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Thailand — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Thailand is

2017: 10,342,0001
2007: 10,000,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Thailand is

2017: 15.11
2007: 15.62

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Thailand, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2012: 2,476,3033

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Thailand, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2012: 3,744,8773

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Thailand ranked at No. 114

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Thailand ranked at No. 392

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Thailand is reported to be

2017: 6,221,1801
2012: 6,221,1803 5 2

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Thailand is

2017: 9.096
2012: 9.25

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,7 but in Thailand there are estimated to be

2017: 4,120,8201

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,7 but in Thailand the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2017: 6.026

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Thailand are reported to have 1,052,8158 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Thailand are reported to have 230,0009 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Thailand, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 2,29110
2013: 2,457
2012: 2,818
2011: 2,810
2010: 2,836
1994: 2,43411

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 3.3810
2013: 3.64
2012: 4.19
2011: 4.19
2010: 4.25
1994: 4.126

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Thailand, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 2,01010
2013: 2,196
2012: 2,483
2011: 2,493
2010: 2,540

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Thailand, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 28110
2013: 261
2012: 335
2011: 317
2010: 296

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 1,61010
2015: 1,97112
2014: 2,368
2013: 3,023
2012: 2,975
2011: 2,941
2010: 3,301
2009: 3,703
2008: 3,974
2007: 4,435
2006: 4,68713 14 15
2005: 4,806
2004: 4,27313 14
2003: 6,434
2002: 4,538
2001: 5,020
2000: 5,14213 14 16
1999: 5,05214 16
1998: 5,361
1997: 4,78714 17
1996: 4,474
1995: 4,542

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 2.3610
2015: 2.9012
2014: 3.50
2013: 3.64
2012: 4.19
2011: 4.19
2010: 4.25
2009: 5.6
2008: 6.013 14 18
2007: 6.7
2006: 7.113 14 15 18
2005: 7.3
2004: 6.613 14 18
2003: 10.0
2002: 7.1
2001: 8.0
2000: 8.213 14 16 18
1999: 8.114 16 18
1998: 8.7
1997: 7.914 17 18
1996: 7.4
1995: 7.6

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, annual male homicides by any means total

2014: 2,24810
2013: 2,628
2012: 2,550
2011: 2,545
2010: 2,888

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, annual female homicides by any means total

2014: 40410
2013: 395
2012: 425
2011: 396
2010: 413

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Thailand, annual firearm homicides total

2016: 1,03410
2015: 1,269
2014: 1,644
2013: 1,823
2012: 2,000
2011: 1,953
2010: 2,268
1994: 2,18411

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 1.5210
2015: 1.87
2014: 2.43
2013: 2.70
2012: 2.97
2011: 2.92
2010: 3.40
1994: 3.4811

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Thailand, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 66%19

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Thailand, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 1,42810
2014: 1,428
2013: 1,628
2012: 1,751
2011: 1,726
2010: 2,041

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Thailand, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 21610
2014: 216
2013: 195
2012: 249
2011: 227
2010: 227

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 3,21210
2015: 3,083
2014: 2,919
2013: 3,961
2012: 3,985
2011: 3,873
2010: 3,761
1994: 2,33311

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 4.7410
2015: 4.54
2014: 4.31
2013: 5.87
2012: 5.93
2011: 5.78
2010: 5.64
1994: 3.7111

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 3,07410
2013: 3,105
2012: 3,055
2011: 2,985
2010: 2,913

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 87810
2013: 856
2012: 930
2011: 888
2010: 848

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Thailand, annual firearm suicides total

2016: 10310
2015: 125
2014: 146
2013: 165
2012: 123
2011: 120
2010: 117
1994: 15811

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.1510
2015: 0.18
2014: 0.22
2013: 0.24
2012: 0.18
2011: 0.18
2010: 0.18
1994: 0.2511

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Thailand, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 14010
2013: 154
2012: 120
2011: 116
2010: 110

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Thailand, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 610
2013: 11
2012: 3
2011: 4
2010: 7

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Thailand, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2016: 1910
2015: 28
2014: 20
2013: 32
2012: 37
2011: 37
2010: 40
1994: 8411

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0310
2015: 0.04
2014: 0.03
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.06
1994: 0.1311

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Thailand, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 1710
2013: 29
2012: 35
2011: 32
2010: 37

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Thailand, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 310
2013: 3
2012: 2
2011: 5
2010: 3

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Thailand, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2016: 57210
2015: 515
2014: 481
2013: 437
2012: 658
2011: 700
2010: 411
1994: 811

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.7110
2015: 0.76
2014: 0.84
2013: 0.62
2012: 1.04
2011: 0.98
2010: 0.65
1994: 0.0111

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Thailand, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 42510
2013: 385
2012: 577
2011: 619
2010: 352

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Thailand, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 5610
2013: 52
2012: 81
2011: 81
2010: 59

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Thailand, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence20 21

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Thailand was ranked 'small'22

Home-made Guns

In Thailand, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate23 24 25

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Thailand, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law26 27 28

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Thailand is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 30,352,19929
2015: 2,686,228
2014: 13,001,733
2013: 12,012,088
2012: 3,858,738
2011: 472,85830

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Thailand was categorized as 'minor'31

Firearm Imports

In Thailand, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law26 27 28

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Thailand is reported to be

2017: 263,86832
2016: 14,264
2015: 3,782
2014: 1,901
2013: 4,887
2012: 9,763
2011: 21,10233
2010: 80,730
2009: 35,589
2008: 64,978
2007: 61,112
2006: 1,221

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Thailand is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 150,194,10329
2015: 153,266,285
2014: 146,865,190
2013: 194,371,124
2012: 232,013,23229 34 35 36 37
2011: 82,835,02430 38 39
2010: 104,000,00040
2001: 18,000,00034

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Thailand is high41 42 43 44

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Thailand, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law45 28 46

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Thailand include26 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Thailand scored

2018: 10.2547
2017: 10.2548
2016: 10.2549
2014: 9.7550
2013: 9.7551
2012: 9.7552
2011: 9.7553
2010: 9.7554
2009: 9.7555
2008: 8.2556
2007: 9.2557
2006: 8.7558
2005: 9.7559
2004: 6.2560

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Thailand is categorised as restrictive61

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Thailand includes the the Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Fireworks, and the Equivalent of Firearms Act of 1947,62 Control of Exports of Armaments and War Material out of the Kingdom Act of 1952,63 the Arms Control Act of 1987,64 the Ministerial Regulation of 2007,65 and the Customs Act of 201766

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Thailand are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior67

Right to Possess Firearms

In Thailand, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law68 69

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Thailand, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic and semi-automatic rifles70

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Thailand, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited70 19

Regulation of Handguns

In Thailand, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence71 72 19

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Thailand, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law71 19

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Thailand, only licensed gun owners73 19 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Thailand are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports shooting, collection, self-defence73 44

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Thailand is 20 years73 44

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Thailand must pass a background check which considers personal conduct, living condition, income and criminal74 44 75 19 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Thailand stipulates76 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Thailand, gun owners do not have to re-apply for or renew their firearm licence during the lifetime of the firearm77

Licensing Records

In Thailand, authorities maintain a record78 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Thailand are permitted to possess one firearm per license79

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Thailand, the law requires80 81 78 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Thailand, licensed firearm dealers are required82 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Thailand, licensed gun makers are required20 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Thailand, State agencies are required83 84 78 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Thailand, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful85

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Thailand, the number and type of firearms which can be possessed by a licensed gun dealer at a time is limited to 50 rifles, 30 handguns, and 2,000 to 30,000 rounds of ammunition depending on the type85

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

The number of licensed firearm dealers in Thailand is reported to be

2012: 50286

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Thailand include83 87 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Thailand include88 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Thailand, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law89 80 20 67 90 78

Firearm Tracing

In Thailand, state authorities carry out91 78 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Thailand, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are86 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Thailand, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law19

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Thailand, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited92

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Thailand, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed with a permit93

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Thailand, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm94 is one to 10 years in prison and a fine of 20,000 baht95 96

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Thailand are known to have44 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Thailand, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 17,00097
2014: 3,62598 99
2000-2013: 34,350100 101

Small Arms Destroyed

In Thailand, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 34,350100 (2014)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Thailand, it is state policy83 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists102 Thailand as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006103 by Thailand.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified104 by Thailand

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed105 by Thailand

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Thailand committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects106

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Thailand against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 89107 108 109 110 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Thailand has submitted one or more national reports111 46 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Thailand, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated112 46

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Thailand, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated46

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Thailand submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent46

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated46 by Thailand to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided46 to Thailand by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Thailand has declared113 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Thailand has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1946114

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list115 Thailand as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Thailand, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Thailand ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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