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Portugal — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Portugal is

2017: 2,186,0001
2010: 2,600,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Portugal is

2017: 21.301
2010: 24.223

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Portugal ranked at No. 554

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Portugal ranked at No. 725

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In Portugal, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 6%6

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Portugal, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 18.3%7
1999/2003: 13.2%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Portugal, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 3.9%7
1999/2003: 4.3%

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Portugal is reported to be

2017: 1,400,0001
2010: 1,400,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Portugal is 13.043

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,8 but in Portugal there are estimated to be

2017: 786,0001
2010: 1,200,0002

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,8 but in Portugal the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 11.183

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Portugal are reported to have 333,6409 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Portugal are reported to have 89,00010 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 15511 12 13 14
2013: 142
2012: 14111 12 14 15
2011: 14211 12 13 14
2010: 18816
2009: 15211 12 13 14
2008: 160
2007: 158
2003: 208
2002: 221
2001: 17111 12 13
2000: 102
1999: 20211 12 13 17
1998: 12411 12 13

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.4318
2013: 1.31
2012: 1.31
2011: 1.32
2010: 1.75
2009: 1.423
2008: 1.50
2007: 1.48
2003: 1.98
2002: 2.12
2001: 1.65
2000: 0.99
1999: 1.96
1998: 1.21

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 13318
2013: 126
2012: 126
2011: 126
2010: 164

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 2218
2013: 16
2012: 15
2011: 16
2010: 24

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 10019
2014: 10918
2013: 97
2012: 121
2011: 99
2010: 131
2009: 130
2008: 124
2007: 185
2006: 15520 21 22
2005: 133
2004: 14420 21 23
2003: 149
2002: 11920 21
2001: 105
2000: 11620 21 24
1999: 10921 24
1998: 125
1997: 11421 25
1996: 106
1995: 40825

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.9719
2014: 1.4318
2013: 1.31
2012: 1.31
2011: 1.32
2010: 1.75
2009: 1.2
2008: 1.2
2007: 1.8
2006: 1.520 21 22
2005: 1.3
2004: 1.420 21 23
2003: 1.4
2002: 1.120 21
2001: 1.0
2000: 1.120 21 24
1999: 1.121 24
1998: 1.2
1997: 1.121 25
1996: 1.0
1995: 4.1125 21
1994: 2.9826

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual male homicides by any means total

2014: 5218
2013: 62
2012: 80
2011: 65
2010: 8727

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual female homicides by any means total

2014: 5718
2013: 35
2012: 41
2011: 34
2010: 44

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 2511
2013: 29
2012: 28
2011: 19
2010: 51
2009: 3011 20 21
2008: 44
2007: 35
2006: 8120 21
2005: 68
2004: 7221
2003: 5711 21
2002: 6711
2001: 67
2000: 39
1999: 61
1998: 70
1997: 12625
1996: 130
1995: 132

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2318
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.26
2011: 0.18
2010: 0.48
2009: 0.2811 3 21
2008: 0.42
2007: 0.33
2006: 0.763 21
2005: 0.64
2004: 0.721
2003: 0.5411 21
2002: 0.6411
2001: 0.65
2000: 0.38
1999: 0.6
1998: 0.69
1997: 1.2725
1996: 1.31
1995: 1.33
1994: 1.2828

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Portugal, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 37%20 29
2011: 20%20
2010: 36%
2009: 34%
2008: 44%
2007: 29%
2006: 52%
2005: 51%
2004: 50.0%21
2003: 53.0%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 1318
2014: 13
2013: 20
2012: 22
2011: 14
2010: 34

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 1218
2014: 12
2013: 9
2012: 6
2011: 5
2010: 17

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 411
2013: 2
2012: 2
2009: 1
2008: 2
2007: 2
2003: 2
2002: 17

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0411
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.16

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 511
2013: 5
2012: 6
2011: 1
2010: 4
2009: 4
2008: 5
2007: 10
2003: 11
2002: 5

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0511
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.09
2003: 0.11
2002: 0.05

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Portugal, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 1611
2013: 22
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 47
2009: 25
2008: 37
2007: 23
2003: 44
2002: 45

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1511
2013: 0.21
2012: 0.19
2011: 0.17
2010: 0.44
2009: 0.24
2008: 0.35
2007: 0.22
2003: 0.42
2002: 0.43

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 1,22318
2013: 1,053
2012: 1,076
2011: 1,018
2010: 1,101
1999: 54517

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 11.3118
2013: 9.75
2012: 9.98
2011: 9.46
2010: 10.26
1999: 5.4217
1994: 14.8330

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 92518
2013: 812
2012: 859
2011: 794
2010: 836

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Portugal, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 29818
2013: 241
2012: 217
2011: 224
2010: 265

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 11812
2013: 98
2012: 10212 15
2011: 10712
2010: 116
2009: 102
2008: 99
2007: 107
2003: 127
2002: 92
2001: 103
2000: 57
1999: 62
1998: 50

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.0918
2013: 0.91
2012: 0.95
2011: 0.99
2010: 1.08
2009: 0.97
2008: 0.94
2007: 1.01
2003: 1.21
2002: 0.88
2001: 0.99
2000: 0.56
1999: 0.61
1998: 0.49
1994: 1.2831

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 10818
2013: 93
2012: 94
2011: 96
2010: 111

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Portugal, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 1018
2013: 5
2012: 8
2011: 11
2010: 5

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Portugal, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 2012
2013: 1
2012: 2
2009: 1
2008: 2
2007: 1
2003: 7
2002: 14

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1912
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.13

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Portugal, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 2612
2013: 26
2012: 12
2011: 17
2010: 12
2009: 16
2008: 22
2007: 23
2003: 15
2002: 5

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2512
2013: 0.25
2012: 0.11
2011: 0.16
2010: 0.11
2009: 0.15
2008: 0.21
2007: 0.22
2003: 0.14
2002: 0.05

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Portugal, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 7212
2013: 71
2012: 88
2011: 90
2010: 104
2009: 85
2008: 75
2007: 83
2003: 105
2002: 73

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.6912
2013: 0.68
2012: 0.84
2011: 0.85
2010: 0.98
2009: 0.80
2008: 0.71
2007: 0.79
2003: 1.00
2002: 0.70

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 113
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 3
2010: 2
2009: 3
2008: 2
2007: 4
2003: 6
2002: 21
2001: 5
2000: 6
1999: 2
1998: 4

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1018
2013: 0.13
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.12
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.2
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.04
1994: 0.2132

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 118
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 3
2010: 2

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 018
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2014: 113
2011: 1
2009: 1
2007: 1
2003: 3
2002: 9

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0113
2011: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.09

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Portugal, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2013: 113
2011: 2
2010: 2
2009: 2
2008: 2
2007: 3
2003: 3
2002: 12

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0113
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.03
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.12

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1114
2013: 14
2012: 1114 15
2011: 1314
2010: 19
2009: 17
2008: 15
2007: 12
2003: 18
2002: 41
1999: 7717

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1114
2013: 0.13
2012: 0.1014 3
2011: 0.1214
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.16
2008: 0.14
2007: 0.11
2003: 0.17
2002: 0.40
1999: 0.7717
1994: 0.9333

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1118
2013: 13
2012: 10
2011: 13
2010: 17

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 018
2013: 1
2012: 1
2011: 0
2010: 2

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 114
2003: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0114
2003: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 314
2013: 1
2011: 1
2010: 2
2009: 2
2008: 1
2007: 1
2003: 1
2002: 7

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0314
2013: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.07

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Portugal, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 714
2013: 13
2012: 11
2011: 12
2010: 17
2009: 15
2008: 14
2007: 11
2003: 16
2002: 34

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Portugal, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0714
2013: 0.12
2012: 0.10
2011: 0.11
2010: 0.16
2009: 0.14
2008: 0.13
2007: 0.10
2003: 0.15
2002: 0.33

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Portugal, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence34 35

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Portugal was ranked 'small'36

Home-made Guns

In Portugal, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate37

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Portugal, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law38 39 40 35 41 42 43 44 45

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Portugal is reported by Customs to be US$52,235,45246 (2011)47 48

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Portugal was categorized as 'major'49 50 51

Firearm Imports

In Portugal, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law38 39 40 35 41 42 43 44

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Portugal is reported by Customs to be US$36,678,28646 (2011)52 53 54 55

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Portugal is moderate56

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Portugal, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law57 35 58 59

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Portugal include39 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Portugal scored

2018: 16.5060
2016: 16.7561
2014: 12.7562
2013: 11.0063
2012: 11.7564
2011: 12.7565
2010: 13.2566
2009: 12.7567
2008: 14.7568
2007: 13.2569
2006: 13.0070
2005: 11.5071
2004: 11.0072

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Portugal is categorised as restrictive73

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Portugal includes the Firearms Act No. 5/2006, as amended in 2013,34 39 35 74 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,75 76 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012 and the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200377

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Portugal are regulated by the European Commission76

Right to Possess Firearms

In Portugal, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law78 79

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Portugal, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition80 81

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Portugal, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited80 81 29

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Portugal, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation82 83 81

Regulation of Handguns

In Portugal, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation80 82 83 81 29

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Portugal, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law29

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Portugal, only licensed gun owners35 84 80 82 29 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Portugal are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, personal protection, security85

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Portugal is 18 years85

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Portugal must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health85 29 records

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Portugal are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm86

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Portugal, the law requires87 88 89 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Portugal, licensed firearm dealers are required89 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Portugal, licensed gun makers are required34 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Portugal, State agencies are required90 91 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Portugal, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful35 92 83

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Portugal include90 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Portugal, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law93 34 94 95 35 96

Firearm Tracing

In Portugal, state authorities carry out97 93 95 89 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Portugal, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law29

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Portugal, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm98 is five years in prison35 99

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Portugal are known to have100 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Portugal, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 8,772101
2013: 11,296102
2012: 10,797
2011: 6,723103
2010: 4,395
2009/14: 31,670104

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Portugal, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2016: 20,842105
2011: 585106

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Portugal, it is not state policy107 90 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Portugal is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament108 109

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Portugal is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Portugal has submitted one or more national reports110 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006111 by Portugal.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified112 by Portugal

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified113 by Portugal

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Portugal committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects114

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Portugal against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 1115 116 117 118 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Portugal has submitted one or more national reports119 120 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Portugal, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated121 120

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Portugal, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated121 120

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Portugal submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent120

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated120 by Portugal to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Portugal has declared122 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Portugal has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955123

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists124 Portugal as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Portugal, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Portugal ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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2.

Purcena, Júlio César.2010.‘Small Arms Supply in Portugal: Legal and Illegal Markets - Small Arms Circulation in Portugal.’ Violence and Small Arms: The Portuguese Case (Online Bulletin of the Peace Studies Group).Coimbra:Peace Studies Group - Centre for Social Studies, School of Economics, University of Coimbra,1 December. (Q4189)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Portugal.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,27 July. (Q4308)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

6.

Directorate-General for Home Affairs.2015.‘Firearms Ownership - Firearms in the EU.’ Flash Eurobarometer 383: Firearms in the European Union.Brussels:European Commission,19 January. (Q13506)Full Citation

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van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11815)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

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WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Portugal.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,27 July. (Q6068)Full Citation

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WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Portugal.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,27 July. (Q6160)Full Citation

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