006: 6164 65 66 33
2005: 3867 68 69 33
2004: 3670 71 72 33
2003: 2973 74 75 33
2002: 3938 39 40 33
2001: 3876 77 78 33
2000: 7141 42 43
1999: 4544 45 46 33
1998: 3347 48 49 33
1997: 4550 51 52
1996: 8453 54 55

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0232
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.10
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.10
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.10
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.12
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.083
1996: 0.14

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In the United Kingdom, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 8%79

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual male firearm homicides total

2016: 432
2015: 5
2014: 6
2013: 16
2012: 7
2011: 23
2010: 17
2009: 13
2008: 24
2007: 13
2006: 36
2005: 29
2004: 40
2003: 31
2001: 23

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 32
2018:
2017:
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.12
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.13
2003: 0.11
2001: 0.08
2000:

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the United Kingdom, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 332
2014: 232
2013: 532
2012: 1056
2011: 1
2010: 5
2009: 2
2008: 2
2007: 1
2006: 5
2005: 2
2004: 2
2003: 4
2001: 6

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0132
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in the United Kingdom, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in the United Kingdom are known to have206 207 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2018: 474208
2017: 9,496
2016: 850209
2014: 6,017208
2003: 43,908210
1997: 162,000208
1996: 23,000211
:

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2020: 915212
2019: 875
2018: 953
2017: 947
2016: 946
2013: 406213
2009/14: 3,348214

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn the United Kingdom, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2017: 3,668215
2016: 2,063
2015: 9,837171
2013: 1,383216
2012: 2,167217
1997/99: 185,000218
1992/2007: 543,000206
1992-2001: 540,000218

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the United Kingdom, it is state policy219 171 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In the United Kingdom, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law100 114 169

Firearm Tracing

In the United Kingdom, state authorities carry out220 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In the United Kingdom, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are221 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where the United Kingdom ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on the United Kingdom on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


Short References

1.

Alpers, Philip.2017.‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms and of Privately Owned Firearms - United Kingdom.’ GunPolicy.org.Sydney:Sydney School of Public Health,17 December. (Q13244)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

3.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - United Kingdom.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,21 December. (Q4293)Full Citation

4.

UK.2012.‘Table 1: Firearm Certificates: Applications, Certificates on Issue and Firearms Covered by Certificates: 1995 to 2011/12.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 1995 to 2011/12 - Data tables.London:Office for National Statistics,16 August. (Q6617)Full Citation

5.

Northern Ireland.2013.‘Long Guns and Handguns Registered in Northern Ireland.’ Response to a Freedom of Information Request.Belfast:Police Service of Northern Ireland,10 February. (Q6607)Full Citation

6.

Scotland.2013.‘Table 1: Firearm Certificates - Number of New Applications (Granted and Refused), Firearm Certificates on Issue and Firearms Held in Scotland as at 31 December, 2003-2013.’ Scottish Government, Crime and Justice Datasets.Edinburgh:Justice Analytical Services Division,29 May. (Q6813)Full Citation

7.

UK.2017.‘Headline Figures - Shotgun Certificates.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales: Financial Year Ending March 2017.London:Home Office,6 July. (Q13300)Full Citation

8.

UK.2017.‘Number of Guns per Type: Police Scotland.’ Management Information - Firearm Certificates Report: Quarter 2 (2017/18).Glasgow:Police Scotland,20 November. (Q13299)Full Citation

9.

Scotland.2010.‘Firearm Certificates: Number of firearms possessed on certificate and firearms authorised to be purchased or acquired on certificate in force in Scotland at the end of the year by type of weapon, 2009.’ Scottish Government, Crime and Justice Datasets.Edinburgh:Justice Analytical Services Division,1 May. (Q2072)Full Citation

10.

Directorate-General for Home Affairs.2015.‘Firearms Ownership - Firearms in the EU.’ Flash Eurobarometer 383: Firearms in the European Union.Brussels:European Commission,19 January. (Q13506)Full Citation

11.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11820)Full Citation

12.

UK.2017.‘Headline Figures - Experimental Statistics.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales: Financial Year Ending March 2017.London:Home Office,6 July. (Q13302)Full Citation

13.

UK.2017.‘Number of people holding a certificate by type: Police Scotland.’ Management Information - Firearm Certificates Report: Quarter 2 (2017/18).Glasgow:Police Scotland,20 November. (Q13301)Full Citation

14.

Data released by the Police Service of Northern Ireland has provided a rare insight into the service's firearms licensing database. Kathryn Torney fro. 2012. ‘Northern Ireland's Firearms Licence Holders: the Full List.’ Guardian. 22 August. (N672) Full Citation

15.

Northern Ireland.2015.‘Number of Firearm Certificate Holders by Station Area. 2015.’ Response to Freedom of Information Request No. F-2015-01125.Belfast:Police Service of Northern Ireland,1 January. (Q14182)Full Citation

16.

Scotland.2015.‘Firearm and Shotgun Certificates, 2014 and 2015.’ Firearm Certificate Statistics Scotland 2014-15.Edinburgh:Scottish Government,25 November. (Q14190)Full Citation

17.

UK.2020.‘Firearm Licence Owners, by Gender, Age, 2015/16 to 2019/20.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates, England and Wales.London:Home Office,20 July. (Q14202)Full Citation

18.

UK.2012.‘Table 3: Shotgun Certificates: Applications, Certificates on Issue and Shotguns Covered by Certificates: 1995 to 2011/12.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 1995 to 2011/12 - Data tables.London:Office for National Statistics,16 August. (Q6616)Full Citation

19.

Northern Ireland.2013.‘Number of Licensed Gun Owners, 2008 to 2010.’ Response to Freedom of Information Request No. F-2011-01262.Belfast:Police Service of Northern Ireland,13 January. (Q6618)Full Citation

20.

Scotland.2013.‘Table 5: Shotgun Certificates: Number of New Applications (Granted and Refused), Shotgun Certificates on Issue and Shotguns Held in Scotland as at 31 December, 2003-2013.’ Scottish Government, Crime and Justice Datasets.Edinburgh:Justice Analytical Services Division,29 May. (Q6814)Full Citation

21.

UK.2017.‘Headline Figures.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales: Financial Year Ending March 2017.London:Home Office,6 July. (Q13303)Full Citation

22.

Northern Ireland.2013.‘Number of Firearms Possessed on Certificate, 2005 to 2010.’ Response to Freedom of Information Request No. F-2010-03218.Belfast:Police Service of Northern Ireland,10 February. (Q6619)Full Citation

23.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

24.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Number of Privately Owned Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G1) Full Citation

25.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

26.

UK.2003.‘Armed Support of Police Operations.’ Code of Practice on Police Use of Firearms and Less Lethal Weapons.London:UK Home Office,1 November. (Q6778)Full Citation

27.

Northern Ireland.2009.‘Standing Authority for the Issue and Carriage of Firearms.’ Manual of Guidance on the Management, Command and Deployment of Armed Officers.London:National Policing Improvement Agency, Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland,1 November. (Q6777)Full Citation

28.

BBC News. 2010. ‘Q&A: Armed Police in the UK.’ 8 June. (N287) Full Citation

29.

Keating, Joshua E.. 2011. ‘When Are British Cops Allowed to Carry Guns?.’ Foreign Policy (USA). 10 August. (N288) Full Citation

30.

CNN. 2017. ‘The 19 Countries That Do Not Routinely Arm Their Police Officers.’ 19 July. (N915) Full Citation

31.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

32.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

33.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in the United Kingdom.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,22 June. (Q6102)Full Citation

34.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in the United Kingdom.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,22 June. (Q6170)Full Citation

35.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in the United Kingdom.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,22 June. (Q6209)Full Citation

36.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in the United Kingdom.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,22 June. (Q6467)Full Citation

37.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Legal Intervention in the United Kingdom.’ WHO Mortality Database.Copenhagen:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13262)Full Citation

38.

UK.2003.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2002.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2002.London:Office for National Statistics,18 December. (Q6739)Full Citation

39.

Northern Ireland.2003.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2002.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2002.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,5 December. (Q6755)Full Citation

40.

Scotland.2003.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2002.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2002.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,1 August. (Q6798)Full Citation

41.

UK.2001.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2000.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2000.London:Office for National Statistics,17 December. (Q6741)Full Citation

42.

Northern Ireland.2001.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2000.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2000.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,1 December. (Q6757)Full Citation

43.

Scotland.2001.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2000.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2000.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,30 July. (Q6803)Full Citation

44.

UK.2000.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1999.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1999.London:Office for National Statistics,18 December. (Q6742)Full Citation

45.

Northern Ireland.2000.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1999.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 1999.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,1 December. (Q6758)Full Citation

46.

Scotland.2000.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1999.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 1999.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,20 July. (Q6804)Full Citation

47.

UK.1999.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1998.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1998.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6817)Full Citation

48.

Northern Ireland.1999.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1998.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 1998.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,1 December. (Q6759)Full Citation

49.

Scotland.1998.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1998.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 1998.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,29 July. (Q6805)Full Citation

50.

UK.1998.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1997.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1997.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6818)Full Citation

51.

Northern Ireland.1998.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1997.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 1997.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,1 December. (Q6760)Full Citation

52.

Scotland.1998.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1997.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 1997.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,29 July. (Q6806)Full Citation

53.

UK.1997.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1996.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1996.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6819)Full Citation

54.

Northern Ireland.1997.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1996.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 1996.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,1 December. (Q6761)Full Citation

55.

Scotland.1997.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1996.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 1996.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,30 July. (Q6807)Full Citation

56.

UNODC.2020.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ dataunodc.un.org (web site).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q13355)Full Citation

57.

UK.2012.‘Table 1.01: Offences Initially Recorded by the Police as Homicide by Current Classification: England and Wales, 1961 to 2010/11.’ Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2010/11: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2010/11 - Data Tables.London:Office for National Statistics,19 January. (Q6612)Full Citation

58.

Northern Ireland.2013.‘Table 2.4: Homicides, 1998/99 to 2011/12.’ Trends in Police Recorded Crime in Northern Ireland 1998/99 to 2011/12.Belfast:Police Service of Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, Office for National Statistics,1 April. (Q6599)Full Citation

59.

Scotland.2012.‘Table 1: Homicide Cases, Victims and Accused Persons, Scotland, 2002-03 to 2011-12.’ Scottish Government, Crime and Justice Datasets.Edinburgh:Justice Analytical Services Division,5 November. (Q6611)Full Citation

60.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in the United Kingdom.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10322)Full Citation

61.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

62.

Scotland.2010.‘Cases and Victims Currently Recorded as Homicide by the Police in Scotland, 1999-00 to 2008-09.’ Scottish Government, Crime and Justice Datasets.Edinburgh:Justice Analytical Services Division,1 May. (Q2076)Full Citation

63.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

64.

UK.2008.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2006.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2006.London:Office for National Statistics,19 March. (Q6727)Full Citation

65.

Northern Ireland.2007.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2006.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2006.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,6 December. (Q6751)Full Citation

66.

Scotland.2007.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2006.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2006.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,1 August. (Q6794)Full Citation

67.

UK.2006.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2005.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2005.London:Office for National Statistics,19 December. (Q6736)Full Citation

68.

Northern Ireland.2006.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2005.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2005.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,30 November. (Q6752)Full Citation

69.

Scotland.2006.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2005.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2005.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,1 August. (Q6795)Full Citation

70.

UK.2005.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2004.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2004.London:Office for National Statistics,16 December. (Q6737)Full Citation

71.

Northern Ireland.2005.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2004.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2004.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,30 November. (Q6753)Full Citation

72.

Scotland.2005.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2004.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2004.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,1 August. (Q6796)Full Citation

73.

UK.2004.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2003.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2003.London:Office for National Statistics,17 December. (Q6738)Full Citation

74.

Northern Ireland.2004.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2003.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2003.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,16 November. (Q6754)Full Citation

75.

Scotland.2004.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2003.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2003.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,1 August. (Q6797)Full Citation

76.

UK.2002.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2001.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 2001.London:Office for National Statistics,17 December. (Q6740)Full Citation

77.

Northern Ireland.2002.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2001.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2001.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,13 December. (Q6756)Full Citation

78.

Scotland.2002.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2001.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2001.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,1 August. (Q6799)Full Citation

79.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: United Kingdom.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9474)Full Citation

80.

UK.2009.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2008.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2008.London:Office for National Statistics,29 October. (Q6731)Full Citation

81.

Northern Ireland.2009.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2008.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2008.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,30 November. (Q6749)Full Citation

82.

Northern Ireland.2008.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2007.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2007.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,10 December. (Q6750)Full Citation

83.

UK.2012.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2011.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2011.London:Office for National Statistics,6 November. (Q6728)Full Citation

84.

UK.2011.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2010.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2010.London:Office for National Statistics,28 October. (Q6729)Full Citation

85.

UK.2010.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2009.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2009.London:Office for National Statistics,26 October. (Q6730)Full Citation

86.

Northern Ireland.2010.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2009.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2009.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,30 November. (Q6748)Full Citation

87.

UK.2008.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2007.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2007.London:Office for National Statistics,20 November. (Q6732)Full Citation

88.

Scotland.2008.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2007.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2007.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,1 August. (Q6793)Full Citation

89.

Northern Ireland.2012.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2011.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2011.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,29 November. (Q6830)Full Citation

90.

Scotland.2012.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2011.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2011.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,8 March. (Q6773)Full Citation

91.

Northern Ireland.2011.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2010.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 2010.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,29 November. (Q6743)Full Citation

92.

Scotland.2011.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2010.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2010.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,5 August. (Q6772)Full Citation

93.

Scotland.2010.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2009.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2009.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,6 August. (Q6791)Full Citation

94.

Scotland.2009.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 2008.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Scotland, 2008.Edinburgh:General Register Office for Scotland,7 August. (Q6792)Full Citation

95.

UK.1996.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1995.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in England and Wales (Series DH2: discontinued), 1995.London:Office for National Statistics,1 December. (Q6820)Full Citation

96.

Northern Ireland.1996.‘Deaths: External Causes of Morbidity and Mortality - Underlying Cause, Sex and Age-group, 1995.’ Mortality Statistics: Deaths Registered in Northern Ireland, 1995.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,1 December. (Q6762)Full Citation

97.

Scotland.2011.‘Table 2: Deaths for which the Underlying Cause was Classified as 'Intentional Self-harm' or 'Event of Undetermined Intent' by Method and by Place of Usual Residence: Registered in Scotland, 1974 to 2011.’ Probable Suicides: Deaths which are the Result of Intentional Self-harm or Events of Undetermined Intent.Edinburgh:General Registry Office for Scotland,1 January. (Q6603)Full Citation

98.

UK.1968.‘Business and Other Transactions with Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1454)Full Citation

99.

UK.1868.‘Short Title.’ Gun Barrel Proof Act 1868.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,13 July. (Q7179)Full Citation

100.

UK.2016.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 April. (Q12712)Full Citation

101.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

102.

UK.2002.‘Export Controls.’ Export Control Act 2002.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,24 July. (Q6879)Full Citation

103.

UK.2012.‘Assessment of Export Licence Applications: Criteria and Policy.’ Import and Export Controls.London:Department for Business, Innovation & Skills,12 December. (Q6883)Full Citation

104.

UK.1939.‘Control of Importation and Exportation.’ Import, Export and Customs Powers (Defence) Act 1939.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,1 September. (Q6890)Full Citation

105.

UK.2010.‘Export Controls.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Counter Proliferation Department / Foreign and Commonwealth Office,1 March. (Q1607)Full Citation

106.

UN Register of Conventional Arms.2018.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports.’ UNROCA - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q13952)Full Citation

107.

Arms Trade Treaty Secretariat.2017.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports.’ Arms Trade Treaty Annual Report.Geneva:Arms Trade Treaty Secretariat,1 January. (Q13951)Full Citation

108.

International Trade Centre (ITC).2022.‘Exported values (2002-2021).’ Trade Map.Geneva:International Trade Centre (ITC),31 August. (Q16040)Full Citation

109.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

110.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

111.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

112.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

113.

UK.1954.‘Prohibition on Importation.’ Import of Goods (Control) Order, 1954.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,14 January. (Q6887)Full Citation

114.

UK.2016.‘International Transfers - Marking and Record-keeping.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 April. (Q12713)Full Citation

115.

International Trade Centre (ITC).2022.‘Imported values (2002-2021).’ Trade Map.Geneva:International Trade Centre (ITC),31 August. (Q16041)Full Citation

116.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

117.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Importing States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 November. (Q5997)Full Citation

118.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

119.

Jamie Grierson and agencies. 2016. ‘Rising number of guns being smuggled into UK, Metropolitan police say.’ Guardian. 28 September. (N673) Full Citation

120.

UK.2010.‘Legislation, Regulations, Administrative Procedures - Brokering Controls.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Counter Proliferation Department / Foreign and Commonwealth Office,1 March. (Q1604)Full Citation

121.

UK.2007.‘Regulation of Arms Brokers, Legal and Enforcement Tools.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Counter Proliferation Department / Foreign and Commonwealth Office,31 March. (Q1612)Full Citation

122.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

123.

UK.1939.‘Provisions as to Ultimate Destination of Goods.’ Import, Export and Customs Powers (Defence) Act 1939.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,1 September. (Q6888)Full Citation

124.

Picard, Michael, Paul Holtom and Fiona Mangan.2019.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2019.’ Trade Update 2019: Transfers, Transparency, and South-east Asia Spotlight.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,12 December. (Q14069)Full Citation

125.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

126.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2017.‘United Kingdom - Firearm Exports and Imports.’ Trade Update 2017: Out of the Shadows.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 September. (Q13304)Full Citation

127.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

128.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

129.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

130.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

131.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

132.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

133.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

134.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

135.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

136.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

137.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

138.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

139.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

140.

UK.1968.‘An Act to Consolidate the Firearms Acts - Geographical Extent: E+W+S.’ Firearms Act 1968.London:Parliament of the United Kingdom,30 May. (Q1382)Full Citation

141.

UK.2019.‘Preamble.’ Offensive Weapons Act, 2019.London:United Kingdom,16 May. (Q14891)Full Citation

142.

UK.2008.‘Military Goods, etc..’ Export Control Order 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,15 December. (Q6882)Full Citation

143.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

144.

UK.2017.‘Preamble.’ Policing and Crime Act, 2017.London:United Kingdom,31 January. (Q14890)Full Citation

145.

UK.1968.‘Special Provisions About Firearm Certificates.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1458)Full Citation

146.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

147.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

148.

UK.1968.‘Weapons Subject to General Prohibition.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1455)Full Citation

149.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5377)Full Citation

150.

UK.2017.‘Section 129: Controls on Ammunition Which Expands on Impact.’ Policing and Crime Act, 2017.London:United Kingdom,31 January. (Q14892)Full Citation

151.

UK.1968.‘Special Provisions About Shot Gun Certificates.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1459)Full Citation

152.

UK.1968.‘Requirement of Firearm Certificate.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1462)Full Citation

153.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

154.

Northern Ireland.2004.‘Article 19: Issue of European Firearms Pass.’ Firearms (Northern Ireland) Order 2004.Belfast:Northern Ireland Assembly,10 March. (Q6673)Full Citation

155.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5428)Full Citation

156.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5429)Full Citation

157.

UK.1968.‘Acquisition and Possession of Firearms by Minors.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1456)Full Citation

158.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

159.

UK.2007.‘Domestic Laws and Procedures to Control Production, Transfer of SALW.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Counter Proliferation Department / Foreign and Commonwealth Office,31 March. (Q1611)Full Citation

160.

UK.1968.‘Possession of Firearms by Persons Previously Convicted of Crime.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1464)Full Citation

161.

Dominic Casciani. 2010. ‘Gun Control and Ownership Laws in the UK.’ BBC News. 3 June. (N189) Full Citation

162.

UK.1968.‘Applications for Firearm Certificates.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1457)Full Citation

163.

UK.2013.‘Domestic Violence.’ Guide on Firearms Licensing Law.London:Home Office,31 July. (Q7166)Full Citation

164.

UK.2013.‘Domestic Violence - Removal of Firearms or Shotguns and Continuous Review.’ Guide on Firearms Licensing Law.London:Home Office,31 July. (Q7167)Full Citation

165.

UK.2013.‘Definition of Domestic Violence and Abuse.’ Guide on Firearms Licensing Law.London:Home Office,31 July. (Q7168)Full Citation

166.

Alley, Kevin.2009.‘Home Office Letter - Domestic Violence Issues.’ UK Home Office Letter to IANSA Regarding Harmonising Domestic Violence and Firearms Legislation.London:Direct Communications Unit, Home Office,22 July. (Q2061)Full Citation

167.

UK.1968.‘An Act to Consolidate the Firearms Acts - Geographical Extent: E+W+S.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q4167)Full Citation

168.

UK.1968.‘Certificates: Supplementary.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q6534)Full Citation

169.

UK.2016.‘Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 April. (Q12715)Full Citation

170.

UK.1968.‘Compulsory Register of Transactions in Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q3846)Full Citation

171.

UK.2016.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 April. (Q12714)Full Citation

172.

UK.2020.‘Section 8: Receipt for surrender of firearms or ancillary equipment.’ The Surrender of Offensive Weapons (Compensation) Regulations 2020.London:United Kingdom,19 November. (Q14893)Full Citation

173.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5392)Full Citation

174.

UK.1968.‘Registration of Firearms Dealers.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1460)Full Citation

175.

UK.2005.‘Secure Storage.’ Firearms Security: A Brief Guide.London:Home Office,11 May. (Q7181)Full Citation

176.

UK.2010.‘Firearms Security Handbook 2005.’ Firearms Handbook 2005.London:Home Office,20 September. (Q7180)Full Citation

177.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5402)Full Citation

178.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5450)Full Citation

179.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5451)Full Citation

180.

UK.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Counter Proliferation Department / Foreign and Commonwealth Office,1 March. (Q1606)Full Citation

181.

UK.2007.‘Management and Security of National Stockpiles.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Counter Proliferation Department / Foreign and Commonwealth Office,31 March. (Q1634)Full Citation

182.

UK.2005.‘Transporting Firearms.’ Firearms Security: A Brief Guide.London:Home Office,11 May. (Q7182)Full Citation

183.

UK.1968.‘Carrying Firearm in a Public Place.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1463)Full Citation

184.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

185.

UK.1968.‘Prosecution and Punishment of Offences.’ Firearms Act 1968, Revised Statute 2008.London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office / HMSO,30 May. (Q1461)Full Citation

186.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

187.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

188.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

189.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

190.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

191.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

192.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

193.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

194.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

195.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

196.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

197.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

198.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

199.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

200.

UK.2010.‘Cooperation with Civil Society and NGOs.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Counter Proliferation Department / Foreign and Commonwealth Office,1 March. (Q1633)Full Citation

201.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

202.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - Transparency in the Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

203.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

204.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation

205.

United Nations.2017.‘Relevant Targets & Indicators.’ Sustainable Development Goal 16.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,6 July. (Q14093)Full Citation

206.

Karp, Aaron.2008.‘A Semi-automatic Process?: Identifying and destroying military surplus.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,14 July. (Q2048)Full Citation

207.

UK.2019.‘Section 57: Surrender of Prohibited Firearms, etc..’ Offensive Weapons Act, 2019.London:United Kingdom,16 May. (Q14896)Full Citation

208.

Dressler, Matteo, Nils Duquet & Julia Eckelmann.2021.‘Table 4: Collection Programs in Europe (1991-2019).’ Forgotten Weapons? Non-regularised firearms in the European Union.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,28 April. (Q15459)Full Citation

209.

UK.2018.‘Collection.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13306)Full Citation

210.

UK.2003.‘Great Britain - England & Wales and Scotland.’ Firearms and Ammunition Handed In During the Firearms Amnesty 2003.London:UK Home Office,11 July. (Q6816)Full Citation

211.

BBC News. 2003. ‘Police Defend Gun Amnesty 'Success'.’ 30 April. (N342) Full Citation

212.

UNODC.2020.‘Arms Seized, Found, and Surrendered, by Type.’ Illicit Arms Flows Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,7 January. (Q14056)Full Citation

213.

UK.2014.‘Confiscation and Seizure.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12717)Full Citation

214.

European Commission.2014.‘Estimated Number of Firearms Based on Firearms Seizures.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12310)Full Citation

215.

UK.2018.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13307)Full Citation

216.

UK.2014.‘Firearms Destroyed.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12718)Full Citation

217.

UK.2012.‘Stockpile Management - Number of Small Arms Destroyed.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).London:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,7 May. (Q7183)Full Citation

218.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q11758)Full Citation

219.

Stavrianakis, Ann, In: Faltas, Sami and Vera Chrobok (Eds.).2004.‘Storage and Destruction of Surplus Small Arms.’ Disposal of Surplus Small Arms: A survey of policies and practices in OSCE countries.Bonn:Bonn International Center for Conversion, BASIC, Saferworld, and the Small Arms Survey,1 February. (Q3926)Full Citation

220.

UK.2016.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of the United Kingdom on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom to the United Nations,1 April. (Q12716)Full Citation

221.

UK.2018.‘About Us.’ National Ballistics Intelligence Service (NABIS).London:National Ballistics Intelligence Service (NABIS),1 January. (Q13305)Full Citation