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Myanmar — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Myanmar is

2017: 877,0001
2007: 2,000,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Myanmar is

2017: 1.61
2007: 4.02

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Myanmar ranked at No. 343

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Myanmar ranked at No. 1112

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Myanmar are reported to have 788,9004 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Myanmar are reported to have 76,0005 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 2,1546
2015: 2,158
2010: 2,265
2000: 2,201

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.946
2015: 3.99
2010: 4.41
2000: 4.72

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 1,4956
2015: 1,501
2010: 1,574
2000: 1,436

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 5.556
2015: 5.63
2010: 6.21
2000: 6.21

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 6596
2015: 657
2010: 691
2000: 765

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 2.386
2015: 2.39
2010: 2.65
2000: 3.25

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Myanmar, annual firearm homicides total

2002: 277
2001: 40

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2002: 0.067
2001: 0.08

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Myanmar, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 2%8

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 4,1146
2015: 3,981
2010: 3,653
2000: 3,363

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 7.536
2015: 7.36
2010: 7.10
2000: 7.21

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 1,5336
2015: 1,492
2010: 1,360
2000: 947

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 5.706
2015: 5.60
2010: 5.37
2000: 4.09

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 2,5816
2015: 2,489
2010: 2,293
2000: 2,416

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 9.326
2015: 9.07
2010: 8.79
2000: 10.28

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Myanmar, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence9 10 11

Home-made Guns

In Myanmar, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate12

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Myanmar, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law13

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Myanmar is reported by Customs to be US$

2002: 11914

Firearm Imports

In Myanmar, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law13

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Myanmar is reported by Customs to be US$

2013: 1,74415
2011: 73,06414

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Myanmar is high16 17 18 9 19

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Myanmar, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law20

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Myanmar do not include20 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Myanmar is categorised as restrictive21

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Myanmar includes the Arms Act 1878,22 the Arms Act (Temporary Amendment) 1951,23 the Arms Emergency Punishment Temporary Act 1949,24 and the Regulation on Holding Firearms 197725

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Myanmar are regulated by the President of Myanmar26

Right to Possess Firearms

In Myanmar, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law27 28 20

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Myanmar, civilians are not allowed to possess any firearms29 24 30 31

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Myanmar, no civilian (except for ethnic Chin hunters)29 24 30 31 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Myanmar, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm32 is three to seven years in prison33

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed34 by Myanmar.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed35 by Myanmar

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed36 by Myanmar

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Myanmar committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects37

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Myanmar has yet to submit a national report38 39 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Myanmar, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated40 39

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Myanmar, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated40 39

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated39 by Myanmar to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Myanmar has not declared41 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Myanmar has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194842

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list43 Myanmar as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,44 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 2,1546
2015: 2,158
2010: 2,265
2000: 2,201

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.946
2015: 3.99
2010: 4.41
2000: 4.72

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 1,4956
2015: 1,501
2010: 1,574
2000: 1,436

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 5.556
2015: 5.63
2010: 6.21
2000: 6.21

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 6596
2015: 657
2010: 691
2000: 765

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 2.386
2015: 2.39
2010: 2.65
2000: 3.25

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Myanmar, annual firearm homicides total

2002: 277
2001: 40

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Myanmar, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2002: 0.067
2001: 0.08

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Myanmar, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 2%8

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Myanmar, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Myanmar, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 22345
2016: 206

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Myanmar, it is not state policy46 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Myanmar, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is not required by law20

Firearm Tracing

In Myanmar, state authorities do not carry out20 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Myanmar, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not20 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where Myanmar ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Myanmar on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


Short References

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4.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

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20.

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21.

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23.

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31.

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37.

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