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Panama — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Panama is

2017: 436,0001
2016: 198,0002 3
2010: 450,0004 5
2009: 139,5992 4
2006: 195,4366
2005: 700,0002 7
2001: 106,2752 4
:

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Panama is

2017: 11.098
2016: 5.14
2010: 12.93
2009: 4.07
2006: 5.99
2005: 21.87
2001: 3.57
:

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 206 countries, Panama ranked at No. 889

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of privately owned guns in 206 countries, Panama ranked at No.689

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Panama is reported to be

2017: 180,0001
2016: 180,0003
2010: 107,63410
2009: 126,9084
2006: 65,43611 12 6
2005: 96,6147
2001: 96,6144

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Panama is

2017: 4.588
2016: 4.67
2010: 3.09
2009: 3.7
2006: 2.01
2005: 3.02
2001: 3.25

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,13 but in Panama there are estimated to be

2017: 256,0001
2016: 18,0002 3
2010: 342,36610 4 5
2009: 12,6912 4
2006: 130,0006
2005: 603,3867
2001: 9,6612 4
:

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,13 but in Panama the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2017: 6.518
2016: 0.47
2010: 9.83
2009: 0.37
2006: 3.99
2005: 18.85
2001: 0.32

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Panama are reported to have 29,00014 15 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Panama are reported to have 30,00016 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Panama, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2017: 31017
2016: 315
2015: 364
2014: 47517
2013: 530
2012: 541
2011: 611
2010: 585
2009: 684
2008: 535
2007: 346
2006: 294
2005: 250
2004: 208
2003: 221
2002: 26918
2001: 230
2000: 226

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 8.3717
2016: 8.61
2015: 10.09
2014: 13.34
2013: 15.10
2012: 15.63
2011: 17.91
2010: 17.41
2009: 20.67
2008: 16.42
2007: 10.79
2006: 9.32
2005: 8.05
2004: 6.81
2003: 7.36
2002: 8.96
2001: 7.79
2000: 7.79

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Panama, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2017: 28217
2016: 291
2015: 333
2014: 457
2013: 503
2012: 518
2011: 582
2010: 557
2009: 632
2008: 493
2007: 328
2006: 274
2005: 233
2004: 196
2003: 213
2001: 217
2000: 206

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2017: 15.1217
2016: 15.81
2015: 18.33
2014: 25.49
2013: 28.44
2012: 29.70
2011: 33.85
2010: 32.87
2009: 37.86
2008: 29.99
2007: 20.27
2006: 17.21
2005: 14.87
2004: 12.71
2003: 14.03
2001: 14.54
2000: 14.05

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Panama, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2017: 2817
2016: 24
2015: 31
2014: 18
2013: 27
2012: 23
2011: 29
2010: 28
2009: 52
2008: 42
2007: 18
2006: 20
2005: 17
2004: 12
2003: 8
2001: 13
2000: 20

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.5217
2016: 1.32
2015: 1.73
2014: 1.02
2013: 1.55
2012: 1.34
2011: 1.71
2010: 1.68
2009: 3.17
2008: 2.60
2007: 1.13
2006: 1.28
2005: 1.11
2004: 0.79
2003: 0.54
2001: 0.89
2000: 1.40

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual homicides by any means total

2021: 55419
2020: 49720
2019: 34321
2018: 294
2017: 266
2016: 285
2015: 320
2014: 439
2013: 666
2012: 482
2011: 579
2010: 582
2009: 667
2008: 519
2007: 289
2006: 253
2005: 214
2004: 308
2003: 338
2002: 380
2001: 306
2000: 299
1999: 28522
1998: 281
1997: 315
1996: 248
1995: 377

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2021: 12.8 19
2020: 11.5921
2019: 10.53
2018: 9.60
2017: 9.20
2016: 10.03
2015: 11.87
2014: 15.48
2013: 17.29
2012: 16.89
2011: 14.81
2010: 12.63
2009: 15.70
2008: 14.02
2007: 8.08
2006: 6.52
2005: 10.93
2004: 9.42
2003: 10.50
2002: 11.94
2001: 9.90
2000: 9.87
1999: 9.822
1998: 9.9
1997: 11.3
1996: 9.1
1995: 14.1

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 35523
2016: 369
2015: 437
2014: 588
2013: 613
2012: 629
2011: 701
2010: 701
2009: 724
2008: 589
2007: 430

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 18.5723
2016: 19.79
2015: 23.74
2014: 32.36
2013: 34.19
2012: 35.57
2011: 40.20
2010: 40.77
2009: 42.73
2008: 35.29
2007: 26.16

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 3523
2016: 4424
2015: 5217
2014: 40
2013: 50
2012: 34
2011: 49
2010: 57
2009: 71
2008: 63
2007: 46

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.8523
2016: 2.39
2015: 2.86
2014: 2.23
2013: 2.83
2012: 1.95
2011: 2.85
2010: 3.37
2009: 4.26
2008: 3.84
2007: 2.85

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Panama, annual firearm homicides total

2017: 30017
2016: 296
2015: 339
2014: 459
2013: 517
2012: 535
2011: 585
2010: 558
2009: 650
2008: 503
2007: 322
2006: 254
2005: 227
2004: 172
2003: 180
2002: 22218
2001: 177
2000: 179

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 8.0821
2018: 7.04
2017: 6.48
2016: 7.06
2015: 8.06
2014: 11.25
2013: 14.52
2012: 12.78
2011: 15.62
2010: 16.36
2009: 19.34
2008: 15.20
2007: 9.88
2006: 7.92
2005: 7.19
2004: 5.54
2003: 5.89
2002: 7.1218
2001: 6
2000: 6.17

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Panama, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 77%25
2012: 77%25 26 27
2011: 77%25 26
2010: 77%
2009: 82%26
2008: 79%
2007: 65%
2006: 68%
2005: 59%
2004: 60.1%22

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Panama, annual male firearm homicides total

2017: 27317
2016: 273
2015: 311
2014: 441
2013: 491
2012: 512
2011: 558
2010: 532
2009: 601
2008: 464
2007: 305
2006: 236
2005: 212
2004: 165
2003: 175
2001: 167
2000: 163

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 14.4617
2016: 14.64
2015: 16.89
2014: 24.27
2013: 27.39
2012: 28.95
2011: 32
2010: 30.94
2009: 35.47
2008: 27.80
2007: 18.56
2006: 14.59
2005: 13.31
2004: 10.53
2003: 11.34
2001: 11.19
2000: 11.12

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Panama, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 2817
2014: 18
2013: 27
2012: 23
2011: 29
2010: 26
2009: 52
2008: 41
2007: 18

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.4517
2016: 1.25
2015: 1.54
2014: 1
2013: 1.47
2012: 1.32
2011: 1.57
2010: 1.54
2009: 2.94
2008: 2.38
2007: 1.05
2006: 1.13
2005: 0.96
2004: 0.46
2003: 0.33
2001: 0.69
2000: 1.12

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 17428
2015: 156
2014: 14717
2013: 130
2012: 135
2011: 144
2010: 152
2009: 178
2008: 186
2007: 171
2006: 20729 30
2005: 19629
2004: 232
2003: 231
2002: 19629 18
2001: 19529
2000: 18328

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 4.7028
2015: 4.27
2014: 4.0717
2013: 3.65
2012: 3.85
2011: 4.16
2010: 5.42
2009: 5.30
2008: 5.62
2007: 5.25
2006: 6.329 30
2005: 6.1
2004: 7.3
2003: 7.4
2002: 6.429 18
2001: 6.529
2000: 6.31

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 15028
2015: 130
2014: 12717
2013: 117
2012: 117
2011: 125
2010: 158
2009: 150
2008: 154
2007: 150
2000: 159

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 8.0428
2015: 7.06
2010: 9.19
2000: 10.84

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 2428
2015: 26
2014: 2017
2013: 13
2012: 18
2011: 19
2010: 27
2009: 28
2008: 32
2007: 21
2000: 24

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 1.3028
2015: 1.43
2014: 1.1217
2013: 0.74
2012: 1.03
2011: 1.11
2010: 1.60
2009: 1.68
2008: 1.95
2007: 1.30
2000: 1.67

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Panama, annual firearm suicides total

2017: 117
2016: 4
2015: 5
2014: 5
2013: 3
2012: 3
2011: 731
2010: 5
2009: 1932
2008: 7
2007: 9
2006: 21
2005: 9
2004: 15
2003: 18
2002: 3118
2001: 23
2000: 13

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0317
2016: 0.11
2015: 0.14
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.09
2011: 0.21
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.57
2008: 0.21
2007: 0.28
2006: 0.67
2005: 0.29
2004: 0.49
2003: 0.60
2002: 0.9918
2001: 0.78
2000: 0.45

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Panama, annual male firearm suicides total

2017: 117
2016: 3
2015: 4
2014: 5
2013: 3
2012: 3
2011: 7
2010: 5
2009: 17
2008: 5
2007: 9
2006: 21
2005: 8
2004: 12
2003: 18
2001: 22
2000: 13

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0517
2016: 0.16
2015: 0.22
2014: 0.28
2013: 0.17
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.40
2010: 0.29
2009: 1
2008: 0.30
2007: 0.55
2006: 1.30
2005: 0.50
2004: 0.77
2003: 1.17
2001: 1.47
2000: 0.89

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Panama, annual female firearm suicides total

2016: 117
2015: 1
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 2
2008: 2
2005: 1
2004: 3
2001: 1

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0517
2015: 0.06
2009: 0.12
2008: 0.12
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.20
2001: 0.07

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Panama, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2015: 217
2014: 2
2013: 4
2012: 1
2011: 831
2010: 2
2008: 2
2007: 1
2006: 3
2005: 2
2004: 3
2003: 7
2002: 218
2001: 8
2000: 11

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0517
2014: 0.06
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.23
2010: 0.06
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.03
2002: 0.0618

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Panama, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2015: 217
2014: 2
2013: 4
2012: 1
2011: 7
2010: 2
2008: 2
2007: 1
2006: 3
2005: 2
2004: 3
2003: 6
2001: 8
2000: 8

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.1117
2014: 0.11
2013: 0.22
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.40
2010: 0.12
2008: 0.12
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.13
2004: 0.19
2003: 0.39
2001: 0.54
2000: 0.55

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Panama, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 017
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 1
2010: 0
2003: 1
2000: 3

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0617
2003: 0.07
2000: 0.21

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Panama, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 817
2016: 11
2015: 17
2014: 717
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 231
2010: 11
2009: 432
2008: 3
2006: 1
2005: 6
2004: 2
2002: 1418
2001: 6
2000: 11

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2019: 017
2018: 0
2017: 0.21
2016: 0.30
2015: 0.46
2014: 0.19
2013: 0.03
2012: 0
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.32
2009: 0.12
2008: 0.09
2007: 0
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.19
2004: 0.06
2003: 0
2002: 0.4518
2001: 0.20
2000: 0.38

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Panama, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 717
2016: 11
2015: 1517
2014: 717
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 2
2010: 9
2009: 4
2008: 3
2006: 1
2005: 5
2004: 2
2001: 6
2000: 10

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.3717
2016: 0.59
2015: 0.81
2014: 0.39
2013: 0.06
2011: 0.11
2010: 0.52
2009: 0.24
2008: 0.18
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.31
2004: 0.13
2001: 0.40
2000: 0.68

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Panama, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2017: 117
2015: 2
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 2
2005: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.0517
2015: 0.11
2010: 0.12
2005: 0.06
2000: 0.07

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn Panama, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2009: 117
2008: 4
2007: 7

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Panama, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence33 34 35 36 37 but is not conducted in practice38

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Panama, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law39 40 41 42 43

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Panama is reported by manufacturers to be

2019: 044
2018: 0
2017: 0
2015: 25

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Panama is reported by Customs to be US$

2021: 35,00045
2020: 12,000
2019: 5,000
2018: 6,000
2017: 42,000
2016: 17,000
2015: 3,000
2014: 70,000
2013: 42,000
2012: 8,000
2011: 165,000
2010: 92,000
2009: 26,000
2008: 4,000
2006: 5,000

Firearm Imports

In Panama, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law46 47 40 48 39 49 41 50 42 43

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Panama is reported to be

2018: 4644
2017: 78
2015: 775

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Panama is reported by Customs to be US$

2021: 2,794,00051
2020: 79,000
2019: 269,000
2018: 577,000
2017: 339,000
2016: 265,000
2015: 1,949,000
2014: 3,260,000
2013: 1,984,000
2012: 615,000
2011: 2,157,000
2010: 2,168,000
2009: 1,182,000
2008: 1,245,000
2007: 657,000
2006: 249,000
2005: 198,000
2004: 679,000
2003: 670,000
2002: 200,000

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Panama is high52

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Panama, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law53 54

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Panama do not include41 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Panama is categorised as restrictive55

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Panama includes the Firearms Act No. 57 of 201156 and its regulation (to be adopted)41

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Panama are regulated by the Ministry of Public Security, through the Institutional Directorate on Public Security Affairs (DIASP)57 39

Right to Possess Firearms

In Panama, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law58 59

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Panama, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons of war,56 60 automatic firearms, long guns with shortened barrels, home-made firearms, and armour-piercing, explosive, or expanding ammunition61

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Panama, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited61 27

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Panama, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence62

Regulation of Handguns

In Panama, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence62 27

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Panama, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law62 61 27

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Panama, only licensed gun owners63 64 65 66 67 62 39 68 69 27 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Panama are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example personal protection,64 hunting, and sports shooting62

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Panama is 18 years70, or 21 years for carrying71 and self-defence72

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Panama must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, and addiction70 72 27 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Panama, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required73

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Panama, licensing authorities are not required73 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Panama stipulates70 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Panama, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required72 71 39 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Panama, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every ten years (for possession)74 and four years (for carrying)75

Licensing Records

In Panama, authorities maintain a record39 76 77 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Panama are permitted to possess any number of firearms73

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Panama are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition73

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Panama, the law requires78 76 77 79 80 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Panama, licensed firearm dealers are required81 82 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Panama, licensed gun makers are required35 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Panama, State agencies are required76 83 84 85 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Panama, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited unless conducted and registered by the Institutional Directorate on Public Security Affairs86 87 68

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Panama, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful88 49 39 89 90 82

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Panama is obliged72 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Panama is obliged89 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Panama, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined73

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Panama, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated73 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Panama do not include73 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Panama include39 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Panama include83 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Panama include91 64 92 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Panama, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law66 60 93 71 75 67 94 27

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Panama, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit95 93 71 75

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Panama, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm96 is a fine97 98 99

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Central American Integration System

As a member of the Central American Integration System (SICA), Panama is party to the 2007 Central American Programme on Small Arms Control and the Code of Conduct of Central American States on the Transfer of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Material100

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Panama adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified101 102 by Panama

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2007103 by Panama.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified104 by Panama

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified105 by Panama

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Panama committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects106

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Panama against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 32107 108 109 110 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Panama has submitted one or more national reports111 112 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Panama, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated112

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Panama, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated113 112

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Panama submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent113

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated112 by Panama to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Panama has not declared114 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Panama has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945115

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list116 Panama as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,117 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual homicides by any means total

2021: 55419
2020: 49720
2019: 34321
2018: 294
2017: 266
2016: 285
2015: 320
2014: 439
2013: 666
2012: 482
2011: 579
2010: 582
2009: 667
2008: 519
2007: 289
2006: 253
2005: 214
2004: 308
2003: 338
2002: 380
2001: 306
2000: 299
1999: 28522
1998: 281
1997: 315
1996: 248
1995: 377

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2021: 12.8 19
2020: 11.5921
2019: 10.53
2018: 9.60
2017: 9.20
2016: 10.03
2015: 11.87
2014: 15.48
2013: 17.29
2012: 16.89
2011: 14.81
2010: 12.63
2009: 15.70
2008: 14.02
2007: 8.08
2006: 6.52
2005: 10.93
2004: 9.42
2003: 10.50
2002: 11.94
2001: 9.90
2000: 9.87
1999: 9.822
1998: 9.9
1997: 11.3
1996: 9.1
1995: 14.1

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 35523
2016: 369
2015: 437
2014: 588
2013: 613
2012: 629
2011: 701
2010: 701
2009: 724
2008: 589
2007: 430

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 18.5723
2016: 19.79
2015: 23.74
2014: 32.36
2013: 34.19
2012: 35.57
2011: 40.20
2010: 40.77
2009: 42.73
2008: 35.29
2007: 26.16

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Panama, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 3523
2016: 4424
2015: 5217
2014: 40
2013: 50
2012: 34
2011: 49
2010: 57
2009: 71
2008: 63
2007: 46

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.8523
2016: 2.39
2015: 2.86
2014: 2.23
2013: 2.83
2012: 1.95
2011: 2.85
2010: 3.37
2009: 4.26
2008: 3.84
2007: 2.85

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Panama, annual firearm homicides total

2017: 30017
2016: 296
2015: 339
2014: 459
2013: 517
2012: 535
2011: 585
2010: 558
2009: 650
2008: 503
2007: 322
2006: 254
2005: 227
2004: 172
2003: 180
2002: 22218
2001: 177
2000: 179

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 8.0821
2018: 7.04
2017: 6.48
2016: 7.06
2015: 8.06
2014: 11.25
2013: 14.52
2012: 12.78
2011: 15.62
2010: 16.36
2009: 19.34
2008: 15.20
2007: 9.88
2006: 7.92
2005: 7.19
2004: 5.54
2003: 5.89
2002: 7.1218
2001: 6
2000: 6.17

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Panama, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 77%25
2012: 77%25 26 27
2011: 77%25 26
2010: 77%
2009: 82%26
2008: 79%
2007: 65%
2006: 68%
2005: 59%
2004: 60.1%22

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Panama, annual male firearm homicides total

2017: 27317
2016: 273
2015: 311
2014: 441
2013: 491
2012: 512
2011: 558
2010: 532
2009: 601
2008: 464
2007: 305
2006: 236
2005: 212
2004: 165
2003: 175
2001: 167
2000: 163

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 14.4617
2016: 14.64
2015: 16.89
2014: 24.27
2013: 27.39
2012: 28.95
2011: 32
2010: 30.94
2009: 35.47
2008: 27.80
2007: 18.56
2006: 14.59
2005: 13.31
2004: 10.53
2003: 11.34
2001: 11.19
2000: 11.12

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Panama, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 2817
2014: 18
2013: 27
2012: 23
2011: 29
2010: 26
2009: 52
2008: 41
2007: 18

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Panama, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.4517
2016: 1.25
2015: 1.54
2014: 1
2013: 1.47
2012: 1.32
2011: 1.57
2010: 1.54
2009: 2.94
2008: 2.38
2007: 1.05
2006: 1.13
2005: 0.96
2004: 0.46
2003: 0.33
2001: 0.69
2000: 1.12

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Panama, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in Panama are known to have118 39 119 120 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

In Panama, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be 1,730121 (2012) and 550122 (2014)

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Panama, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2020: 3,031123
2017: 1,351
2016: 1,243
2013: 1,770
2012: 1,955124 125 126
2011: 3,011
2010: 1,936
2009: 2,033127
2006-08: 7,083128
2004: 1,576129
2002: 1,835130
2001: 1,704

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Panama, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2019-2022: 23,426131
2006-2008: 986128 121

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Panama, it is state policy84 132 133 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Panama, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law76 48 50 80

Firearm Tracing

In Panama, state authorities carry out134 76 77 78 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Panama, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are134 78 76 72 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where Panama ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Panama on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


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Panama.2011.‘Repair Facilities (Establecimientos de reparación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10408)Full Citation

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Panama.2011.‘Repair Requirements (Requisitos para la reparación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10410)Full Citation

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Panama.2014.‘Brokering (Intermediación).’ National Report of Panama on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Panama to the United Nations,3 November. (Q10480)Full Citation

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Panama.2011.‘Object (Objectivo).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10370)Full Citation

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Panama.2011.‘Authority in Charge of the Implementation (Autoridad responsable de la aplicación).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10371)Full Citation

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Panama.2011.‘Additional Prohibitions (Prohibiciones adicionales ).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10376)Full Citation

61.

Panama.2011.‘Prohibited Firearms and Ammunition (Armas de fuego y municiones prohibidas).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10373)Full Citation

62.

Panama.2011.‘Classification of Firearms (Clasificación de las armas).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10377)Full Citation

63.

Panama.2011.‘Possession (Tenencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10390)Full Citation

64.

Panama.2011.‘Certificate of Possession (Certificado de tenencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10391)Full Citation

65.

Panama.2011.‘Firearm Possession Certificate (Certificado de tenencia de arma de fuego).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10394)Full Citation

66.

Panama.2011.‘Possession and Carrying (Tenencia y porte).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10372)Full Citation

67.

Panama.2011.‘Authorisation Granted by Licences (Autorización por licencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10399)Full Citation

68.

Panama.2011.‘Firearm Transfer (Cesión del arma de fuego).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10401)Full Citation

69.

Panama.2011.‘Reloading Ammunition (Recarga de municiones).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10402)Full Citation

70.

Panama.2011.‘Ban on Carrying and Possession (Prohibición de porte y tenencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10374)Full Citation

71.

Panama.2011.‘Requirements - Carry (Requisitos - Porte).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10397)Full Citation

72.

Panama.2011.‘Requirements (Requisitos).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10392)Full Citation

73.

Panama.2011.‘Object (Objectivo).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q12034)Full Citation

74.

Panama.2011.‘Validity (Vigencia).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10395)Full Citation

75.

Panama.2011.‘Validity - Carry (Vigencia - Porte).’ Act No. 57 on Firearms, Ammunition and Related Materials (Ley Nº 57 general de armas de fuego, municiones y materiales relacionados).Panama:National Assembly of the Republic of Panama,27 May. (Q10398)Full Citation

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