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Russia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Russia is

2017: 17,620,0001
2007: 12,750,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Russia is

2017: 12.301
2007: 8.92

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Russia, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 226,0003

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Russia, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 3,410,0003

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Russia ranked at No. 94

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Russia ranked at No. 682

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Russia is reported to be

2017: 6,600,0001
2007: 5,000,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Russia is 3.505

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,6 but in Russia there are estimated to be

2017: 11,020,0001

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Russia are reported to have 30,272,9007 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Russia are reported to have 2,432,0008 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Russia, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 15,5619
2015: 16,519
2014: 16,260
2013: 15,763
2012: 19,881
2011: 21,506
2010: 22,897
2009: 21,371
2008: 23,738
2007: 25,377
2006: 28,989
2005: 35,817
2004: 39,396
2003: 42,160
2002: 44,675
2001: 43,556
2000: 41,386
1999: 38,589
1998: 33,98210
1997: 35,40510 11
1996: 39,490
1995: 45,799

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Russia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 10.939
2015: 11.60
2014: 11.41
2013: 11.06
2012: 13.87
2011: 15.02
2010: 15.99
2009: 15
2008: 16.67
2007: 17.82
2006: 20.2
2005: 24.9
2004: 27.3
2003: 29.1
2002: 30.7
2001: 29.8
2000: 28.2
1999: 26.2
1998: 23.010 12
1997: 23.9
1996: 26.6
1995: 30.8

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Russia, annual male homicides by any means total

2010: 17,28713
2009: 16,02913
2008: 18,016
2007: 19,181

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Russia, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 24.1513
2008: 27.13
2007: 28.85

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Russia, annual female homicides by any means total

2010: 5,61013
2009: 5,342
2008: 5,722
2007: 6,196

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Russia, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 6.9613
2008: 7.46
2007: 8.08

Gun Homicides

In Russia, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 1,28314

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

In Russia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.9014

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Russia, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 31,14415
2010: 33,480
2009: 37,570
2008: 38,406
2007: 41,329
2006: 42,855
2005: 46,063
2004: 49,378
2003: 51,749
2002: 55,330
2001: 57,284
2000: 56,934
1999: 57,276
1998: 51,77016

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Russia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 21.7915
2010: 23.44
2009: 26.47
2008: 27.05
2007: 29.08
2006: 30.08
2005: 32.19
2004: 34.33
2003: 36.07
2002: 38.72
2001: 39.84
2000: 39.40
1999: 39.45
1998: 36.1416

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Russia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence17

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Russia was ranked 'major'18

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Russia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law19 20 21 22

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Russia is reported by Customs to be US$44,286,00723 (2011)24 25 26 27 28

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Russia was categorized as 'major'29 30 31 32 28 33

Firearm Imports

In Russia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law20 21 22

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Russia is reported by Customs to be US$45,664,99723 (2011)34 35 36 37

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Russia is moderate3

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Russia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law38 39

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Russia include19 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Russia scored

2018: 9.5040
2016: 9.7541
2014: 10.2542
2013: 5.5043
2012: 5.5044
2011: 6.0045
2010: 5.5046
2009: 5.5047
2008: 5.5048
2007: 5.5049
2006: 5.5050
2005: 5.5051
2004: 5.0052

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Russia is categorised as restrictive53

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Russia includes the Federal Weapons Act of 1996,17 20 54 the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation,55 56 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms57

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Russia are regulated by the Ministry of Internal Affairs,54 the Ministry of Industry and Trade, the Federal Service for Defence Contracts,17 the President, the Government or the Federal Service for Military and Technical Cooperation20

Right to Possess Firearms

In Russia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law58 59

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Russia, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and handguns60

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Russia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited60 61

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Russia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is not specifically prohibited in law60

Regulation of Handguns

In Russia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited60 61

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Russia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law61

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Russia, only licensed gun owners62 63 61 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Russia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security3

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Russia is 18 years63

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Russia must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, and medical63 64 61 records

Firearm Safety Training

In Russia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required3 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Russia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years65

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Russia, the law requires66 60 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Russia, licensed gun makers are required67 17 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Russia, State agencies are required68 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Russia include65 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Russia include69 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Russia include69 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Russia include70 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Russia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law71 17

Firearm Tracing

In Russia, state authorities carry out66 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Russia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited, with some exceptions72 65 61

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Russia, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited, with some exceptions72 65 61

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Russia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm73 is eight years in prison and a fine56 65

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Russia are known to have74 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Russia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013: 1,22275 74 76
2012: 8,444
2011: 2,23376
2010: 47

Small Arms Destroyed

In Russia, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

1994/2002: 1,110,00077:

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Russia, it is not state policy78 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists79 Russia as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed80 by Russia.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed81 by Russia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed82 by Russia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Russia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects83

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Russia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 3084 85 86 87 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Russia has submitted one or more national reports88 39 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Russia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated89 39

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Russia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated89 39

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Russia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent39

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated39 by Russia to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided39 to Russia by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Russia has not declared90 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Russia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194591

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists92 Russia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Russia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Russia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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