Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Portugal — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Portugal is

2017: 2,186,0001
2010: 2,600,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Portugal is

2017: 21.301
2010: 24.223

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Portugal ranked at No. 554

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Portugal ranked at No. 725

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In Portugal, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 6%6

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Portugal, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 18.3%7
1999/2003: 13.2%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Portugal, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 3.9%7
1999/2003: 4.3%

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Portugal is reported to be

2017: 1,400,0001
2010: 1,400,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Portugal is 13.043

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

ChartUnlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Portugal there are estimated to be

2017: 786,0001
2010: 1,200,0002

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Portugal the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 11.183

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Portugal are reported to have 333,6408 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Portugal are reported to have 89,0009 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 15510 11 12 13
2013: 142
2012: 14110 11 13 14
2011: 14210 11 12 13
2010: 18815
2009: 15210 11 12 13
2008: 160
2007: 158
2003: 208
2002: 221
2001: 17110 11 12
2000: 102
1999: 20210 11 12 16
1998: 12410 11 12

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.4317
2013: 1.31
2012: 1.31
2011: 1.32
2010: 1.75
2009: 1.423
2008: 1.50
2007: 1.48
2003: 1.98
2002: 2.12
2001: 1.65
2000: 0.99
1999: 1.96
1998: 1.21

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 13317
2013: 126
2012: 126
2011: 126
2010: 164

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 2217
2013: 16
2012: 15
2011: 16
2010: 24

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 10018
2014: 10917
2013: 97
2012: 121
2011: 99
2010: 131
2009: 130
2008: 124
2007: 185
2006: 15519 20 21
2005: 133
2004: 14419 20 22
2003: 149
2002: 11919 20
2001: 105
2000: 11619 20 23
1999: 10920 23
1998: 125
1997: 11420 24
1996: 106
1995: 40824

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.9718
2014: 1.4317
2013: 1.31
2012: 1.31
2011: 1.32
2010: 1.75
2009: 1.2
2008: 1.2
2007: 1.8
2006: 1.519 20 21
2005: 1.3
2004: 1.419 20 22
2003: 1.4
2002: 1.119 20
2001: 1.0
2000: 1.119 20 23
1999: 1.120 23
1998: 1.2
1997: 1.120 24
1996: 1.0
1995: 4.1124 20
1994: 2.9825

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual male homicides by any means total

2014: 5217
2013: 62
2012: 80
2011: 65
2010: 8726

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual female homicides by any means total

2014: 5717
2013: 35
2012: 41
2011: 34
2010: 44

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 2510
2013: 29
2012: 28
2011: 19
2010: 51
2009: 3010 19 20
2008: 44
2007: 35
2006: 8119 20
2005: 68
2004: 7220
2003: 5710 20
2002: 6710
2001: 67
2000: 39
1999: 61
1998: 70
1997: 12624
1996: 130
1995: 132

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2317
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.26
2011: 0.18
2010: 0.48
2009: 0.2810 3 20
2008: 0.42
2007: 0.33
2006: 0.763 20
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.720
2003: 0.5410 20
2002: 0.6410
2001: 0.65
2000: 0.38
1999: 0.6
1998: 0.69
1997: 1.2724
1996: 1.31
1995: 1.33
1994: 1.2827

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Portugal, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 37%19 28
2011: 20%19
2010: 36%
2009: 34%
2008: 44%
2007: 29%
2006: 52%
2005: 51%
2004: 50.0%20
2003: 53.0%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 1317
2014: 13
2013: 20
2012: 22
2011: 14
2010: 34

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 1217
2014: 12
2013: 9
2012: 6
2011: 5
2010: 17

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 410
2013: 2
2012: 2
2009: 1
2008: 2
2007: 2
2003: 2
2002: 17

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0410
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.16

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 510
2013: 5
2012: 6
2011: 1
2010: 4
2009: 4
2008: 5
2007: 10
2003: 11
2002: 5

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0510
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.09
2003: 0.11
2002: 0.05

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Portugal, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 1610
2013: 22
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 47
2009: 25
2008: 37
2007: 23
2003: 44
2002: 45

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1510
2013: 0.21
2012: 0.19
2011: 0.17
2010: 0.44
2009: 0.24
2008: 0.35
2007: 0.22
2003: 0.42
2002: 0.43

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 1,22317
2013: 1,053
2012: 1,076
2011: 1,018
2010: 1,101
1999: 54516

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 11.3117
2013: 9.75
2012: 9.98
2011: 9.46
2010: 10.26
1999: 5.4216
1994: 14.8329

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 92517
2013: 812
2012: 859
2011: 794
2010: 836

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 29817
2013: 241
2012: 217
2011: 224
2010: 265

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 11811
2013: 98
2012: 10211 14
2011: 10711
2010: 116
2009: 102
2008: 99
2007: 107
2003: 127
2002: 92
2001: 103
2000: 57
1999: 62
1998: 50

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.0917
2013: 0.91
2012: 0.95
2011: 0.99
2010: 1.08
2009: 0.97
2008: 0.94
2007: 1.01
2003: 1.21
2002: 0.88
2001: 0.99
2000: 0.56
1999: 0.61
1998: 0.49
1994: 1.2830

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 10817
2013: 93
2012: 94
2011: 96
2010: 111

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 1017
2013: 5
2012: 8
2011: 11
2010: 5

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 2011
2013: 1
2012: 2
2009: 1
2008: 2
2007: 1
2003: 7
2002: 14

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1911
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.13

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Portugal, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 2611
2013: 26
2012: 12
2011: 17
2010: 12
2009: 16
2008: 22
2007: 23
2003: 15
2002: 5

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2511
2013: 0.25
2012: 0.11
2011: 0.16
2010: 0.11
2009: 0.15
2008: 0.21
2007: 0.22
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.05

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Portugal, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 7211
2013: 71
2012: 88
2011: 90
2010: 104
2009: 85
2008: 75
2007: 83
2003: 105
2002: 73

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.6911
2013: 0.68
2012: 0.84
2011: 0.85
2010: 0.98
2009: 0.80
2008: 0.71
2007: 0.79
2003: 1.00
2002: 0.70

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 112
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 3
2010: 2
2009: 3
2008: 2
2007: 4
2003: 6
2002: 21
2001: 5
2000: 6
1999: 2
1998: 4

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1017
2013: 0.13
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.12
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.2
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.04
1994: 0.2131

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 117
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 3
2010: 2

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 017
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2014: 112
2011: 1
2009: 1
2007: 1
2003: 3
2002: 9

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0112
2011: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.09

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2013: 112
2011: 2
2010: 2
2009: 2
2008: 2
2007: 3
2003: 3
2002: 12

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0112
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.03
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.12

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1113
2013: 14
2012: 1113 14
2011: 1313
2010: 19
2009: 17
2008: 15
2007: 12
2003: 18
2002: 41
1999: 7716

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1113
2013: 0.13
2012: 0.1013 3
2011: 0.1213
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.16
2008: 0.14
2007: 0.11
2003: 0.17
2002: 0.40
1999: 0.7716
1994: 0.9332

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1117
2013: 13
2012: 10
2011: 13
2010: 17

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 017
2013: 1
2012: 1
2011: 0
2010: 2

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 113
2003: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0113
2003: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 313
2013: 1
2011: 1
2010: 2
2009: 2
2008: 1
2007: 1
2003: 1
2002: 7

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0313
2013: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.07

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 713
2013: 13
2012: 11
2011: 12
2010: 17
2009: 15
2008: 14
2007: 11
2003: 16
2002: 34

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0713
2013: 0.12
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.11
2010: 0.16
2009: 0.14
2008: 0.13
2007: 0.10
2003: 0.15
2002: 0.33

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Portugal, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence33 34

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Portugal was ranked 'small'35

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Portugal, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law36 37 34 38 39 40 41 42

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Portugal is reported by Customs to be US$52,235,45243 (2011)44 45

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Portugal was categorized as 'major'46 47 48

Firearm Imports

In Portugal, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law36 37 34 38 39 40 41

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Portugal is reported by Customs to be US$36,678,28643 (2011)49 50 51 52

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Portugal, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law53 34 54 55

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Portugal include36 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Portugal scored

2018: 16.5056
2016: 16.7557
2014: 12.7558
2013: 11.0059
2012: 11.7560
2011: 12.7561
2010: 13.2562
2009: 12.7563
2008: 14.7564
2007: 13.2565
2006: 13.0066
2005: 11.5067
2004: 11.0068

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Portugal is categorised as restrictive69

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Portugal includes the Firearms Act No. 5/2006, as amended in 2013,33 36 34 70 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,71 72 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012 and the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200373

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Portugal are regulated by the European Commission72

Right to Possess Firearms

In Portugal, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law74 75

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Portugal, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition76 77

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Portugal, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited76 77 28

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Portugal, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation78 79 77

Regulation of Handguns

In Portugal, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation76 78 79 77 28

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Portugal, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law28

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Portugal, only licensed gun owners34 80 76 78 28 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Portugal are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, personal protection, security81

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Portugal is 18 years81

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Portugal must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health81 28 records

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Portugal are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm82

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Portugal, the law requires83 84 85 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Portugal, licensed firearm dealers are required85 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Portugal, licensed gun makers are required33 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Portugal, State agencies are required86 87 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Portugal, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful34 88 79

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Portugal include86 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Portugal, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law89 33 90 91 34 92

Firearm Tracing

In Portugal, state authorities carry out93 89 91 85 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Portugal, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law28

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Portugal, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm94 is five years in prison34 95

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Portugal are known to have96 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Portugal, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 8,77297
2013: 11,29698
2012: 10,797
2011: 6,72399
2010: 4,395
2009/14: 31,670100

Small Arms Destroyed

In Portugal, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2011: 585101

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Portugal, it is not state policy86 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Portugal is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament102 103

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Portugal is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Portugal has submitted one or more national reports104 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006105 by Portugal.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified106 by Portugal

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified107 by Portugal

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Portugal committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects108

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Portugal against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 1109 110 111 112 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Portugal has submitted one or more national reports113 114 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Portugal, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated115 114

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Portugal, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated115 114

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Portugal submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent114

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated114 by Portugal to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Portugal has declared116 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Portugal has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955117

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists118 Portugal as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Portugal, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Portugal ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Purcena, Júlio César.2010.‘Small Arms Supply in Portugal: Legal and Illegal Markets - Small Arms Circulation in Portugal.’ Violence and Small Arms: The Portuguese Case (Online Bulletin of the Peace Studies Group).Coimbra:Peace Studies Group - Centre for Social Studies, School of Economics, University of Coimbra,1 December. (Q4189)Full Citation

3.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Portugal.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,27 July. (Q4308)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

6.

Directorate-General for Home Affairs.2015.‘Firearms Ownership - Firearms in the EU.’ Flash Eurobarometer 383: Firearms in the European Union.Brussels:European Commission,19 January. (Q13506)Full Citation

7.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11815)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

10.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Portugal.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,27 July. (Q6068)Full Citation

11.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Portugal.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,27 July. (Q6160)Full Citation

12.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Portugal.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,27 July. (Q6199)Full Citation

13.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Portugal.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,27 July. (Q6458)Full Citation

14.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

15.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

16.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

17.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

19.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Portugal.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10332)Full Citation

20.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Portugal.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6260)Full Citation

21.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

22.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 - 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

23.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

24.

UNODC.2001.‘Portugal: Total Recorded Intentional Homicides (Completed) and Total Recorded Intentional Homicides Committed With a Firearm.’ Sixth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1995-1997.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,27 June. (Q1311)Full Citation

25.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

26.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

27.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

28.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Portugal.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9442)Full Citation

29.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

30.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

31.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

32.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

33.

Portugal.2016.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13088)Full Citation

34.

European Commission.2014.‘Portugal.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12325)Full Citation

35.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

36.

Portugal.2016.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13089)Full Citation

37.

Portugal.2016.‘International Transfers - Record-keeping.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13091)Full Citation

38.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

39.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

40.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

41.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

42.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

43.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

44.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

45.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

46.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

47.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

48.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

49.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

50.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

51.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

52.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

53.

Portugal.2016.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13092)Full Citation

54.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

55.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

56.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

57.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

58.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

59.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

60.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

61.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

62.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

63.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

64.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

65.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

66.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

67.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

68.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

69.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

70.

European Commission.2014.‘Law 5/2006 [Firearms Act] - Portugal.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12343)Full Citation

71.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

72.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

73.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

74.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

75.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

76.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

77.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

78.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

79.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

80.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

81.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

82.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

83.

Portugal.2010.‘Record Keeping.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4573)Full Citation

84.

Portugal.2016.‘Record-keeping.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13094)Full Citation

85.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

86.

Portugal.2014.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13097)Full Citation

87.

Portugal.2010.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4571)Full Citation

88.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

89.

Portugal.2010.‘Marking.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4572)Full Citation

90.

Portugal.2016.‘International Transfers - Marking at Import.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13090)Full Citation

91.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

92.

European Commission.2014.‘Marking Requirement in National Illicit Firearms Trafficking Legislation.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12315)Full Citation

93.

Portugal.2016.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13095)Full Citation

94.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

95.

European Commission.2014.‘Sanctions.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12307)Full Citation

96.

RTP (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal). 2013. ‘Em Cada Três Portugueses Um Possui Uma Arma Em Casa.’ 2 August. (N307) Full Citation

97.

Portugal.2016.‘Collection.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 April. (Q13093)Full Citation

98.

Portugal.2014.‘Confiscation and Seizure.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13096)Full Citation

99.

Portugal.2012.‘Confiscation and Seizure.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,27 March. (Q13098)Full Citation

100.

European Commission.2014.‘Estimated Number of Firearms Based on Firearms Seizures.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12310)Full Citation

101.

Portugal.2012.‘Firearms Destroyed.’ National Report of Portugal on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Portugal to the United Nations,27 March. (Q13099)Full Citation

102.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

103.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

104.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

105.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

106.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

107.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

108.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

109.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

110.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

111.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

112.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

113.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

114.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

115.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

116.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

117.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

118.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation