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Mozambique — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Mozambique is

2017: 1,337,0001
2007: 1,000,0002 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Mozambique is

2017: 4.501
2007: 5.12

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Mozambique ranked at No. 464

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Mozambique ranked at No. 992

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Mozambique is reported to be

2009: 4,0005

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Mozambique is

2009: 0.026

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Mozambique is reported to be

2017: 7,0001
2005: 7,0002 3
1998: 3,0007

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Mozambique is

2005: 0.036
1998: 0.02

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,8 but in Mozambique there are estimated to be

2017: 1,330,0001

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Mozambique are reported to have 60,0009 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In Mozambique, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms10

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Mozambique are reported to have 24,00011 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Mozambique, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 3,13312
2011: 84913
2010: 875
2009: 823
2008: 995
2007: 849
2006: 807
2005: 1,002
2004: 962
2003: 1,004
2002: 1,040
2001: 1,100
2000: 905
1999: 864

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Mozambique, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 12.412
2011: 3.7014
2010: 3.90
2009: 3.75
2008: 4.64
2007: 4.05
2006: 3.8
2005: 4.8
2004: 4.815 16
2003: 5.1
2002: 5.4
2001: 5.915
2000: 5.0
1999: 4.9

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Mozambique, annual male homicides by any means total

2011: 707.3917
2010: 66317

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Mozambique, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 5.8417

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Mozambique, annual female homicides by any means total

2011: 14217
2010: 212

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Mozambique, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 1.1017

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Mozambique, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited18 19

Home-made Guns

In Mozambique, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate20

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Mozambique, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law21 22 23

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Mozambique is reported by Customs to be US$6,00024 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Mozambique, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law21 22 19 23

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Mozambique is reported by Customs to be US$177,00024 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Mozambique, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law25 23

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Mozambique include21 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Mozambique is categorised as restrictive26

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Mozambique includes the Arms and Ammunition Act (Decree Nº8/2007) of April 30, 2007 and the Statute No. 10/87 (Penal Code Amendment)21

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Mozambique are regulated by the Police5

Right to Possess Firearms

In Mozambique, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law27 28

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Mozambique, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law13

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Mozambique, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence19

Regulation of Handguns

In Mozambique, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence19 13

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Mozambique, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law19 13

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Mozambique, only licensed gun owners19 13 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Mozambique are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example self-defence and hunting19

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Mozambique must pass a background check which considers criminal19 13 records

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Mozambique, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every two years19

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Mozambique are permitted to possess up to three firearms19

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Mozambique, the law requires29 5 30 19 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Mozambique, State agencies are required31 32 5 19 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Mozambique, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful19

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Mozambique include32 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Mozambique, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law30 31

Firearm Tracing

In Mozambique, state authorities carry out33 5 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Mozambique, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law13

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Mozambique, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 200,00034 (1992-97)10

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Mozambique, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013: 1,93835 36
2008: 51,87537 38
2004: 1,16437 39
2003: 7,85037 40
1994: 207,02637 41

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Mozambique, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2013: 14842
2011: 1143
1992/94: 24,00010

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Mozambique adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200644 45

Southern African Development Community

As a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Mozambique signed the SADC Declaration Concerning Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials in March 2001. This laid the ground for the August, 2001 adoption of the legally binding SADC Protocol on Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials46

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200647 by Mozambique.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified48 by Mozambique

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified49 by Mozambique

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Mozambique committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects50

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Mozambique against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4351 52 53 54 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Mozambique has submitted one or more national reports55 56 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Mozambique, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated57 56

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Mozambique, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated57 56

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Mozambique submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent57 56

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated56 by Mozambique to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided56 to Mozambique by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Mozambique has not declared58 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Mozambique has been a Member State of the United Nations since 197559

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list60 Mozambique as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Mozambique, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Mozambique ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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