Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Spain — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Spain is

2017: 3,464,0001
2007: 4,500,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Spain is

2017: 7.501
2007: 10.42

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Spain, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 272,9463

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Spain, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,059,7633

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Spain, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 223,3273

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Spain ranked at No. 184

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Spain ranked at No. 612

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In Spain, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 5%5

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 12.0%6
1989: 12.7%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 0.5%6
1989: 2.0%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Spain is reported to be 2,500,0003

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Spain is 6.217

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Spain is reported to be

2017: 2,683,5421
2007: 3,051,5882

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Spain is 6.987

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Spain there are estimated to be

2017: 780,4581

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Spain are reported to have 333,6608 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Spain are reported to have 264,1969 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 28510
2013: 308
2012: 261
2011: 25711 12 13 14
2010: 28815
2009: 32211 12 13 14
2008: 307
2007: 267
2006: 293
2005: 278
2004: 310
2003: 350
2002: 324
2001: 30811 12 13
2000: 33111 12 13 14
1999: 28011 12 13 16
1998: 35211 12 13
1997: 380

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.6010
2013: 0.65
2012: 0.55
2011: 0.55
2010: 0.62
2009: 0.707
2008: 0.67
2007: 0.59
2006: 0.66
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.72
2003: 0.83
2002: 0.78
2001: 0.75
2000: 0.82
1999: 0.70
1998: 0.88
1997: 0.95

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 26210
2013: 284
2012: 245
2011: 237
2010: 259

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 2310
2013: 24
2012: 16
2011: 20
2010: 29

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 32717
2015: 30318
2014: 31710
2013: 315
2012: 303
2011: 334
2010: 329
2009: 399
2008: 426
2007: 482
2006: 47619 20 21
2005: 518
2004: 52019 20
2003: 587
2002: 564
2001: 577
2000: 55319 20 22
1999: 48620 22
1998: 522
1997: 46320 23
1996: 397
1995: 411

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.7017
2015: 0.6618
2014: 0.6010
2013: 0.65
2012: 0.55
2011: 0.55
2010: 0.62
2009: 0.9
2008: 0.9
2007: 1.1
2006: 1.119 20 21
2005: 1.2
2004: 1.219 20
2003: 1.4
2002: 1.4
2001: 1.4
2000: 1.419 20 22
1999: 1.220 22
1998: 1.3
1997: 1.220 23
1996: 1.0
1995: 1.0
1993: 0.9524

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 18125
2014: 20110
2013: 206
2012: 205
2011: 230
2010: 207

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 12225
2014: 11610
2013: 109
2012: 98
2011: 104
2010: 122

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 6410
2013: 58
2012: 61
2011: 57
2010: 67
2009: 7811 19 20
2008: 80
2007: 57
2006: 82
2005: 74
2004: 8611
2003: 115
2002: 103
2001: 104
2000: 10511 20
1999: 68
1998: 85
1997: 10511
1996: 14823
1995: 107

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1310
2013: 0.12
2012: 0.13
2011: 0.12
2010: 0.14
2009: 0.1711 7 20
2008: 0.18
2007: 0.13
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.17
2004: 0.211
2003: 0.27
2002: 0.25
2001: 0.26
2000: 0.2611 20
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.22
1997: 0.2711
1996: 0.3823
1995: 0.27
1993: 0.2126

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Spain, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 14%19
2011: 14%19 27
2010: 18%19
2009: 23%
2008: 16%
2007: 14%
2006: 13%
2005: 12%
2000: 19.6%20
1999: 18.1%
1998: 19.8%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Spain, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 5010
2014: 50
2013: 42
2012: 50
2011: 48
2010: 49

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Spain, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 1410
2014: 14
2013: 16
2012: 11
2011: 9
2010: 18

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 2211
2013: 19
2012: 13
2011: 12
2010: 14
2009: 9
2008: 3
2007: 4
2006: 8
2005: 7
2004: 16
2003: 12
2002: 21
2001: 16
2000: 14
1999: 3

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0511
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.01

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Spain, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 1211
2013: 15
2012: 17
2011: 8
2010: 14
2009: 10
2008: 5
2007: 6
2006: 12
2005: 7
2004: 8
2003: 13
2002: 14
2001: 14
2000: 18
1999: 7

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0311
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.02

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 3411
2013: 24
2012: 33
2011: 37
2010: 39
2009: 59
2008: 72
2007: 47
2006: 62
2005: 60
2004: 62
2003: 90
2002: 68
2001: 74
2000: 73
1999: 58

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0711
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.16
2007: 0.10
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.14
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.21
2002: 0.16
2001: 0.18
2000: 0.18
1999: 0.15

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 3,91010
2013: 3,870
2012: 3,539
2011: 3,180
2010: 3,158
1998: 3,26116

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 8.1910
2013: 8.17
2012: 7.52
2011: 6.80
2010: 6.79
1998: 7.9416
1993: 7.7728

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 2,93810
2013: 2,911
2012: 2,724
2011: 2,435
2010: 2,468

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Spain, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 97210
2013: 959
2012: 815
2011: 745
2010: 690

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 20712
2013: 218
2012: 175
2011: 17612
2010: 193
2009: 205
2008: 194
2007: 170
2006: 181
2005: 170
2004: 188
2003: 203
2002: 192
2001: 169
2000: 187
1999: 178
1998: 224
1997: 221

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.4310
2013: 0.46
2012: 0.37
2011: 0.38
2010: 0.42
2009: 0.45
2008: 0.43
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.41
2005: 0.39
2004: 0.44
2003: 0.48
2002: 0.46
2001: 0.42
2000: 0.47
1999: 0.45
1998: 0.57
1997: 0.56
1993: 0.4329

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Spain, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 19910
2013: 214
2012: 170
2011: 168
2010: 183

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Spain, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 810
2013: 4
2012: 5
2011: 8
2010: 10

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 2912
2013: 26
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 24
2009: 18
2008: 24
2007: 20
2006: 18
2005: 15
2004: 27
2003: 30
2002: 23
2001: 24
2000: 21
1999: 12

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0612
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.03

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Spain, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 4312
2013: 45 2012
2011: 38
2010: 32
2009: 58
2008: 50
2007: 40
2006: 61
2005: 53
2004: 59
2003: 57
2002: 53
2001: 56
2000: 63
1999: 33
:

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0912
2013: 0.10
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.07
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.14
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.14
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.13
2001: 0.14
2000: 0.16
1999: 0.08

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 13512
2013: 147
2012: 119
2011: 120
2010: 137
2009: 129
2008: 120
2007: 110
2006: 102
2005: 102
2004: 102
2003: 116
2002: 116
2001: 89
2000: 103
1999: 133

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2912
2013: 0.32
2012: 0.25
2011: 0.26
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.28
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.25
2006: 0.23
2005: 0.24
2004: 0.24
2003: 0.28
2002: 0.28
2001: 0.22
2000: 0.26
1999: 0.34

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 1213
2013: 27
2012: 2313 30
2011: 2313
2010: 25
2009: 33
2008: 28
2007: 39
2006: 23
2005: 33
2004: 31
2003: 31
2002: 26
2001: 35
2000: 37
1999: 34
1998: 43
1997: 54

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 010
2013: 0.01
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.09
1999: 0.09
1998: 0.11
1997: 0.14
1993: 0.2531

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 1110
2013: 26
2012: 23
2011: 20
2010: 25

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 110
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 3
2010: 0

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2007: 113
2005: 2
2002: 4
2001: 2
2000: 4

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.0013
2005: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 813
2012: 9
2011: 3
2010: 7
2009: 4
2008: 8
2007: 10
2006: 3
2005: 5
2004: 7
2003: 5
2002: 6
2001: 6
2000: 12
1999: 5

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0213
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.01

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Spain, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2014: 1213
2013: 19
2012: 14
2011: 20
2010: 18
2009: 29
2008: 20
2007: 28
2006: 20
2005: 26
2004: 24
2003: 26
2002: 16
2001: 27
2000: 21
1999: 29

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0313
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.07
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.07

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 214
2013: 5
2012: 214 30
2011: 114
2010: 3
2009: 6
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 7
2005: 1
2004: 5
2003: 1
2002: 3
2000: 2
1999: 016

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0014
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.0014 7
2011: 0.0014
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.0016
1993: 0.0032

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 210
2013: 2
2012: 2
2011: 1
2010: 2

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 010
2013: 3
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 1

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 114
2010: 1
2004: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0014
2010: 0.00
2004: 0.00

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2005: 114
2004: 1
2002: 2

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2005: 0.0014
2004: 0.00
2002: 0.00

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Spain, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 214
2013: 5
2012: 2
2010: 2
2009: 6
2008: 5
2007: 1
2006: 7
2004: 3
2003: 1
2002: 1
2000: 2

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Spain, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0014
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2000: 0.01

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Spain, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence33 34

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Spain was ranked 'medium'35

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Spain, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law33 36 37 38 39 40 41

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Spain is reported by manufacturers to be

2017: 59442
2016: 361
2015: 651
2014: 67
2013: 244
2012: 411
2011: 44
2010: 1,670
2009: 21
2008: 935
2007: 5
2006: 1,896

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Spain is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 222,739,69543
2015: 223,875,406
2014: 258,871,710
2013: 253,005,425
2012: 115,976,55443 44 45
2011: 51,457,40346
2010: 117,000,00047
2001: 75,000,00044 48 49

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Spain was categorized as 'major'50 51 52 49 53

Firearm Imports

In Spain, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law33 36 37 38 39 40

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Spain is reported to be

2017: 3,36142
2016: 4,779
2015: 452
2014: 257
2013: 2,094
2012: 3,049
2011: 3,036
2010: 2,089
2009: 15,787
2008: 2,096
2007: 968
2006: 290

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Spain is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 126,648,60543
2015: 113,426,073
2014: 124,127,381
2013: 113,079,548
2012: 72,169,42843 54 55 56
2011: 50,589,00746 57
2010: 85,000,00058
2001: 36,000,00054

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Spain is moderate3

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Spain, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law59 60 61

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Spain include36 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Spain scored

2018: 17.5062
2016: 15.2563
2014: 16.2564
2013: 16.0065
2012: 15.7566
2011: 16.5067
2010: 16.5068
2009: 15.0069
2008: 13.7570
2007: 13.2571
2006: 12.5072
2005: 12.2573
2004: 8.7574

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Spain is categorised as restrictive75

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Spain includes the Royal Decree 137/1993, as amended in 2011,76 36 59 the Basic Law 4/2015,34 the Criminal Code,33 Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,77 78 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200379 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms80

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Spain are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior through the General Directorate of the Civil Guard,81 and the European Commission78

Right to Possess Firearms

In Spain, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law82 83

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Spain, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition84 85

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Spain, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited84 85 27

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Spain, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation86 87 85

Regulation of Handguns

In Spain, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation76 84 86 87 85 27

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Spain, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law76 86 87 85 27

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Spain, only licensed gun owners88 76 89 84 86 27 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Spain are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security90

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Spain is 18 years, with exceptions88 90

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Spain must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, physical and domestic violence88 90 27 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Spain stipulates3 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Spain, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required3 for a firearm licence

Licensing Records

In Spain, authorities maintain a record3 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Spain are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm91

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Spain, the law requires81 92 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Spain, licensed firearm dealers are required93 92 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Spain, licensed gun makers are required34 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Spain, State agencies are required94 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Spain, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful95 87

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Spain include88 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Spain include94 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Spain include3 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Spain, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law33 96 97 34 36 98 99

Firearm Tracing

In Spain, state authorities carry out100 96 101 98 92 102 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Spain, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law27

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Spain, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit3

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Spain, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm103 is two years in prison33 104

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Spain, it is not state policy94 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Spain is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament105 106

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Spain is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Spain has submitted one or more national reports107 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2007108 by Spain.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified109 by Spain

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified110 by Spain

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Spain committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects111

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Spain against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 68112 113 114 115 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Spain has submitted one or more national reports116 117 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Spain, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated118 117

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Spain, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated118

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Spain submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent117

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated117 by Spain to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Spain has declared119 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Spain has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955120

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists121 Spain as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Spain, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Spain ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

Directorate-General for Home Affairs.2015.‘Firearms Ownership - Firearms in the EU.’ Flash Eurobarometer 383: Firearms in the European Union.Brussels:European Commission,19 January. (Q13506)Full Citation

6.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11817)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Spain.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,25 July. (Q4281)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

10.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

11.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 July. (Q6100)Full Citation

12.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 July. (Q6167)Full Citation

13.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 July. (Q6205)Full Citation

14.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Spain.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 July. (Q6465)Full Citation

15.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

16.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

17.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.2018.‘GBD Results Tool.’ Global Health Data Exchange.Seattle WA:University of Washington,8 August. (Q13503)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

19.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Spain.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10336)Full Citation

20.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Spain.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6254)Full Citation

21.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

22.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

23.

UNODC.2001.‘Spain: Total Recorded Intentional Homicides (Completed) and Total Recorded Intentional Homicides Committed With a Firearm.’ Sixth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1995-1997.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,27 June. (Q1315)Full Citation

24.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

25.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

26.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

27.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Spain.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9460)Full Citation

28.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

29.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

30.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

31.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

32.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

33.

European Commission.2014.‘Spain.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12322)Full Citation

34.

Spain.2016.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Spain on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12549)Full Citation

35.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

36.

Spain.2016.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Spain on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12550)Full Citation

37.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

38.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

39.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

40.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

41.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

42.

UN Register of Conventional Arms.2018.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Spain.’ UNROCA - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q13373)Full Citation

43.

United Nations.2018.‘National Customs Data on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Spain.’ UN Comtrade International Trade Statistics Database.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,1 January. (Q13450)Full Citation

44.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

45.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

46.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

47.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

48.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

49.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

50.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

51.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

52.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

53.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

54.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

55.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

56.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

57.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

58.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

59.

Spain.2016.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Spain on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12551)Full Citation

60.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

61.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

62.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

63.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

64.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

65.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

66.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

67.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

68.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

69.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

70.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

71.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

72.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

73.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

74.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

75.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

76.

European Commission.2014.‘Royal Decree 137/1993 [Firearms Act] - Spain.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12341)Full Citation

77.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

78.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

79.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

80.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

81.

Spain.2008.‘Records.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4761)Full Citation

82.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

83.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

84.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

85.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

86.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

87.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

88.

La Voz de Galicia (Spain). 2016. ‘Firearm Owners Must Prove Good Physical and Mental Health.’ 27 July. (N656) Full Citation

89.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

90.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

91.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

92.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

93.

Spain.2008.‘Requirements for Arms Dealers.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4520)Full Citation

94.

Spain.2016.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of Spain on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12552)Full Citation

95.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

96.

Spain.2008.‘National Marking System.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4760)Full Citation

97.

Spain.2008.‘Marking of State Arms.’ National Report of Spain on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q4762)Full Citation

98.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

99.

European Commission.2014.‘Marking Requirement in National Illicit Firearms Trafficking Legislation.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12315)Full Citation

100.

Spain.2016.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of Spain on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations,31 March. (Q12553)Full Citation

101.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q323)Full Citation

102.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Summary of Reported International Requests for Tracing of Firearms, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10546)Full Citation

103.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

104.

European Commission.2014.‘Sanctions.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12307)Full Citation

105.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

106.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

107.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

108.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

109.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

110.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

111.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

112.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

113.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

114.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

115.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

116.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

117.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

118.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

119.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

120.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

121.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation