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Sao Tome & Principe — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Sao Tome & Principe is

2017: 7,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Sao Tome & Principe is

2017: 3.401

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Sao Tome & Principe are reported to have 5702 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Sao Tome & Principe are reported to have 2003 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 144
2015: 14
2013: 105
2011: 66 7
2010: 13
2009: 5
2008: 14
2007: 4
2006: 4
2000: 12

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 7.094
2015: 7.22
2013: 5.35
2011: 3.348
2010: 7.39
2009: 2.91
2008: 8.31
2007: 2.43
2006: 2.56 7 9
2005: 0.709
2004: 5.40
2002: 4.60
2000: 8.53

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 114
2015: 11
2011: 510
2010: 10
2000: 9

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 11.164
2015: 11.36
2011: 5.1910
2010: 11.41
2000: 12.87

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 34
2015: 3
2011: 110
2010: 3
2000: 3

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.034
2015: 3.09
2011: 1.5410
2010: 3.40
2000: 4.24

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual firearm homicides total

2011: 66
2010: 6
2009: 5
2008: 14
2007: 4
2006: 4

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 3.3411
2010: 3.41
2009: 2.91
2008: 8.31
2007: 2.43
2006: 2.48

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 10%5
2011: 100%6
2010: 100%
2009: 100%
2008: 100%
2007: 100%
2006: 100%

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 54
2015: 4
2010: 4
2000: 3

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 2.534
2015: 2.06
2010: 2.28
2000: 2.13

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 34
2015: 3
2010: 2
2000: 2

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.044
2015: 3.10
2010: 2.28
2000: 2.86

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 24
2015: 2
2010: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 2.024
2015: 2.06
2010: 1.13
2000: 1.41

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Sao Tome & Principe is reported by Customs to be US$13,36412 (2010)

Firearm Imports

In Sao Tome & Principe, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law13

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Sao Tome & Principe is reported by Customs to be US$14,40312 (2011)

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

Law Regulates Civilian Access to Firearms

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of guns is regulated by law5

Right to Possess Firearms

In Sao Tome & Principe, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law14 15

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law5

Law Regulates Handguns

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law5

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Sao Tome & Principe, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law5

Gun Ownership and Possession

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Sao Tome & Principe must pass a background check which considers undefined5 records

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Sao Tome & Principe, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law5

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Sao Tome & Principe adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200616 17

United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa

In November 2010, as a member of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC), Sao Tome & Principe adopted the Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly, known as the ‘Kinshasa Convention. A legally binding multilateral treaty for which UNSAC is depository, the Kinshasa Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified18 19 by Sao Tome & Principe

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed20 by Sao Tome & Principe.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified21 by Sao Tome & Principe

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified22 by Sao Tome & Principe

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Sao Tome & Principe committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects23

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Sao Tome & Principe against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 14124 25 26 27 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Sao Tome & Principe has submitted one or more national reports28 13 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Sao Tome & Principe, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated29 13

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Sao Tome & Principe submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent13

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated13 by Sao Tome & Principe to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided13 to Sao Tome & Principe by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Sao Tome & Principe has not declared30 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Sao Tome & Principe has been a Member State of the United Nations since 197531

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list32 Sao Tome & Principe as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,33 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 144
2015: 14
2013: 105
2011: 66 7
2010: 13
2009: 5
2008: 14
2007: 4
2006: 4
2000: 12

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 7.094
2015: 7.22
2013: 5.35
2011: 3.348
2010: 7.39
2009: 2.91
2008: 8.31
2007: 2.43
2006: 2.56 7 9
2005: 0.709
2004: 5.40
2002: 4.60
2000: 8.53

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 114
2015: 11
2011: 510
2010: 10
2000: 9

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 11.164
2015: 11.36
2011: 5.1910
2010: 11.41
2000: 12.87

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 34
2015: 3
2011: 110
2010: 3
2000: 3

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.034
2015: 3.09
2011: 1.5410
2010: 3.40
2000: 4.24

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, annual firearm homicides total

2011: 66
2010: 6
2009: 5
2008: 14
2007: 4
2006: 4

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 3.3411
2010: 3.41
2009: 2.91
2008: 8.31
2007: 2.43
2006: 2.48

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Sao Tome & Principe, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 10%5
2011: 100%6
2010: 100%
2009: 100%
2008: 100%
2007: 100%
2006: 100%

Global Peace Index

To see where Sao Tome & Principe ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Sao Tome & Principe on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


Short References

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

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UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Sao Tome & Principe.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q9961)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Sao Tome and Principe.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6400)Full Citation

8.

UNODC.2020.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q13355)Full Citation

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Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3812)Full Citation

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UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2015.‘Calculated Rates - Sao Tome & Principe.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,1 June. (Q10094)Full Citation

12.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

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African Union.2015.‘Member States.’ African Union: A United and Strong Africa.Addis Ababa:African Union,10 August. (Q10548)Full Citation

18.

UNODA / UNREC.2010.‘Kinshasa Convention: Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly.’ United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC).Kinshasa:United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC),22 November. (Q3320)Full Citation

19.

UNDPI.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa Adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ United Nations Press Release AFR/1974 DC/3237.New York, NY:UN Department of Public Information,12 May. (Q1940)Full Citation

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GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

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UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

22.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

23.

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24.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

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Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

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