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Turkey — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Turkey is

2017: 13,249,0001
2007: 9,000,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Turkey is

2017: 16.501
2007: 12.52

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Turkey, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 11,4693

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Turkey, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,483,5023

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Turkey, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 538,3993

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Turkey ranked at No. 144

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Turkey ranked at No. 522

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Turkey is reported to be

2017: 2,500,0001
2005: 3,000,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Turkey is

2005: 4.265

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,6 but in Turkey there are estimated to be

2017: 10,749,0001

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Turkey are reported to have 1,390,1807 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Turkey are reported to have 620,0008 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 1,5529
2014: 1,666
2013: 1,83010 11 12
2012: 1,48810 11 12 13
2011: 1,26910 11 12
2010: 1,312
2009: 1,191

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.959
2014: 2.12
2013: 2.36
2012: 1.95
2011: 1.68
2010: 1.76
2009: 1.61

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 1,2909
2014: 1,423
2013: 1,5489
2012: 1,274
2011: 1,042
2010: 1,096
2009: 1,000

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2015: 3.239
2014: 3.61
2013: 3.97
2012: 3.31
2011: 2.74
2010: 2.91
2009: 2.69

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 2629
2014: 243
2013: 2829
2012: 214
2011: 227
2010: 216
2009: 191

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.669
2014: 0.62
2013: 0.73
2012: 0.56
2011: 0.61
2010: 0.58
2009: 0.52

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 1,0829
2014: 1,200
2013: 1,301
2012: 3,21614
2011: 3,061
2010: 3,064
2009: 3,692
2008: 3,257
2007: 3,599
2006: 3,16815 16 17
2005: 3,305
2004: 2,91415 16 18
2003: 2,837

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.369
2014: 1.53
2013: 1.68
2012: 1.24
2011: 1.20
2010: 1.45
2009: 1.19
2008: 4.46
2007: 4.98
2006: 4.615 16 17
2005: 4.9
2004: 4.415 16 18
2003: 4.3

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 8699
2014: 991
2013: 1,0749
2012: 791
2011: 739
2010: 867
2009: 703
2008: 2,687
2007: 2,984

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.179
2014: 2.51
2013: 2.76
2012: 2.06
2011: 1.94
2010: 2.30
2009: 1.89
2008: 7.76
2007: 8.72

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 2139
2014: 209
2013: 2279
2012: 153
2011: 165
2010: 216
2009: 178
2008: 570
2007: 615

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.549
2014: 0.54
2013: 0.59
2012: 0.40
2011: 0.44
2010: 0.58
2009: 0.49
2008: 1.59
2007: 1.74

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Turkey, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 6239
2014: 706
2013: 77010
2012: 52210 13
2011: 47310
2010: 576
2009: 505
2006: 53915 17
2005: 496
2004: 53918
2003: 538

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.789
2014: 0.90
2013: 0.99
2012: 0.68
2011: 0.63
2010: 0.77
2009: 0.68
2006: 0.765 17
2005: 0.70
2004: 0.7718
2003: 0.76

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Turkey, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 50%19
2006: 17%15
2005: 15%
2004: 18.5%16
2003: 19%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Turkey, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 5009
2014: 595
2013: 6489
2012: 457
2011: 389
2010: 458
2009: 413

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.259
2014: 1.51
2013: 1.66
2012: 1.19
2011: 1.02
2010: 1.22
2009: 1.11

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Turkey, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 1239
2014: 111
2013: 1229
2012: 65
2011: 84
2010: 118
2009: 92

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.319
2014: 0.29
2013: 0.32
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.32
2009: 0.25

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Turkey, annual handgun homicides total

2012: 210
2009: 3

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0010
2009: 0.00

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Turkey, annual long gun homicides total

2013: 17310
2012: 85
2011: 110
2010: 187
2009: 84

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.2310
2012: 0.11
2011: 0.15
2010: 0.26
2009: 0.12

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Turkey, annual gun homicides (other) total

2013: 59710
2012: 435
2011: 363
2010: 389
2009: 418

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.7910
2012: 0.58
2011: 0.49
2010: 0.53
2009: 0.58

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, annual suicides by any means total

2015: 1,5329
2014: 1,617
2013: 1,8109
2012: 1,450
2011: 1,148
2010: 1,524
2009: 1,103
1996: 1,41520

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.939
2014: 2.06
2013: 2.34
2012: 1.90
2011: 1.52
2010: 2.04
2009: 1.49
1996: 1.9820

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, annual male suicides by any means total

2015: 1,1359
2014: 1,209
2013: 1,3489
2012: 1,072
2011: 850
2010: 1,148
2009: 843

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.849
2014: 3.06
2013: 3.46
2012: 2.79
2011: 2.24
2010: 3.05
2009: 2.26

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, annual female suicides by any means total

2015: 3979
2014: 408
2013: 4629
2012: 378
2011: 298
2010: 376
2009: 260

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.019
2014: 1.05
2013: 1.20
2012: 1
2011: 0.80
2010: 1.01
2009: 0.71

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Turkey, annual firearm suicides total

2015: 3799
2014: 409
2013: 44311
2012: 33011 13
2011: 24311
2010: 324
2009: 307

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.489
2014: 0.52
2013: 0.57
2012: 0.43
2011: 0.32
2010: 0.43
2009: 0.42

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Turkey, annual male firearm suicides total

2015: 3239
2014: 363
2013: 3859
2012: 283
2011: 216
2010: 293
2009: 267

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.819
2014: 0.92
2013: 0.99
2012: 0.74
2011: 0.57
2010: 0.78
2009: 0.72

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Turkey, annual female firearm suicides total

2015: 569
2014: 46
2013: 589
2012: 47
2011: 27
2010: 31
2009: 40

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.149
2014: 0.12
2013: 0.15
2012: 0.12
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.11

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Turkey, annual handgun suicides total

2012: 411
2011: 1
2010: 3
2009: 1

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0111
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Turkey, the number of long gun suicides is

2013: 10411
2012: 74
2011: 56
2010: 67
2009: 49

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.1411
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.07

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Turkey, annual gun suicides (other) total

2013: 33911
2012: 252
2011: 186
2010: 254
2009: 257

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.4511
2012: 0.34
2011: 0.25
2010: 0.35
2009: 0.36

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2015: 5509
2014: 548
2013: 61712
2012: 63612 13
2011: 55312
2010: 412
2009: 379

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.699
2014: 0.70
2013: 0.80
2012: 0.83
2011: 0.73
2010: 0.55
2009: 0.51

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2015: 4679
2014: 462
2013: 5159
2012: 534
2011: 437
2010: 345
2009: 320

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.179
2014: 1.17
2013: 1.32
2012: 1.39
2011: 1.15
2010: 0.92
2009: 0.86

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2015: 839
2014: 86
2013: 1029
2012: 102
2011: 116
2010: 67
2009: 59

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.219
2014: 0.22
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.27
2011: 0.31
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.16

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2013: 112
2012: 2

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0012
2012: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Turkey, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 17712
2012: 142
2011: 166
2010: 113
2009: 76

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.2312
2012: 0.19
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.11

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Turkey, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2013: 43912
2012: 492
2011: 387
2010: 299
2009: 303

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.5812
2012: 0.65
2011: 0.52
2010: 0.41
2009: 0.42

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Turkey, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 09
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Turkey, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.085

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Turkey, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 09
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Turkey, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 09
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

In Turkey, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2014: 39

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Turkey, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence21

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Turkey was ranked 'medium'22

Home-made Guns

In Turkey, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate23

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Turkey, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law24 25 26

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Turkey is reported by manufacturers to be

2018: 100,91727
2017: 17,812
2016: 15,272
2013: 73,184
2012: 46,210
2010: 46,606
2008: 44,854
2007: 25,504
2006: 14,013

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Turkey is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 194,000,00028

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Turkey was categorized as 'major'29 30 31 32 33 34

Firearm Imports

In Turkey, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law24 25 26

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Turkey is reported to be

2018: 3,30327
2017: 14,802
2016: 9,138
2013: 18,057
2012: 12,636
2010: 2,817
2008: 7,915
2007: 6,727

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Turkey is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 58,000,00035

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Turkey, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law36 26

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Turkey include24 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Turkey scored

2019: 11.2537
2018: 9.7538
2016: 9.7539
2014: 8.5040
2013: 8.7541
2012: 8.7542
2011: 9.2543
2010: 9.7544
2009: 9.5045
2008: 9.5046
2007: 9.2547
2006: 10.0048
2005: 9.7549
2004: 9.2550

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Turkey is categorised as restrictive51

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Turkey includes the Law No. 5201 and its regulation21

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Turkey are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior3 and the Ministry of National Defence52

Right to Possess Firearms

In Turkey, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law53 54

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Turkey, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and semi-automatic firearms55

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Turkey, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited55 19

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Turkey, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited55

Regulation of Handguns

In Turkey, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence55 19

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Turkey, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law19

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Turkey, only licensed gun owners56 57 19 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Turkey are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security3

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Turkey is 21 years57

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Turkey must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, domestic violence, medical, and addiction57 58 59 19 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Turkey stipulates3 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Turkey, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years60

Licensing Records

In Turkey, authorities maintain a record55 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Turkey, the law requires61 52 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Turkey, licensed firearm dealers are required55 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Turkey, licensed gun makers are required21 61 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Turkey, State agencies are required62 63 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Turkey do not include60 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Turkey include63 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Turkey include3 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Turkey, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law19

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Turkey, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit60

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Turkey, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm64 is three years in prison and a fine60

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed65 by Turkey.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified66 by Turkey

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified67 by Turkey

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Turkey committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects68

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Turkey against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 8269 70 71 72 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Turkey has submitted one or more national reports73 26 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Turkey, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated74 26

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Turkey, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated26 75

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Turkey submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent26

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated26 by Turkey to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Turkey has declared76 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Turkey has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194577

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists78 Turkey as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,79 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Turkey, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Turkey, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 27,38180
2013: 9,85381
2010-12: 1,994

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Turkey, it is not state policy82 63 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Turkey, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law61 52 21 83

Firearm Tracing

In Turkey, state authorities carry out84 61 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Global Peace Index

To see where Turkey ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

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United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Turkey.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,25 July. (Q8732)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

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WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Turkey.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,24 June. (Q8723)Full Citation

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