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South Africa — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in South Africa is

2017: 5,351,0001
2013: 3,400,0002 3 4 5

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in South Africa is

2017: 9.701
2013: 6.616 5

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In South Africa, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 1,286,6287 8 9 (registered only)

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In South Africa, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 453,4867 8 9 (registered only)

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In South Africa, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,784,4207 8 9 (registered only)

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, South Africa ranked at No. 1710

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, South Africa ranked at No. 505

Proportion of Households with Firearms

In South Africa, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2001: 20%11

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in South Africa is reported to be

2011: 1,500,0002
2001: 2,092,24211
1999: 2,027,41112 9
1996: 2,000,00013
1994: 2,400,0002

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in South Africa is

2011: 2.926
2001: 4.60
1999: 4.57
1996: 4.69
1994: 5.77

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in South Africa is reported to be

2017: 3,000,0001
2011: 2,900,0002
2007: 3,000,00014
2005: 3,737,6765
2004: 3,737,67613
2003: 3,735,6767 15
2001: 3,667,28911
1999: 3,554,3368 7 15
1996: 3,503,57313
1994: 3,500,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in South Africa is

2011: 5.646
2007: 6.08
2005: 7.77
2004: 7.88
2003: 7.99
2001: 8.06
1999: 8.01
1996: 8.21
1994: 8.41

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in South Africa there are estimated to be 500,0003 to 4,000,0004

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in South Africa the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 1.13 to 8.326

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of South Africa are reported to have 350,63616 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In South Africa, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms17

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in South Africa are reported to have 250,48118 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn South Africa, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 4,97819
2013: 4,357
2012: 4,295
2011: 3,793
2010: 4,21720
2008: 3,35721
2005: 15,00022
2000: 5,20123
1999: 3,90624

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 9.3919
2013: 8.31
2012: 8.27
2011: 7.37
2010: 8.25
2008: 6.716
2005: 31.18
2000: 11.58
1999: 8.81

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn South Africa, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 4,40619
2013: 3,832
2012: 3,694
2011: 3,290
2010: 3,638

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn South Africa, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 53119
2013: 483
2012: 566
2011: 480
2010: 571

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 19,18325
2015: 18,67326
2014: 5,31419
2013: 5,019
2012: 4,928
2011: 4,989
2010: 5,059
2009: 16,834
2008: 18,148
2007: 18,487
2006: 19,202
2005: 18,528
2004: 18,793
2003: 19,824
2002: 21,553
2001: 21,405
2000: 21,75827 28 23 29
1999: 22,60428 29 24
1998: 25,12728 29
1997: 24,486
1996: 25,470
1995: 26,877
1994: 26,83230 29

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 36.3725
2015: 34.2726
2014: 9.3919
2013: 8.31
2012: 8.27
2011: 7.37
2010: 8.25
2009: 33.127 28 31 32
2008: 36.127 28 31 33
2007: 37.3
2006: 39.3
2005: 38.4
2004: 39.5
2003: 42.3
2002: 46.727 28 33
2001: 47.0
2000: 48.527 28 32 33
1999: 51.228 33
1998: 57.7
1997: 57.1
1996: 60.4
1995: 64.9
1994: 66.934

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual male homicides by any means total

2014: 4,67019
2013: 4,393
2012: 4,271
2011: 4,294
2010: 4,381

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual female homicides by any means total

2014: 60119
2013: 588
2012: 615
2011: 650
2010: 664

Gun Homicides

ChartIn South Africa, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 10019
2013: 88
2012: 68
2011: 44
2010: 34
2007: 6,10127 28
2006: 9,06328
2005: 8,597
2004: 9,021
2003: 9,714
2002: 10,130
2001: 10,274
2000: 10,72728 23 35 29
1999: 11,21228 35 29 36
1998: 12,41328 35 29
1997: 11,166
1996: 11,258
1995: 11,15428 29
1994: 11,13430 29

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1919
2013: 0.17
2012: 0.13
2011: 0.09
2010: 0.07
2007: 12.366 28 37
2006: 18.828 38 37
2005: 18.028 37
2004: 19.1
2003: 20.8
2002: 22.028
2001: 22.6
2000: 24.0
1999: 25.4
1998: 28.5
1997: 26.0
1996: 26.7
1995: 26.9
1994: 28.8030

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn South Africa, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 33%39
2007: 33%27
2006: 47.2%28
2005: 46.4%
2004: 48.0%
2003: 49.0%
2002: 47.0%
2001: 48.0%
2000: 49.3%
1999: 49.6%
1998: 49.4%
1997: 45.6%
1996: 44.2%
1995: 41.5%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn South Africa, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 9119
2014: 91
2013: 83
2012: 55
2011: 38
2010: 28

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn South Africa, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 919
2014: 9
2013: 4
2012: 12
2011: 5
2010: 6

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn South Africa, annual handgun homicides total

2000: 6,72429
1999: 7,183
1998: 7,032
1997: 6,590
1996: 6,696
1995: 9,019
1994: 9,144

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2000: 14.976
1999: 16.20
1998: 16.06
1997: 15.25
1996: 15.69
1995: 21.40
1994: 21.97

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn South Africa, annual long gun homicides total

2000: 2,60329
1999: 3,071
1998: 3,037
1997: 2,722
1996: 1,300
1995: 1,421
1994: 1,423

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2000: 5.806
1999: 6.92
1998: 6.94
1997: 6.30
1996: 3.05
1995: 3.37
1994: 3.42

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn South Africa, annual gun homicides (other) total

2000: 1,52729
1999: 1,757
1998: 2,185
1997: 1,868
1996: 2,592
1995: 291
1994: 618

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2000: 3.406
1999: 3.96
1998: 4.99
1997: 4.32
1996: 6.07
1995: 0.69
1994: 1.48

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 58419
2013: 592
2012: 492
2011: 359
2010: 394
2008: 3,12521
2000: 1,78223
1999: 1,15724 40

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.1019
2013: 1.13
2012: 0.95
2011: 0.70
2010: 0.77
2008: 6.256
2000: 3.97
1999: 2.616 40

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 46119
2013: 470
2012: 376
2011: 284
2010: 300

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn South Africa, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 12119
2013: 120
2012: 115
2011: 75
2010: 94

Gun Suicides

ChartIn South Africa, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 3619
2013: 36
2012: 28
2011: 33
2010: 2720
2008: 42221
1999: 40441 40

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0719
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.05
2008: 0.846
1999: 0.916 40

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn South Africa, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 3219
2013: 29
2012: 27
2011: 28
2010: 24

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn South Africa, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 419
2013: 7
2012: 1
2011: 5
2010: 3

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn South Africa, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 4,83319
2013: 4,230
2012: 4,190
2011: 3,710
2010: 4,152
1999: 942 40

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0219
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
1999: 0.026 40

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn South Africa, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 4,27519
2013: 3,717
2012: 3,603
2011: 3,219
2010: 3,584

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn South Africa, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 51819
2013: 472
2012: 553
2011: 469
2010: 561

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn South Africa, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 919
2013: 3
2012: 9
2011: 6
2010: 420
1999: 4843 40

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn South Africa, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.016
1999: 0.116 40

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn South Africa, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 819
2013: 3
2012: 9
2011: 5
2010: 2

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn South Africa, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 019
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 1
2010: 1

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In South Africa, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence44 45 46 47 48 49

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, South Africa was ranked 'medium'50

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In South Africa, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from South Africa is reported by Customs to be US$20,034,75859 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, South Africa was categorized as 'mid-level'60

Firearm Imports

In South Africa, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to South Africa is reported by Customs to be US$23,643,43759 (2011)61 62 63 64

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in South Africa is high65 66 67 68 69

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In South Africa, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law70 71 72

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in South Africa include52 55 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, South Africa scored

2018: 11.5073
2016: 11.2574
2014: 3.5075
2013: 2.0076
2012: 2.0077
2011: 2.0078
2010: 2.0079
2009: 2.0080
2008: 2.0081
2007: 2.0082
2006: 2.2583
2005: 4.0084
2004: 3.5085

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in South Africa is categorised as restrictive86

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in South Africa includes the Firearms Control Act 2000,87 the Firearms Control regulations 2004,88 the National Conventional Arms Control Act of 200255 and the Domestic Violence Act89

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in South Africa are regulated by the National Commissioner90 and the South African Police Service91

Right to Possess Firearms

In South Africa, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law92 93 94

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In South Africa, civilians are not allowed to possess semi-automatic firearms without special endorsement,95 automatic firearms and specifically modified firearms96

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In South Africa, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited96 39

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In South Africa, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited, with few exceptions96 95

Regulation of Handguns

In South Africa, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence96 95 39

Law Regulates Long Guns

In South Africa, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law95 39

Gun Ownership and Possession

In South Africa, only licensed gun owners94 97 98 39 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in South Africa are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, work95 99 100 101 102 103

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in South Africa is 21 years, with some exceptions that may include the fact that the applicant conducts a business, is gainfully employed, a dedicated hunter, a dedicated sports person or a private collector104 102

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in South Africa must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, medical, domestic violence, addiction, employment, and previous firearm licence105 106 107 108 39 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In South Africa, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required109

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in South Africa stipulates105 106 107 108 89 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In South Africa, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required105 110 98 111 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In South Africa, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every two to ten years112

Licensing Records

In South Africa, authorities maintain a record113 114 115 116 53 117 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in South Africa are permitted to possess 1 firearm per firearm licence118

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in South Africa are permitted to possess up to 2,400 primers or 200 cartridges per firearm, for all those other than dedicated hunters or sports-shooters119 120

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In South Africa, the law requires113 114 121 122 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In South Africa, licensed firearm dealers are required113 123 124 125 53 122 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In South Africa, licensed gun makers are required113 126 127 122 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In South Africa, State agencies are required113 128 129 130 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In South Africa, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited unless conducted by a licensed firearm dealer131 58

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In South Africa, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful131 132 57

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in South Africa is reported to be

2006: 50132
2000: 720
1999: 644133

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In South Africa, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 4 months for civilian competency certificates and 30 days for individual security officer certificates134

Regulation of Gun Shows

In South Africa, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated135 136 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in South Africa include137 138 139 140 141 142 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in South Africa include137 138 44 143 45 141 142 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in South Africa include130 144 145 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in South Africa include137 146 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In South Africa, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law147 121 148 149 150 45

Firearm Tracing

In South Africa, state authorities carry out151 152 149 153 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In South Africa, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not154 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In South Africa, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited155 39

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In South Africa, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed without a permit155 39

Gun Free Zones

In South Africa, private guns are prohibited in educational institutions, churches, community centres, health facilities, NGOs, taverns, banks, corporate buildings, government buildings and some public spaces such as sport stadiums156 157

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In South Africa, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm158 is up to 15 years in prison159

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in South Africa are known to have160 161 162 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn South Africa, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2013: 4,936163
2012: 4,876
2010: 42,329160 164
2005: 62,404161 164
1994: 900164

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn South Africa, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013: 20,145165
2012: 25,615
2011: 19,327166
2010: 21,268167
2009: 17,824168
2008: 17,157169
2007: 13,120170
2006: 182,315161 171
2005: 23,813170
2004: 30,208170 171
2003: 21,607
2002: 19,756170
2001: 15,421
1999: 14,272
1998: 20,702172 170
1997: 14,970
1996: 18,154
1995: 16,290
1994: 14,789

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn South Africa, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2014: 36,750173 174
2013: 56,051175
2012: 119,810176
2011: 46,527177
2010: 167,240178
2009/14: 306,111174
2009: 111,491179
2008: 64,408180
2007: 74,592181
2006: 161,049
2005: 88,114
2004: 79,657
2003: 72,158
2002: 26,768
2001: 16,223181 162
2000: 12,416181
1999: 115,711182
1998/2001: 262,667

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In South Africa, it is state policy183 184 185 186 130 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, South Africa adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 2006187 188

Southern African Development Community

As a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), South Africa signed the SADC Declaration Concerning Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials in March 2001. This laid the ground for the August, 2001 adoption of the legally binding SADC Protocol on Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials189

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006190 by South Africa.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified191 by South Africa

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified192 by South Africa

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, South Africa committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects193

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored South Africa against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 95194 195 196 197 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, South Africa has submitted one or more national reports198 199 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In South Africa, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated200 199

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In South Africa, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated200 199

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of South Africa submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent200

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated199 by South Africa to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided199 to South Africa by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, South Africa has not declared201 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, South Africa has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945202

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists203 South Africa as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in South Africa, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where South Africa ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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Tracey, Lauren.2013.‘Number of Registered Firearms.’ Avoiding Stray Bullets - the Need for Improved Firearms Control.Pretoria:Transnational Threats and International Crime Division, Institute for Security Studies,11 March. (Q8743)Full Citation

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Gould, Chandre, Guy Lamb, Gregory Mthembu-Salter, Steven Nakana and Dennis Rubel.2004.‘Civilian Ownership and Illegal Firearms - Introduction.’ Hide and Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,1 October. (Q8764)Full Citation

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Keegan, Margaret.2005.‘The Proliferation of Firearms in South Africa, 1994-2004.’ Gun Free South Africa.Johannesburg:Gun Free South Africa,30 April. (Q2068)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - South Africa.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,23 May. (Q4276)Full Citation

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Gould, Chandre, Guy Lamb, Gregory Mthembu-Salter, Steven Nakana and Dennis Rubel.2004.‘Assessing the Extent of Civilian Ownership - Registered Firearms.’ Hide and Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,1 October. (Q8765)Full Citation

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Chetty, Robert (ed.).2000.‘Legal Firearm Distribution in South Africa.’ Firearm Use and Distribution in South Africa.Pretoria:The National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) Firearm Programme,1 February. (Q8778)Full Citation

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Minnaar, Anthony.2001.‘Current Ownership and Numbers Profile.’ The 'Great Gun Debate' in South Africa: An Examination of the Struggle to Legislate for Stricter Firearm Controls.Johannesburg:Institute for Human Rights & Criminal Justice Studies, Technikon SA,30 September. (Q8841)Full Citation

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Chetty, Robert (ed.).2000.‘Persons Holding More Than One Firearm Licence.’ Firearm Use and Distribution in South Africa.Pretoria:The National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) Firearm Programme,1 February. (Q8780)Full Citation

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Gould, Chandre, Guy Lamb, Gregory Mthembu-Salter, Steven Nakana and Dennis Rubel.2004.‘Introduction.’ Hide and Seek: Taking Account of Small Arms in Southern Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies,1 October. (Q8756)Full Citation

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Lamb, Guy.2008.‘Section 2: Civilian Firearm Diversion (Loss and Theft).’ 'Under the Gun': An Assessment of Firearm Crime and Violence in South Africa.Pretoria:Institute for Security Studies, Arms Management Programme,1 March. (Q8770)Full Citation

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