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Somalia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Somalia is

2017: 1,145,0001
2009: 550,0002
2007: 750,0003

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Somalia is

2017: 12.401
2007: 9.13

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Somalia ranked at No. 584

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Somalia ranked at No. 663

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Somalia is reported to be

2009: 14,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Somalia is

2009: 0.155

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Somalia are reported to have 37,6206 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Somalia are reported to have 8,0007 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 7978
2015: 778
2012: 8199
2010: 725
2000: 604

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 7.378
2015: 7.33
2012: 8.09
2010: 7.42
2000: 8.05

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 6048
2015: 588
2010: 550
2000: 468

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 11.098
2015: 11.01
2010: 11.24
2000: 12.46

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 1948
2015: 190
2010: 175
2000: 135

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.618
2015: 3.60
2010: 3.59
2000: 3.61

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 6758
2015: 652
2010: 516
2000: 423

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 6.248
2015: 6.14
2010: 5.28
2000: 5.64

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 4528
2015: 435
2010: 340
2000: 280

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 8.308
2015: 8.14
2010: 6.95
2000: 7.46

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 2238
2015: 217
2010: 176
2000: 143

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 4.158
2015: 4.11
2010: 3.61
2000: 3.82

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

In Somalia, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is

2005: 33010

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Somalia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,11 but is not conducted in practice12

Home-made Guns

In Somalia, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate13

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Somalia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law14 15 16

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Somalia is reported by Customs to be US$23117 (2003)

Firearm Imports

In Somalia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law14 15 16

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Somalia is reported by Customs to be US$017 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Somalia is high18 19 20 21 22

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Somalia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law23

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Somalia do not include14 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Somalia includes the 1963 Public Order Law24 16

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Somalia are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior14

Right to Possess Firearms

In Somalia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law25 26

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Somalia, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic rifles24

Regulation of Handguns

In Somalia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence24

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Somalia, only licensed gun owners16 24 11 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Somalia, the law does not require27 28 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Somalia, State agencies are required29 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Somalia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful11 16 14

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Somalia include29 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

League of Arab States

As a member of the League of Arab States, Somalia adopted the Arab Model Law on Weapons, Ammunitions, Explosives and Hazardous Material in January 200230

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Somalia adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200631 32

Regional Centre on Small Arms

In March 2000, as a member of the Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA), Somalia adopted the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, then on 21 April 2004 adopted the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States, a legally-binding multilateral protocol of which the RECSA is depository. The Nairobi Protocol has since been signed, but not yet ratified33 34 by Somalia

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed35 by Somalia.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed36 by Somalia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed37 by Somalia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Somalia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects38

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Somalia has submitted one or more national reports39 40 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Somalia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated40

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Somalia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated40 41

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Somalia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent40

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated40 by Somalia to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided40 to Somalia by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Somalia has not declared42 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Somalia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196043

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list44 Somalia as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,45 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 7978
2015: 778
2012: 8199
2010: 725
2000: 604

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 7.378
2015: 7.33
2012: 8.09
2010: 7.42
2000: 8.05

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 6048
2015: 588
2010: 550
2000: 468

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 11.098
2015: 11.01
2010: 11.24
2000: 12.46

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 1948
2015: 190
2010: 175
2000: 135

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Somalia, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.618
2015: 3.60
2010: 3.59
2000: 3.61

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Somalia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Small Arms Destroyed

In Somalia, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2015: 22146

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Somalia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law27 47 28

Firearm Tracing

In Somalia, state authorities carry out48 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Global Peace Index

To see where Somalia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Somalia on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


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