Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Philippines — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Philippines is between 2,666,4181 and 3,977,2371 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in the Philippines is between 2.481 and 3.701 2

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In the Philippines, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 68,7383

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In the Philippines, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 78,6893

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In the Philippines, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 325,5643

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Philippines ranked at No. 204

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Philippines ranked at No. 1055

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in the Philippines is reported to be

2019: 296,9061
1999: 358,9343

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in the Philippines is

2019: 0.281
1999: 0.483

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in the Philippines is reported to be

2019: 1,940,2371
2017: 1,739,0002
2014: 1,592,4356
2002: 814,5627
1999: 358,9343

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in the Philippines is

2019: 1.801
2017: 1.698
2014: 1.60
2002: 1.02
1999: 0.48

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,9 but in the Philippines there are estimated to be between 726,1811 and 2,037,0002

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,9 but in the Philippines the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be between 0.681 and 1.892

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the Philippines are reported to have 454,70010 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the Philippines are reported to have 139,04311 12 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Philippines, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 7,27413
2010: 6,833
2008: 6,96314

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Philippines, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 7.6813
2010: 7.34
2008: 7.214

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Philippines, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 6,69013
2010: 6,329

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Philippines, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 58413
2010: 504

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 9,75615
2013: 9,153
2012: 8,48416
2011: 11,98413
2010: 12,318
2009: 6,36816 17
2008: 5,820
2007: 5,739
2006: 6,19616 17 18
2005: 6,434
2004: 6,34416 17 19
2003: 6,436
2002: 6,55316 17
2001: 5,852
2000: 5,735
1999: 5,70317
1998: 5,913

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 9.8415
2013: 9.38
2012: 8.84
2011: 7.6813
2010: 7.34
2009: 6.916 17
2008: 6.416 17 20
2007: 6.5
2006: 7.1
2005: 7.5
2004: 7.5
2003: 7.8
2002: 8.1
2001: 7.4
2000: 7.4
1999: 7.517 20
1998: 8.0
1997: 14.6320

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 13,66221
2012: 7,39722
2011: 10,90313
2010: 11,302

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, annual female homicides by any means total

2012: 1,08722
2011: 1,08113
2010: 1,016

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the Philippines, annual firearm homicides total

2011: 7,21413
2010: 6,767
2008: 6,87914
2003: 7,34917
2002: 7,70823
2001: 6,169

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Philippines, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 7.6213
2010: 7.27
2008: 7.214
2003: 8.917
2002: 3.2423
2001: 3.25

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn the Philippines, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 56%24
2003: 49.9%17

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the Philippines, annual male firearm homicides total

2011: 6,63713
2010: 6,271

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn the Philippines, annual female firearm homicides total

2011: 57713
2010: 496

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 2,44913
2010: 2,118
1993: 85125

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 2.5913
2010: 2.27
1993: 1.0625

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, annual male suicides by any means total

2011: 1,87913
2010: 1,630

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Philippines, annual female suicides by any means total

2011: 57013
2010: 488

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the Philippines, annual firearm suicides total

2011: 2613
2010: 13
2008: 3014

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Philippines, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0313
2010: 0.01
2008: 0.014

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the Philippines, annual male firearm suicides total

2011: 2313
2010: 12

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn the Philippines, annual female firearm suicides total

2011: 313
2010: 1

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Philippines, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2011: 2413
2010: 42
2008: 3614

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the Philippines, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0113
2010: 0.01
2008: 0.048

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Philippines, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2011: 2213
2010: 37

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn the Philippines, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2011: 213
2010: 5

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Philippines, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 1013
2010: 11
2008: 1814

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In the Philippines, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.028

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Philippines, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 813
2010: 9

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the Philippines, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 213
2010: 2

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Philippines, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Number of Small Arms Manufactured

The reported annual number of small arms manufactured in the Philippines is

2013: 120,000+36 37

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, the Philippines was ranked 'small'38

Home-made Guns

In the Philippines, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high39 40 41

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In the Philippines, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law28 29 31 42 43 44

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Philippines is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 75,097,48445
2015: 49,737,598
2014: 64,794,330
2013: 88,365,264
2012: 56,720,16645 46
2011: 19,800,73547
2010: 22,000,00048

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, the Philippines was categorized as 'major'49 50 51 52

Firearm Imports

In the Philippines, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law28 29 30 31 53 54 55 42 43 44

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Philippines is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 34,817,81645
2015: 43,042,284
2014: 131,646,398
2013: 90,863,990
2012: 75,845,27045 56 57
2011: 27,266,39147 58
2010: 32,000,00059

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the Philippines is high60 61

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Philippines, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law62 44

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in the Philippines include29 42 63 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, the Philippines scored

2018: 9.0064
2017: 8.7565
2016: 8.2566
2014: 8.2567
2013: 8.2568
2012: 8.2569
2011: 9.0070
2010: 8.5071
2009: 9.2572
2008: 8.5073
2007: 8.5074
2006: 8.7575
2005: 9.2576
2004: 8.7577

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the Philippines is categorised as restrictive78

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Philippines includes the Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act No. 10591 of 201379 44 and the Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 1059180

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the Philippines are regulated by the Chief of the Philippine National Police, through the Firearms and Explosives Office81 82 and the Secretary of the Department of the Interior and Local Government27

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Philippines, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law83 84 79

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the Philippines, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms85 86

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the Philippines, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited85 86 24

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the Philippines, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted subject to a valid licence87

Regulation of Handguns

In the Philippines, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence85 86 24

Law Regulates Long Guns

In the Philippines, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law85 86 24

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the Philippines, only licensed gun owners88 89 90 91 24 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in the Philippines are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example sports,89 personal protection, security92 93

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the Philippines is 21 years88 89 94 95

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in the Philippines must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, and addiction88 89 96 95 24 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the Philippines stipulates97 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In the Philippines, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required88 89 95 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In the Philippines, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every two years98 96

Licensing Records

In the Philippines, authorities maintain a record99 100 87 101 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in the Philippines are permitted to possess from two to fifteen firearms (and more for collectors)102 91

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in the Philippines are permitted to possess maximum 50 rounds of ammunition103 104 94

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the Philippines, the law requires105 106 98 96 90 82 99 101 107 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the Philippines, licensed firearm dealers are required53 54 55 43 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In the Philippines, licensed gun makers are required30 31 53 54 33 82 34 43 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Philippines, State agencies are required108 109 82 110 111 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the Philippines, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited112 113 86

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the Philippines, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful26 27 114 55 112 113 86

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in the Philippines is reported to be

2019: 3521
2013: 600-80036

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in the Philippines include102 91 90 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in the Philippines include27 33 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Philippines include115 110 101 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the Philippines include116 94 29 55 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the Philippines, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law31 117 34 118

Firearm Tracing

In the Philippines, state authorities carry out119 118 120 101 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In the Philippines, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are109 106 31 99 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In the Philippines, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law92 93 24

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the Philippines, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited93

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the Philippines, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place allowed, subject to a valid permit92

Gun Free Zones

In the Philippines, private guns are prohibited in places of worship, commercial and public establishments. A total ban on firearms takes place for six months during election years93 39

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the Philippines, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm121 is 10 years in prison122 123 124 125 126 127

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in the Philippines are known to have128 129 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In the Philippines, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2003: 500129

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn the Philippines, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 1,656130
2016: 16,091131 132
2015: 12,133133
2014: 10,551134
2013: 13,761135 136
2012: 8,132137 138 139
2007: 203140 141
2002: 45,000142

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn the Philippines, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2007: 32,726143 140 141
2001: 6,500142

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the Philippines, it is state policy144 142 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2008145 by the Philippines.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified146 by the Philippines

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed147 by the Philippines

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Philippines committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects148

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Philippines against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 21149 150 151 152 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Philippines have submitted one or more national reports153 44 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Philippines, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated154 44

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the Philippines, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated44

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the Philippines submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent44

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated44 by the Philippines to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided44 to the Philippines by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Philippines have declared155 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Philippines have been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945156

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list157 the Philippines as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in the Philippines, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where the Philippines ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Concepcion, Bruce.2019.‘Firearm Numbers and Management in the Philippines.’ Personal Interview with GunPolicy.org Director of Research Mike Picard.Manila:GunPolicy.org,20 February. (Q13803)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

3.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

6.

Alfred P Dalizon. 2014. ‘18,000 Gun Licenses Left Untransferred.’ Journal (Manila). 21 July. (N345) Full Citation

7.

Philippines.2003.‘Firearm Numbers.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Philippines to the United Nations,3 July. (Q1070)Full Citation

8.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Philippines.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,23 May. (Q4310)Full Citation

9.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

12.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 2 - Examples of Police Firearms Per Officer in Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q6545)Full Citation

13.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

14.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

16.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in the Philippines.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10268)Full Citation

17.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Philippines.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6315)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

19.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 - 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

20.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘East Asia and the Pacific, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3814)Full Citation

21.

Philippines.2018.‘Top 10 Leading Causes of Death by Sex, Philippines - Male.’ Deaths in the Philippines, 2016.Manila:Philippine Statistics Authority,12 February. (Q13471)Full Citation

22.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

23.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

24.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Philippines.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9440)Full Citation

25.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

26.

Philippines.2013.‘Issuance of License to Manufacture or Deal In Firearms and Ammunition.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11142)Full Citation

27.

Philippines.2013.‘Issuance of License to Manufacture and Deal in Firearms and Ammunition [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11181)Full Citation

28.

Philippines.2013.‘Scope of License to Manufacture Firearms and Ammunition.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11143)Full Citation

29.

Philippines.2013.‘Scope of License to Manufacture Firearms and Ammunition [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11182)Full Citation

30.

Philippines.2013.‘Registration of Locally Manufactured and Imported Firearms.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11144)Full Citation

31.

Philippines.2013.‘Registration of Locally Manufactured and Imported Firearms [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11183)Full Citation

32.

Philippines.2013.‘License and Scope of License for Gunsmiths.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11146)Full Citation

33.

Philippines.2013.‘License and Scope of License for Gunsmiths [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11185)Full Citation

34.

Philippines.2012.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11191)Full Citation

35.

Capie, David.2002.‘Who Exports?.’ Small Arms Production and Transfers in South East Asia.Canberra:Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University,1 January. (Q1099)Full Citation

36.

The Rappler. 2013. ‘Ph Gun Industry: Small but 'World-class'.’ 27 January. (N708) Full Citation

37.

Manuel Mogato. 2012. ‘Philippine Gun Makers Take Aim from the Backyard to the Production Line.’ Reuters. 29 July. (N709) Full Citation

38.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

39.

Manuel Mogato. 2012. ‘Philippine Gun Makers Take Aim from the Backyard to the Production Line.’ Reuters. 29 July. (N710) Full Citation

40.

Small Arms Survey.2008.‘Global Overview of Countries Producing Light Weapons 1947-2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,14 July. (Q1130)Full Citation

41.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Illicit Production - South East Asia.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q1062)Full Citation

42.

Philippines.2012.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11192)Full Citation

43.

Philippines.2012.‘International Transfers - Record Keeping.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11194)Full Citation

44.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

45.

United Nations.2018.‘National Customs Data on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Philippines.’ UN Comtrade International Trade Statistics Database.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,1 January. (Q13447)Full Citation

46.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

47.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

48.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

49.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2017.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2014.’ Trade Update 2017: Out of the Shadows.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 September. (Q13472)Full Citation

50.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

51.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

52.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

53.

Philippines.2013.‘Inspection and Inventory.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11149)Full Citation

54.

Philippines.2013.‘Inspection and Inventory [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11188)Full Citation

55.

Philippines.2013.‘License and Scope of License to Deal [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11184)Full Citation

56.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

57.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

58.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

59.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

60.

Philippines.2008.‘Challenges and Obstacles Met in the Implementation of the PoA.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations,31 March. (Q1108)Full Citation

61.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Illicit Transfers.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q1109)Full Citation

62.

Philippines.2016.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,6 May. (Q13105)Full Citation

63.

Philippines.2012.‘End-user Certificate.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11193)Full Citation

64.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

65.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2017.‘Key Findings - Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ Trade Update 2017: Out of the Shadows.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 September. (Q13465)Full Citation

66.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

67.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

68.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

69.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

70.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

71.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

72.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

73.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

74.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

75.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

76.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

77.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

78.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

79.

Philippines.2013.‘Title and Declaration of Policy.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11132)Full Citation

80.

Philippines.2013.‘General Provisions.’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11157)Full Citation

81.

Philippines.2013.‘Authority to Issue License.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11137)Full Citation

82.

Philippines.2013.‘Firearms Repository.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11155)Full Citation

83.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

84.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

85.

Philippines.2013.‘Firearms That May Be Registered.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11139)Full Citation

86.

Philippines.2013.‘Firearms That May Be Registered [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11163)Full Citation

87.

Philippines.2013.‘Definition of Terms.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11133)Full Citation

88.

Philippines.2013.‘Standards and Requisites for Issuance of and Obtaining a License to Own and Possess Firearms.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11134)Full Citation

89.

Philippines.2013.‘Standards and Requisites for Issuance of and Obtaining a License to Own and Possess Firearms [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11159)Full Citation

90.

Philippines.2013.‘Antique Firearm.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11151)Full Citation

91.

Philippines.2013.‘Licenses Issued to Individuals [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11162)Full Citation

92.

Philippines.2013.‘Carrying of Firearms Outside of Residence or Place of Business.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11136)Full Citation

93.

Philippines.2013.‘Carrying of Firearms Outside of Residence or Place of Business [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11161)Full Citation

94.

Philippines.2013.‘Firearms for Use in Sports and Competitions [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11186)Full Citation

95.

Alastair Mcindoe. 2013. ‘In The Philippines: Gun Culture Is Deep-Rooted.’ Straits Times (Singapore). 8 August. (N303) Full Citation

96.

Philippines.2013.‘Renewal of Licenses and Registration [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11187)Full Citation

97.

Kramer, Katherine.2001.‘Licensing Criteria.’ Legal Controls on Small Arms and Light Weapons in South East Asia.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva and Nonviolence International South East Asia,1 July. (Q1932)Full Citation

98.

Philippines.2013.‘Renewal of Licenses and Registration.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11148)Full Citation

99.

Philippines.2012.‘Record-keeping.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11199)Full Citation

100.

Philippines.2013.‘Definition of Terms [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11158)Full Citation

101.

Philippines.2010.‘National Standards and Procedures for Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4671)Full Citation

102.

Philippines.2013.‘Licenses Issued to Individuals.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11138)Full Citation

103.

Philippines.2013.‘License to Possess Ammunition Necessarily Included.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11141)Full Citation

104.

Philippines.2013.‘License to Possess Firearms Necessarily Includes Possession of Ammunition [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11165)Full Citation

105.

Philippines.2013.‘Registration of Firearms.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11140)Full Citation

106.

Philippines.2013.‘Registration of Firearms [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11164)Full Citation

107.

Fernan Marasigan. 2003. ‘Bogus Gun Permits Alarm Ebdane; Hi-Tech Cards Eyed.’ Today (Manila). 24 January. (N114) Full Citation

108.

Philippines.2013.‘Ownership of Firearms by the National Government.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11135)Full Citation

109.

Philippines.2013.‘Ownership of Firearms by the National Government [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11160)Full Citation

110.

Philippines.2012.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11196)Full Citation

111.

Philippines.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4672)Full Citation

112.

Philippines.2013.‘Acquisition or Purchase and Sale of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11150)Full Citation

113.

Philippines.2013.‘Acquisition or Purchase and Sale of Firearms and Ammunition [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11189)Full Citation

114.

Philippines.2013.‘License and Scope of License to Deal.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11145)Full Citation

115.

Philippines.2018.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13473)Full Citation

116.

Philippines.2013.‘Firearms for Use in Sports and Competitions.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11147)Full Citation

117.

Philippines.2012.‘Marking.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11198)Full Citation

118.

Philippines.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4673)Full Citation

119.

Philippines.2012.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11200)Full Citation

120.

Philippines.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4674)Full Citation

121.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

122.

Philippines.2013.‘Unlawful Acquisition, or Possession of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q8873)Full Citation

123.

Philippines.2013.‘Absence of Permit to Carry Outside of Residence.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11152)Full Citation

124.

Philippines.2013.‘Unlawful Manufacture, Importation, Sale or Disposition of Firearms.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11153)Full Citation

125.

Philippines.2013.‘Tampering, Obliteration or Alteration of Firearms Identification.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11154)Full Citation

126.

Philippines.2013.‘Illegal Transfer/ Registration of Firearms [Regulations].’ Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10591, otherwise known as 'Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act'.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,7 December. (Q11190)Full Citation

127.

Philippines.1997.‘Stiffer Penalties Amendment to Presidential Decree No. 1866.’ Philippines Republic Act No. 8294 (1997).Manila:House of Representatives,6 June. (Q1095)Full Citation

128.

Philippines.2013.‘Final Amnesty.’ Comprehensive Firearms and Ammunition Regulation Act 2013 - Act No. 10591.Manila:Congress of the Republic of the Philippines,29 May. (Q11156)Full Citation

129.

Mike Frialde. 2003. ‘PNP Laments Sluggish Response to Gun Amnesty Program.’ Philippine Star. 12 September. (N346) Full Citation

130.

Philippines.2018.‘Collection.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13479)Full Citation

131.

Philippines.2016.‘Selected Statements on Firearm Seizures.’ Annual Report 2016.Manila:Philippine National Police,31 December. (Q13478)Full Citation

132.

CNN Philippines. 2016. ‘4,661 Arrested as Election Gun Ban Ends.’ 10 June. (N632) Full Citation

133.

Philippines.2015.‘Selected Statements on Firearm Seizures.’ Annual Report 2015.Manila:Philippine National Police,31 December. (Q13477)Full Citation

134.

Philippines.2014.‘Selected Statements on Firearm Seizures.’ Annual Report 2014.Manila:Philippine National Police,31 December. (Q13476)Full Citation

135.

Philippines.2013.‘Selected Statements on Firearm Seizures.’ Annual Report 2013.Manila:Philippine National Police,31 December. (Q13475)Full Citation

136.

Cecille Suerte Felipe. 2013. ‘Gun Ban Ends Tonight.’ Philippine Star / ABS-CBN News (Manila). 12 June. (N350) Full Citation

137.

Philippine National Police.2012.‘Selected Statements on Firearm Seizures.’ Annual Report 2012.Manila:Philippine National Police,31 December. (Q13474)Full Citation

138.

Balita. 2012. ‘PNP Seizes 5,000 Illegal Firearms From Jan. to Oct. 2012.’ 5 November. (N348) Full Citation

139.

Schroeder, Matt.2013.‘Table 12.10: Illicit Firearms Seized in the Philippines, 2007-12.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8492)Full Citation

140.

Philippines.2008.‘Confiscation and Destruction of Firearms.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations,31 March. (Q1111)Full Citation

141.

Nation (Bangkok). 2007. ‘Seized Guns to Be Used by Police Force.’ 28 March. (N347) Full Citation

142.

Philippines.2003.‘Collection and Disposal.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Philippines to the United Nations,3 July. (Q8875)Full Citation

143.

Philippines.2010.‘Awareness-raising.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Philippines to the United Nations,1 January. (Q8876)Full Citation

144.

Philippines.2012.‘Destruction - Stockpile Management.’ National Report of the Philippines on its Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNPoA ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Philippines to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11197)Full Citation

145.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

146.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

147.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

148.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

149.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

150.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

151.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

152.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

153.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

154.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

155.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

156.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

157.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation