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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Niger — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Niger is

2017: 117,0001
2007: 93,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Niger is

2017: 0.501
2007: 0.72

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Niger ranked at No. 1393

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Niger ranked at No. 1602

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Niger is reported to be

2017: 2,0001

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,4 but in Niger there are estimated to be

2017: 115,0001

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Niger are reported to have 11,1105 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Niger are reported to have 10,0006 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Niger, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 7887
2011: 831
2008: 5528

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Niger, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 4.827
2011: 5.26
2008: 3.88
2006: 1.009
2005: 0.90
2004: 20.20
2002: 14.20

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

In Niger, annual male homicides by any means total

2012: 61510

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Niger, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 6.9310

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

In Niger, annual female homicides by any means total

2012: 17310

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Niger, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 1.9610

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Niger, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited11 12 13

Home-made Guns

In Niger, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate14

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Niger, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law15 16

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Niger is reported by Customs to be US$2,24817 (2007)

Firearm Imports

In Niger, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law15 16 18

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Niger is reported by Customs to be US$101,23217 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Niger is moderate19 20

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Niger, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law21 22

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Niger include16 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

Law Regulates Civilian Access to Firearms

In Niger, civilian possession of guns is regulated by law23

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Niger includes the Law No. 61 27 of 15 July 1961 on the institution of the Penal Code, the Decree No. 63074/MI of 23 April governing the conditions for the possession, introduction, transfer and sale of sporting rifles on the territory of the Republic of Niger, the Decree No. 99 417/PCRN of 8 October 1999 on the creation, functions, organisation and functions of a National Commission for the collection and control of illicit arms, and the Law No. 2004 044 of 8 June 2004 on implementation of the Convention banning the use, stockpiling, manufacture and transfer of anti personnel mines and their destruction18

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Niger are regulated by the Home Office18

Right to Possess Firearms

In Niger, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law24 25

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Niger, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law23

Law Regulates Handguns

In Niger, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law23

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Niger, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law23

Gun Ownership and Possession

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Niger must pass a background check which considers undefined23 records

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Niger, the law requires26 12 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Niger, State agencies are required27 28 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Niger include27 28 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Niger, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law26 11 16 12

Firearm Tracing

In Niger, state authorities carry out29 12 30 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Niger, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law23

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Niger are known to have31 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Niger, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2006/1995: 16632

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Niger, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2012: 29131 33

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Niger, it is state policy28 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Niger adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200634 35

Economic Community of West African States

In June 2006, as a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Niger adopted the ECOWAS Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and other Related Materials. This stipulates strict controls on the transfer, manufacture, possession and security of small arms and light weapons36

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200737 by Niger.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified38 by Niger

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed39 by Niger

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Niger committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects40

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Niger against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4641 42 43 44 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Niger has submitted one or more national reports45 22 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Niger, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated46 22

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Niger, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated46

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Niger submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent46 22

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated22 by Niger to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided22 to Niger by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Niger has not declared47 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Niger has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196048

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list49 Niger as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Niger, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Niger ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

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Niger.2012.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12500)Full Citation

12.

Niger.2010.‘Marking, Registration and Tracing of Firearms (Marquage, Enregistrement et Traçage des Armes).’ National Report of Niger on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4695)Full Citation

13.

Niger.2018.‘Record-keeping by Manufacturers.’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13706)Full Citation

14.

Niger.2018.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13707)Full Citation

15.

Niger.2018.‘International Transfers (Transferts internationaux).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13708)Full Citation

16.

Niger.2012.‘International Transfers (Transferts internationaux).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12501)Full Citation

17.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

18.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Comparison of the Main Regulatory Aspects Examined - Niger.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q4012)Full Citation

19.

Niger.2018.‘International Transfers (Transferts internationaux).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13709)Full Citation

20.

AEFJN.2010.‘Countries that Send Arms to Embargoed Territories.’ Arms Exports and Transfers: From Sub-Saharan Africa to Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Africa Europe Faith and Justice Network,1 December. (Q5101)Full Citation

21.

Niger.2012.‘Brokering (Courtage).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12502)Full Citation

22.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

23.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Niger.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9432)Full Citation

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Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

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Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

26.

Niger.2012.‘Marking and Record Keeping (Marquage et conservation des informations).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12504)Full Citation

27.

Niger.2010.‘Management and Securing of Stockpiles (Gestion et Sécurisation des Stocks).’ National Report of Niger on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4694)Full Citation

28.

Niger.2018.‘Stockpile Management (Gestion des stocks).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13710)Full Citation

29.

Niger.2012.‘International Tracing (Traçage international).’ National Report of Niger on Its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Niger to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12505)Full Citation

30.

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31.

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