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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Malaysia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Malaysia is

2017: 217,0001 2
2005: 370,0003

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Malaysia is

2017: 0.701
2005: 1.50

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Malaysia, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 2,2432

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Malaysia, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 70,8762

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Malaysia, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 14,7062

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Malaysia ranked at No. 964

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Malaysia ranked at No. 1333

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Malaysia is reported to be

2016: 89,7712
1999: 142,0385

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Malaysia is

2016: 0.296
1999: 0.63

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Malaysia is reported to be

2017: 142,0381
2016: 89,7712
1999: 142,0385

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Malaysia is

2016: 0.296
1999: 0.63

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Malaysia there are estimated to be

2017: 74,9621

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Malaysia the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2017: 0.246

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Malaysia are reported to have 428,1707 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Malaysia are reported to have 102,0008 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Malaysia, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2008: 829

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.39

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Malaysia, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 62110
2015: 624
2014: 625
2013: 628
2012: 65211
2011: 630
2010: 54012
2006: 60413 14
2005: 497
2000: 55115
1999: 58814
1998: 629
1997: 540
1996: 447
1995: 396

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 2.0210
2015: 2.05
2014: 2.08
2013: 2.11
2012: 2.311
2011: 2.18
2010: 1.9216
2006: 2.3113
2005: 1.94
2004: 1.614
2003: 1.6
2002: 1.3
2001: 1.6
2000: 2.3615
1999: 2.59
1998: 2.83
1997: 2.514
1996: 2.1
1995: 1.9

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

In Malaysia, annual male homicides by any means total

2010: 39217

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

In Malaysia, annual female homicides by any means total

2010: 14817

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Malaysia, annual firearm homicides total

2008: 389
2006: 6414
1995: 4118

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.19
2006: 0.214
1995: 0.1718

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Malaysia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2010: 7%12
2006: 13.4%14

Suicides (any method)

In Malaysia, annual suicides by any means total

1995: 36818

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Malaysia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1995: 1.5118

Gun Suicides

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.09

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Malaysia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2008: 29
1995: 1618

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Malaysia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.016
1995: 0.0718

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Malaysia, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2008: 429

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Malaysia, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.156

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Malaysia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence19 20 21

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Malaysia was ranked 'small'22

Home-made Guns

In Malaysia, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate23

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Malaysia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law24 25 26

Firearm Exports (Number)

The annual number of firearms exported from Malaysia is reported by manufacturers to be

2017: 1727

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Malaysia is reported by Customs to be US$

2011: 619,13228

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Malaysia was categorized as 'minor'29

Firearm Imports

In Malaysia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law30 31 32 33 25 26

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Malaysia is reported to be

2017: 17,20927
2016: 741
2015: 2,284
2014: 1,898
2013: 370
2012: 93
2011: 10
2010: 181
2009: 1,475
2008: 690
2007: 1,768
2006: 752

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Malaysia is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 8,012,78634
2015: 25,840,054
2014: 13,774,284
2013: 11,867,620
2012: 15,197,90634 35 36
2011: 9,142,38828 37
2010: 43,000,00038

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Malaysia is moderate5 39 40 41

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Malaysia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law42

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Malaysia include43 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Malaysia is categorised as restrictive44

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Malaysia includes the Arms Act No. 206 of 1960, as amended by the Arms Licensing Regulation of 1961 and the Arms (Manufacture of Arms and Ammunition) Regulations of 1989,45 the Explosives Act of 1957,46 the Customs Act (Prohibition of Import and Export) Orders of 2017,47 48 the Strategic Trade Act of 2010,49 and the Penal Code50

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Malaysia are regulated by the Chief Police Officer51 52

Right to Possess Firearms

In Malaysia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law53 54 55

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Malaysia, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms56 12

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Malaysia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited56 12

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Malaysia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is not prohibited in law55 56

Regulation of Handguns

In Malaysia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is not prohibited in law55 56 12

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Malaysia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law56 12

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Malaysia, only licensed gun owners57 12 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Malaysia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports-shooting and personal protection52 58

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Malaysia is 18 years, or 16 in exceptional cases56

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Malaysia must pass a background check which considers various59 12 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Malaysia, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required55

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Malaysia does not stipulate55 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Malaysia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required55 60 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Malaysia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every year52 20

Licensing Records

In Malaysia, authorities maintain a record61 62 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Malaysia are permitted to possess only the number and type of firearms specified on the firearm licence52

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Malaysia are permitted to possess only the quantity of ammunition specified on the firearm licence52

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Malaysia, the law requires52 62 63 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Malaysia, licensed firearm dealers are required64 61 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Malaysia, licensed gun makers are required64 61 19 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Malaysia, State agencies are required65 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Malaysia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without licence66

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Malaysia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful20 66

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Malaysia, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined55

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Malaysia, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated20 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Malaysia include67 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Malaysia include68 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Malaysia include65 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Malaysia do not include55 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Malaysia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law52 69 21 63 70

Firearm Tracing

In Malaysia, state authorities carry out62 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Malaysia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are62 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Malaysia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit57 52 12

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Malaysia, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit57 52 12

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Malaysia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm71 is up to seven years in prison and/or a fine of up to 10,000 ringgit72 73

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Malaysia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 50074

MeasuresInternational Controls

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200875 by Malaysia.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified76 by Malaysia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed77 by Malaysia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Malaysia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects78

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Malaysia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 7879 80 81 82 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Malaysia has submitted one or more national reports83 84 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Malaysia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated85 84

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Malaysia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated85

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Malaysia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent84

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated84 by Malaysia to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided84 to Malaysia by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Malaysia has not declared86 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Malaysia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 195787

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list88 Malaysia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Malaysia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Malaysia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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