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Paraguay — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Paraguay is

2017: 1,140,0001
2012: 1,000,0002 3 4

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Paraguay is

2017: 16.701
2012: 15.42 4

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Paraguay ranked at No. 465

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Paraguay ranked at No. 374

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Paraguay is reported to be

2017: 392,0001
2010: 288,8876
2007: 333,4607
2006: 330,0008
2005: 316,0939
2003: 300,9066 10

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Paraguay is

2010: 4.5311
2007: 5.45
2006: 5.708
2005: 5.59
2003: 5.2511

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,12 but in Paraguay there are estimated to be 650,0007 3 10 to 1,000,0009

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,12 but in Paraguay the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 10.6311 to 16.88

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Paraguay are reported to have 235,78013 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Paraguay are reported to have 21,00014 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Paraguay, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 42415
2013: 425
2012: 421
2011: 419
2010: 442
2009: 49616
2008: 486
2007: 483
2000: 45417 18

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 6.3215
2013: 6.42
2012: 6.44
2011: 6.49
2010: 6.93
2009: 7.88
2008: 7.83
2007: 7.90
2000: 8.38

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Paraguay, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 37315
2013: 380
2012: 374
2011: 379
2010: 402
2009: 446
2008: 448
2007: 445

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2014: 11.0915
2013: 11.44
2012: 11.39
2011: 11.69
2010: 12.56
2009: 14.12
2008: 14.39
2007: 14.50

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Paraguay, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 5115
2013: 45
2012: 47
2011: 40
2010: 40
2009: 50
2008: 38
2007: 38

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.5315
2013: 1.36
2012: 1.44
2011: 1.24
2010: 1.26
2009: 1.60
2008: 1.23
2007: 1.25

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, annual homicides by any means total

2018: 49719
2017: 541
2016: 669
2015: 61720
2014: 578
2013: 604
2012: 649
2011: 657
2010: 741
2009: 953
2008: 833
2007: 600
2006: 798
2005: 88721 22 23 24 25
2004: 1,209
2003: 1,28521 22 23 24
2002: 1,372
2001: 1,314
2000: 99521 22 23 24 17
1999: 63423 17
1998: 856

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 7.0719
2017: 7.79
2016: 9.75
2015: 9.10
2014: 8.62
2013: 9.12
2012: 9.92
2011: 10.17
2010: 11.62
2009: 15.15
2008: 13.43
2007: 9.82
2006: 13.25
2005: 15.0221 22 23 24 25 26 10
2004: 20.8721 22 23 24 25 26
2003: 22.6121 22 23 24 26
2002: 24.63
2001: 24.06
2000: 18.60
1999: 12.123 26
1998: 16.7
1997: 18.023
1996: 20.023 26
1995: 18.623

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 43419
2017: 57
2016: 614
2015: 56027
2014: 509
2013: 552
2012: 576
2011: 595
2010: 668
2009: 870
2008: 774
2007: 570
2006: 727

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 12.3219
2017: 1.64
2016: 17.84
2015: 16.46
2014: 15.14
2013: 16.61
2012: 17.55
2011: 18.36
2010: 20.88
2009: 27.55
2008: 24.86
2007: 18.57
2006: 24.05

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 6319
2017: 484
2016: 55
2015: 5727
2014: 69
2013: 52
2012: 73
2011: 62
2010: 73
2009: 83
2008: 59
2007: 30
2006: 71

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.8019
2017: 13.98
2016: 1.61
2015: 1.69
2014: 2.07
2013: 1.58
2012: 2.24
2011: 1.93
2010: 2.30
2009: 2.65
2008: 1.91
2007: 0.99
2006: 2.37

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Paraguay, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 31815
2013: 334
2012: 323
2011: 324
2010: 354
2009: 366
2008: 380
2007: 380
2006: 58822 28 29
2005: 646
2000: 40417 29 18
1999: 40317
1998: 514

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 4.7415
2013: 5.04
2012: 4.94
2011: 5.02
2010: 5.55
2009: 5.82
2008: 6.13
2007: 6.22
2006: 9.7711 28 29
2005: 10.90
2000: 7.3517 29 18
1999: 7.5217
1998: 9.85

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Paraguay, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 63%21
2012: 64%21 22
2011: 61%
2010: 62%
2009: 57%
2008: 62%
2007: 61%
2006: 63%
2005: 60%
2000: 61.0%23
1999: 63.6%
1998: 60.0%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Paraguay, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 29115
2014: 291
2013: 298
2012: 295
2011: 297
2010: 326
2009: 335
2008: 356
2007: 359

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 8.6515
2013: 8.97
2012: 8.99
2011: 9.16
2010: 10.19
2009: 10.61
2008: 11.43
2007: 11.70

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Paraguay, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 2715
2014: 27
2013: 36
2012: 28
2011: 27
2010: 28
2009: 31
2008: 24
2007: 21

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.8115
2013: 1.09
2012: 0.86
2011: 0.84
2010: 0.88
2009: 0.99
2008: 0.78
2007: 0.69

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 38315
2013: 324
2012: 278
2011: 298
2010: 223
2009: 283
2008: 222
2007: 227
2006: 427
2005: 419
2004: 406
2003: 313
2002: 357
2001: 289
2000: 28430 18

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 5.7115
2013: 4.89
2012: 4.25
2011: 4.61
2010: 3.50
2009: 4.50
2008: 3.58
2007: 3.71
2006: 7.130 31
2005: 7.130
2004: 7.030 31
2003: 5.530
2002: 6.4
2001: 5.3
2000: 5.330 18

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 27115
2013: 250
2012: 190
2011: 222
2010: 160
2009: 213
2008: 160
2007: 159

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 8.0615
2013: 7.52
2012: 5.79
2011: 6.85
2010: 5
2009: 6.75
2008: 5.14
2007: 5.18

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 11215
2013: 74
2012: 88
2011: 76
2010: 63
2009: 70
2008: 62
2007: 68

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 3.3515
2013: 2.24
2012: 2.70
2011: 2.36
2010: 1.98
2009: 2.23
2008: 2.01
2007: 2.23

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Paraguay, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 7115
2013: 63
2012: 65
2011: 5732
2010: 46
2009: 71
2008: 66
2007: 47
2000: 3418

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.0615
2013: 0.95
2012: 0.99
2011: 0.88
2010: 0.72
2009: 1.13
2008: 1.06
2007: 0.77
2000: 0.5818

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Paraguay, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 5315
2013: 56
2012: 50
2011: 50
2010: 37
2009: 56
2008: 56
2007: 34

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.5815
2013: 1.69
2012: 1.52
2011: 1.54
2010: 1.16
2009: 1.77
2008: 1.80
2007: 1.11

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Paraguay, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 1815
2013: 7
2012: 15
2011: 7
2010: 9
2009: 15
2008: 10
2007: 13

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.5415
2013: 0.21
2012: 0.46
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.28
2009: 0.48
2008: 0.32
2007: 0.43

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Paraguay, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 1815
2013: 18
2012: 8
2011: 1632
2010: 13
2009: 21
2008: 18
2007: 17
2000: 1518

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2715
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.12
2011: 0.25
2010: 0.20
2009: 0.33
2008: 0.29
2007: 0.28
2000: 0.2618

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Paraguay, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 1615
2013: 16
2012: 6
2011: 13
2010: 10
2009: 20
2008: 18
2007: 17

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.4815
2013: 0.48
2012: 0.18
2011: 0.40
2010: 0.31
2009: 0.63
2008: 0.58
2007: 0.55

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Paraguay, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 215
2013: 2
2012: 2
2011: 3
2010: 3
2009: 1

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0615
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.09
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.03

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Paraguay, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1615
2013: 9
2012: 7
2011: 1632
2010: 22
2009: 3316
2008: 18
2007: 26
2000: 118

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2415
2013: 0.14
2012: 0.11
2011: 0.25
2010: 0.35
2009: 0.52
2008: 0.29
2007: 0.43
2000: 0.0218

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Paraguay, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1215
2013: 9
2012: 5
2011: 13
2010: 22
2009: 30
2008: 14
2007: 23

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.3615
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.15
2011: 0.40
2010: 0.69
2009: 0.95
2008: 0.45
2007: 0.75

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Paraguay, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 415
2013: 0
2012: 2
2011: 3
2010: 0
2009: 3
2008: 4
2007: 3

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Paraguay, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1215
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.09
2009: 0.10
2008: 0.13
2007: 0.10

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn Paraguay, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2014: 115
2013: 1
2012: 18
2011: 6
2010: 7
2009: 5
2008: 4
2007: 13

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Paraguay, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,33 34 35 36 but is not conducted in practice37 38

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Paraguay, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law39 33 36 40 41 42 43

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Paraguay is reported by Customs to be US$124,83044 (2004)

Firearm Imports

In Paraguay, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law39 33 36 40 41 42 37 43 45

Firearm Imports (Number)

The annual number of firearms imported to Paraguay is reported to be

2016: 12,03546

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Paraguay is reported by Customs to be US$7,375,08144 (2011)47 48 49

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Paraguay is high50 51 49

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Paraguay, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law52 39 33 36 43

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Paraguay include53 41 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Paraguay is categorised as restrictive54

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Paraguay includes the Act No. 4036 of 2010 on Firearms, Ammunitions and Explosives55 and its Regulations45 56

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Paraguay are regulated by the Department of Military Equipment (DIMABEL) and the Police57 58 42 59

Right to Possess Firearms

In Paraguay, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law60 61

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Paraguay, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons intended for the exclusive use of state agencies for defence and security,55 62 63 automatic firearms, shotguns with a barrel of less than 470 mm, hand-made firearms, imitation or disguised firearms, and certain types of ammunition64

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Paraguay, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited64

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Paraguay, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law64

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Paraguay, only licensed gun owners65 58 66 67 68 69 70 63 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Paraguay are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example self-defence, collection or sport71 72 73

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Paraguay is 22 years74

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Paraguay must pass a background check which considers criminal74 and mental health73 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Paraguay, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required75

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Paraguay, licensing authorities are not required75 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Paraguay does not stipulate75 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Paraguay, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required74 76 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Paraguay, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years67 68

Licensing Records

In Paraguay, authorities maintain a record77 71 78 42 59 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Paraguay are permitted to possess one firearm per person when working for a private security and surveillance company79

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Paraguay are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition75

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Paraguay, the law requires70 78 77 71 45 42 59 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Paraguay, licensed firearm dealers are required36 42 77 59 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Paraguay, State agencies are required80 81 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Paraguay, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without an authorisation from the Executive Authority39 82 33

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Paraguay, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful39 33 66 36

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Paraguay, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined75

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Paraguay, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated75 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Paraguay do not include75 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Paraguay do not include75 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Paraguay include81 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Paraguay include83 84 56 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Paraguay, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law85 82 80 37 86

Firearm Tracing

In Paraguay, state authorities carry out87 78 33 88 42 37 86 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Paraguay, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not75 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Paraguay, carrying a gun in a public place is permitted under licence89 90 58 66

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Paraguay, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit89 90 58 66

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Paraguay, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm91 is five years in prison82 and/or a fine92 93

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Paraguay are known to have45 94 95 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Paraguay, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 45196
2014: 465
2010: 3,00097

Small Arms Destroyed

In Paraguay, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 13,63994 (date to be determined) and 2,61598 (2003)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Paraguay, it is state policy99 100 101 102 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Paraguay adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified103 104 by Paraguay

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed105 by Paraguay.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified106 by Paraguay

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified107 by Paraguay

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Paraguay committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects108

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Paraguay against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 59109 110 111 112 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Paraguay has submitted one or more national reports113 114 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Paraguay, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated114

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Paraguay, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated114

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Paraguay submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent114

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated114 by Paraguay to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Paraguay has not declared115 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Paraguay has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945116

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list117 Paraguay as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Paraguay, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Paraguay ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Estimated Total Small Arms, Firearms, and Surpluses in Paraguay, Rounded.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q5309)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Paraguay.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q9608)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Country Summaries - Paraguay.’ Surplus Arms in South America: A Survey.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q5310)Full Citation

8.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Legally Registered Civilian Firearms.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9208)Full Citation

9.

Fleitas, Diego M.2006.‘The Problem of Firearms in Cono Sur: The case of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay.’ El Problema de las Armas de Fuego en la Cono Sur: Los casos de Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay.Buenos Aires:FLACSO Secretaria General,1 June. (Q9603)Full Citation

10.

Torales, Julio.2010.‘Paraguay Basic Diagnostic (Diagnóstico Básico de Paraguay).’ Paraguay Basic Diagnostic (Diagnóstico Básico de Paraguay).Panama:Coalición Latinoamericana para la Prevención de la Violencia Armada (CLAVE),4 July. (Q11907)Full Citation

11.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Paraguay.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,26 May. (Q4232)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

13.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

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