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San Marino — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in San Marino is

2017: 5,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in San Marino is

2017: 14.401

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 206 countries, San Marino ranked at No. 1892

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of privately owned guns in 206 countries, San Marino ranked at No.472

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,3 but in San Marino there are estimated to be

2017: 8334 1

Government Guns

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in San Marino are reported to have 3005 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 06
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.77
2011: 06
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, annual male homicides by any means total

2011: 08
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, annual female homicides by any means total

2011: 08
2010: 0

Gun Suicides

ChartIn San Marino, annual firearm suicides total

1999: 19
1997: 4
1995: 1

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn San Marino, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

1999: 3.769
1997: 15.43
1995: 3.99

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In San Marino, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law10

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from San Marino is reported by Customs to be US$3,96411 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In San Marino, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law10

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to San Marino is reported by Customs to be US$5,35111 (2011)

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

Law Regulates Civilian Access to Firearms

In San Marino, civilian possession of guns is regulated by law6

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in San Marino includes the the Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012 12

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in San Marino are regulated by the the Gendarmerie 13

Right to Possess Firearms

In San Marino, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law14 15

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In San Marino, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic weapons, silenced weapons or weapons that do not possess the required identifying marks16 or ammunition of a piercing, incendiary, tracer, or explosive nature, as well as those especially loaded with substances of a harmful, irritating, or toxic nature.17

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In San Marino, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law6 16

Law Regulates Handguns

In San Marino, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law6

Law Regulates Long Guns

In San Marino, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law6

Gun Ownership and Possession

In San Marino, only licensed gun owners13 18 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in San Marino are only permitted to possess firearms for the purposes of hunting or sports shooting 13

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in San Marino is 18 years19

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in San Marino must pass a background check which considers criminal record and mental health status19 records

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In San Marino, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every 1 year for ammunition 20

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in San Marino are permitted to possess a maximum of twenty firearms21

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in San Marino are permitted to possess up to a maximum of 1,500 cartridges and 5 kg of gunpowder, or 3000 cartridges for holders of a hunting or sporting license 20

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In San Marino, the law requires22 23 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In San Marino, licensed firearm dealers are required22 24 23 25 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In San Marino, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful24

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in San Marino include21 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in San Marino include10 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In San Marino, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law6

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed26 by San Marino.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified27 by San Marino

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed28 by San Marino

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, San Marino committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects29

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, San Marino has yet to submit a national report30 31 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In San Marino, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated31

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated31 by San Marino to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, San Marino has declared32 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, San Marino has been a Member State of the United Nations since 199233

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list34 San Marino as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,35 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 06
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.77
2011: 06
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, annual male homicides by any means total

2011: 08
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn San Marino, annual female homicides by any means total

2011: 08
2010: 0

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in San Marino, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In San Marino, it is state policy36 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In San Marino, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law37 38

Global Peace Index

To see where San Marino ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on San Marino on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

GunPolicy.org.2022.‘Calculated Ranking.’ Estimating global civilian-held firearm numbers..Geneva:GunPolicy.org,30 June. (Q15876)Full Citation

3.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Number of Privately Owned Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G1) Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

6.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: San Marino.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9449)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in San Marino.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10333)Full Citation

8.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

9.

WHO.2014.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in San Marino.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,2 July. (Q6163)Full Citation

10.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 47: Import and Export.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15534)Full Citation

11.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

12.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 1: Purpose of the Law.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15530)Full Citation

13.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 23: Weapons Licenses.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15531)Full Citation

14.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

15.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

16.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 5: Restricted Firearms.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15537)Full Citation

17.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 20: Prohibited Ammunition.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15538)Full Citation

18.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 24: Licensing Requirements.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15532)Full Citation

19.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 24: Licensing Requirements.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15520)Full Citation

20.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 29: Ammunition Limits.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15533)Full Citation

21.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 28: Firearm Limits.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15541)Full Citation

22.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 40: Ammunition Register.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15535)Full Citation

23.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 39: Weapons Register.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15543)Full Citation

24.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 38: Sales Formalities.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15542)Full Citation

25.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 44: Sales Register.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15544)Full Citation

26.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

27.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

28.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

29.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

30.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

31.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

32.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - Transparency in the Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

33.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

34.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation

35.

United Nations.2017.‘Relevant Targets & Indicators.’ Sustainable Development Goal 16.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,6 July. (Q14093)Full Citation

36.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 9: Deactivation.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15536)Full Citation

37.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 12: Firearm Marking.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15539)Full Citation

38.

San Marino.2012.‘Article 21: Ammunition Marking.’ Act in the Matter of Weapons and Explosives of August 2012.San Marino:San Marino,10 August. (Q15540)Full Citation