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Sao Tome & Principe — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Sao Tome & Principe is

2017: 7,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Sao Tome & Principe is

2017: 3.401

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Sao Tome & Principe are reported to have 5702 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Sao Tome & Principe are reported to have 2003 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 104
2011: 65 6
2010: 6
2009: 5
2008: 14
2007: 4
2006: 4

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 5.34
2011: 3.347
2010: 3.41
2009: 2.91
2008: 8.31
2007: 2.43
2006: 2.55 6 8
2005: 0.708
2004: 5.40
2002: 4.60

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual male homicides by any means total

2011: 59
2010: 49

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 5.199

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual female homicides by any means total

2011: 19
2010: 2

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 1.549

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual firearm homicides total

2011: 65
2010: 6
2009: 5
2008: 14
2007: 4
2006: 4

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 3.3410
2010: 3.41
2009: 2.91
2008: 8.31
2007: 2.43
2006: 2.48

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 10%4
2011: 100%5
2010: 100%
2009: 100%
2008: 100%
2007: 100%
2006: 100%

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Sao Tome & Principe is reported by Customs to be US$13,36411 (2010)

Firearm Imports

In Sao Tome & Principe, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law12

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Sao Tome & Principe is reported by Customs to be US$14,40311 (2011)

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

Law Regulates Civilian Access to Firearms

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of guns is regulated by law4

Right to Possess Firearms

In Sao Tome & Principe, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law13 14

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law4

Law Regulates Handguns

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law4

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law4

Gun Ownership and Possession

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Sao Tome & Principe must pass a background check which considers undefined4 records

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Sao Tome & Principe, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law4

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Sao Tome & Principe adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200615 16

United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa

In November 2010, as a member of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC), Sao Tome & Principe adopted the Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly, known as the ‘Kinshasa Convention. A legally binding multilateral treaty for which UNSAC is depository, the Kinshasa Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified17 18 by Sao Tome & Principe

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed19 by Sao Tome & Principe.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified20 by Sao Tome & Principe

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified21 by Sao Tome & Principe

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Sao Tome & Principe committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects22

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Sao Tome & Principe against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 14123 24 25 26 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Sao Tome & Principe has submitted one or more national reports27 12 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Sao Tome & Principe, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated28 12

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Sao Tome & Principe submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent12

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated12 by Sao Tome & Principe to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided12 to Sao Tome & Principe by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Sao Tome & Principe has not declared29 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Sao Tome & Principe has been a Member State of the United Nations since 197530

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list31 Sao Tome & Principe as a Participating State


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

4.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Sao Tome and Principe.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9450)Full Citation

5.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Sao Tome & Principe.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q9961)Full Citation

6.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Sao Tome and Principe.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6400)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

8.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3812)Full Citation

9.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

10.

GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Sao Tome & Principe.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,1 June. (Q10094)Full Citation

11.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

12.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

13.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

14.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

15.

African Union / UNODA.2005.‘Windhoek Common Position.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:African Union / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 December. (Q3216)Full Citation

16.

African Union.2015.‘Member States.’ African Union: A United and Strong Africa.Addis Ababa:African Union,10 August. (Q10548)Full Citation

17.

UNODA / UNREC.2010.‘Kinshasa Convention: Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly.’ United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC).Kinshasa:United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC),22 November. (Q3320)Full Citation

18.

UNDPI.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa Adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ United Nations Press Release AFR/1974 DC/3237.New York, NY:UN Department of Public Information,12 May. (Q1940)Full Citation

19.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

20.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

21.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

22.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

23.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

24.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

25.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

26.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

27.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

28.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

29.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

30.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

31.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation