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Japan — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Japan is

2019: 310,4001 2 3
2018: 314,265
2017: 317,868
2016: 321,310
2015: 325,2214
2014: 332,024
2013: 341,710
2012: 353,870
2011: 370,171
2007: 710,0005

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Japan is

2019: 0.256
2018: 0.25
2017: 0.25
2016: 0.25
2015: 0.26
2014: 0.26
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.28
2011: 0.29

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn Japan, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2019: 28,2731
2018: 28,995
2017: 29,503
2016: 29,903
2015: 30,2354
2014: 30,920
2013: 32,136
2012: 33,532
2011: 35,006

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn Japan, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2019: 132,1271
2018: 135,270
2017: 138,365
2016: 141,406
2015: 144,9834
2014: 151,104
2013: 159,574
2012: 170,338
2011: 185,165

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Japan, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 777

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Japan ranked at No. 648

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Japan ranked at No. 1645

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 0.8%9
2003: 0.3%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 0.0%9
2003: 0.0%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Japan is reported to be

2019: 196,5181
2018: 201,527
2017: 206,285
2016: 210,926
2015: 216,1934
2014: 225,005
2013: 236,979
2012: 251,537
2011: 271,100

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Japan is

2019: 0.166
2018: 0.16
2017: 0.16
2016: 0.17
2015: 0.17
2014: 0.18
2013: 0.19
2012: 0.20
2011: 0.21

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Japan is reported to be

2019: 160,4001
2018: 164,265
2017: 167,868
2016: 171,310
2015: 175,2214
2014: 182,024
2013: 191,710
2012: 203,870
2011: 220,171
2005: 413,0965

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Japan is

2019: 0.136
2018: 0.13
2017: 0.13
2016: 0.14
2015: 0.14
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.15
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.17
2005: 0.32

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,10 but in Japan there are estimated to be

2018: 150,0002

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,10 but in Japan the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2018: 0.126

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Japan are reported to have 745,51411 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Japan are reported to have 252,00012 13 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 914
2017: 23
2016: 25
2015: 20
2014: 28
2013: 32
2012: 26
2011: 3015
2010: 52
2009: 52
2008: 60
2007: 68
2006: 55
2005: 61
2004: 90
2003: 82
2001: 97
2000: 101

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0114
2017: 0.02
2016: 0.02
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.06
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.08

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 914
2017: 23
2016: 24
2015: 17
2014: 27
2013: 31
2012: 26
2011: 28
2010: 48
2009: 50
2008: 57
2007: 62
2006: 54
2005: 57
2004: 87
2003: 78
2001: 91
2000: 96

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0114
2017: 0.04
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.10
2006: 0.09
2005: 0.09
2004: 0.14
2003: 0.13
2001: 0.15
2000: 0.15

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2016: 114
2015: 3
2014: 1
2013: 1
2012: 1
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 2
2008: 3
2007: 6
2006: 1
2005: 4
2004: 3
2003: 4
2001: 6
2000: 5

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2016: 014
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0.01
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0.01
2006: 0
2005: 0.01
2004: 0
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual homicides by any means total

2018: 33416
2017: 306
2016: 362
2015: 363
2014: 395
2013: 370
2012: 429
2011: 442
2010: 465
2009: 506
2008: 654
2007: 574
2006: 619
2005: 643
2004: 699
2003: 697
2002: 60917
2001: 645
2000: 637
1999: 674
1998: 716
1997: 677
1996: 616
1995: 677

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.2616
2017: 0.24
2016: 0.28
2015: 0.28
2014: 0.31
2013: 0.29
2012: 0.33
2011: 0.34
2010: 0.36
2009: 0.40
2008: 0.51
2007: 0.45
2006: 0.5
2005: 0.5
2004: 0.6
2003: 0.6
2002: 0.517 18
2001: 0.5
2000: 0.517
1999: 0.5
1998: 0.6
1997: 0.5
1996: 0.5
1995: 0.5
1994: 0.6219

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 15520
2017: 133
2016: 165
2015: 145
2014: 189
2013: 179
2012: 189
2011: 208
2010: 228
2009: 253
2008: 315
2007: 292

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.2520
2017: 0.21
2016: 0.26
2015: 0.23
2014: 0.30
2013: 0.29
2012: 0.30
2011: 0.33
2010: 0.36
2009: 0.40
2008: 0.50
2007: 0.46

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 17920
2017: 173
2016: 197
2015: 218
2014: 206
2013: 191
2012: 240
2011: 234
2010: 237
2009: 253
2008: 339
2007: 282

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.2820
2017: 0.27
2016: 0.30
2015: 0.33
2014: 0.31
2013: 0.29
2012: 0.37
2011: 0.36
2010: 0.36
2009: 0.39
2008: 0.52
2007: 0.43

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Japan, annual firearm homicides total

2017: 114
2016: 1
2015: 2
2014: 2
2013: 5
2012: 3
2011: 6
2010: 5
2009: 1
2008: 5
2007: 9
2006: 1
2005: 4
2004: 7
2003: 6
2002: 4721
2001: 9
2000: 3
1997: 3422
1996: 36
1995: 42

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 14
2018:
2017: 0
2016: 0
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0.01
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0.01
2003: 0
2002: 0.0421
2001: 0.01
2000: 0
1997: 0.0322
1996: 0.03
1995: 0.03
1994: 0.0223

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 2%24
2008: 1.8%17
2002: 6.0%
2001: 7.2%
1997: 4.5%
1996: 5.0%
1995: 5.5%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual male firearm homicides total

2017: 114
2016: 1
2015: 114
2014: 1
2013: 4
2012: 3
2011: 5
2010: 5
2009: 1
2008: 4
2007: 7
2006: 1
2005: 3
2004: 7
2003: 5
2001: 8
2000: 3

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 14
2018:
2017: 0
2016: 0
2015:
2014: 0
2013: 0.01
2012: 0
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 214
2014: 1
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 1
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 1
2007: 2
2005: 1
2003: 1
2001: 1

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 014
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0.01

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Japan, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 1125
2012: 15
2011: 17
2010: 16
2009: 12

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.016
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual suicides by any means total

2018: 20,03214
2017: 20,479
2016: 21,031
2015: 23,162
2014: 24,431
2013: 26,077
2012: 26,447
2011: 28,911
2010: 29,580
2009: 30,742
2008: 30,269
2007: 30,865
2006: 29,962
2005: 30,596
2004: 30,299
2003: 32,146
2002: 29,949
2001: 29,427
2000: 30,313
1999: 31,413
1998: 31,755
1997: 23,494
1996: 22,138
1995: 21,420

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 014
2018: 15.88
2017: 16.20
2016: 16.60
2015: 18.25
2014: 19.22
2013: 20.49
2012: 20.76
2011: 22.68
2010: 23.19
2009: 24.07
2008: 23.69
2007: 24.15
2006: 23.46
2005: 23.96
2004: 23.73
2003: 25.20
2002: 23.51
2001: 23.15
2000: 23.91
1999: 24.83
1998: 25.16
1997: 18.66
1996: 17.62
1995: 17.09
1994: 16.7226

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual male suicides by any means total

2018: 13,85214
2017: 14,347
2016: 14,653
2015: 16,212
2014: 16,889
2013: 18,172
2012: 18,499
2011: 19,919
2010: 21,054
2009: 22,224
2008: 21,586
2007: 22,045
2006: 21,460
2005: 22,277
2004: 22,006
2003: 23,432
2002: 21,677
2001: 21,137
2000: 21,717
1999: 22,402
1998: 22,349
1997: 15,901
1996: 14,853
1995: 14,231

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 22.6614
2017: 23.40
2016: 23.84
2015: 26.33
2014: 27.37
2013: 29.41
2012: 29.90
2011: 32.15
2010: 33.94
2009: 35.78
2008: 34.71
2007: 35.44
2006: 34.51
2005: 35.81
2004: 35.36
2003: 37.67
2001: 34.05
2000: 35.05

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual female suicides by any means total

2018: 6,18014
2017: 6,132
2016: 6,378
2015: 6,95014
2014: 7,542
2013: 7,905
2012: 7,948
2011: 8,992
2010: 8,526
2009: 8,518
2008: 8,683
2007: 8,820
2006: 8,502
2005: 8,319
2004: 8,293
2003: 8,714
2002: 8,272
2001: 8,290
2000: 8,596
1999: 9,011
1998: 9,406
1997: 7,593
1996: 7,285
1995: 7,189

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 9.5014
2017: 9.41
2016: 9.77
2015: 10.64
2014: 11.53
2013: 12.08
2012: 12.14
2011: 13.72
2010: 13.01
2009: 12.99
2008: 13.24
2007: 13.45
2006: 12.97
2005: 12.70
2004: 12.67
2003: 13.33
2001: 12.75
2000: 13.26

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Japan, annual firearm suicides total

2018: 114
2017: 14
2016: 14
2015: 10
2014: 14
2013: 14
2012: 14
2011: 1515
2010: 26
2009: 35
2008: 40
2007: 38
2006: 41
2005: 43
2004: 52
2003: 37
2002: 51
2001: 52
2000: 62
1999: 4727
1998: 47
1997: 45
1996: 52
1995: 40

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2018: 014
2017: 0.01
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.04
1998: 0.04
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.04
1995: 0.03
1994: 0.0428

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual male firearm suicides total

2018: 114
2017: 14
2016: 14
2015: 10
2014: 14
2013: 14
2012: 14
2011: 15
2010: 26
2009: 35
2008: 40
2007: 38
2006: 41
2005: 41
2004: 51
2003: 36
2002: 51
2001: 52
2000: 61
1999: 45
1998: 47
1997: 44
1996: 50
1995: 38

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2018: 014
2017: 0.02
2016: 0.02
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.07
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.06
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.10

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual female firearm suicides total

2015: 014
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 2
2004: 1
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 1
1999: 2
1998: 0
1997: 1
1996: 2
1995: 2

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2005: 014
2004: 0
2003: 0
2000: 0

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2018: 214
2017: 2
2016: 4
2015: 3
2014: 3
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 115
2010: 3
2009: 5
2008: 5
2007: 4
2006: 4
2005: 2
2004: 6
2003: 4
2001: 7
2000: 4
1999: 727

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2019: 14
2018: 0
2017: 0
2016: 0
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2001: 0.01
2000: 0
1999: 0.0127
1994: 0.0029

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2018: 214
2017: 2
2016: 4
2015: 2
2014: 3
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 1
2010: 3
2009: 5
2008: 5
2007: 4
2006: 4
2005: 2
2004: 6
2003: 4
2001: 7
2000: 4

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2018: 014
2017: 0
2016: 0.01
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2015: 114
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Japan, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 014

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Japan, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 214
2017: 4
2016: 4
2015: 4
2014: 7
2013: 6
2012: 7
2011: 315
2010: 14
2009: 8
2008: 6
2007: 7
2006: 4
2005: 5
2004: 17
2003: 11
2001: 6
2000: 8
1999: 727

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2019: 014
2018: 0
2017: 0
2016: 0
2015: 0
2014: 0.01
2013: 0
2012: 0.01
2011: 0
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0
2007: 0.01
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.0127
1994: 0.0030

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Japan, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 214
2017: 4
2016: 4
2015: 414
2014: 714
2013: 6
2012: 7
2011: 3
2010: 11
2009: 7
2008: 6
2007: 6
2006: 4
2005: 5
2004: 16
2003: 10
2001: 3
2000: 7

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 014
2017: 0.01
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.02
2001: 0
2000: 0.01

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Japan, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 014
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 3
2009: 1
2007: 1

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 014
2009: 0
2007: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2001: 0
2000: 0

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn Japan, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2015: 314
2014: 3
2013: 8
2012: 8
2010: 2
2009: 6
2008: 15
2007: 9

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Japan, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence31

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Japan was ranked 'small'32

Home-made Guns

In Japan, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low33

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Japan, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law34

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Japan is reported by manufacturers to be

2018: 95,28435
2017: 107,875
2016: 127,201
2015: 116,374

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Japan is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 108,000,00036
2015: 150,497,40637
2014: 163,106,578
2013: 160,509,519
2012: 170,260,84637 38 39
2011: 73,272,05440
2010: 84,000,00041
2001: 77,000,00038

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Japan was categorized as 'major'42 43 44 45

Firearm Imports

In Japan, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law46

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Japan is reported to be

2018: 2,52135
2017: 3,172
2016: 2,512
2015: 2,702

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Japan is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 41,000,00047
2015: 56,321,31137
2014: 79,084,676
2013: 54,216,216
2012: 48,613,95137 48 49 50
2011: 27,896,88840 51
2010: 31,000,00052
2001: 38,000,00048

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Japan is negligible53 54

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Japan, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law55

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Japan include56 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Japan scored

2019: 11.7557
2018: 12.0058
2017: 9.2559
2016: 9.2560
2014: 7.0061
2013: 7.5062
2012: 8.5063
2011: 9.0064
2010: 9.0065
2009: 9.5066
2008: 8.5067
2007: 9.0068
2006: 9.0069
2005: 9.7570
2004: 9.5071

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Japan is categorised as restrictive72

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Japan includes the Firearms and Swords Control Law,73 the Ordnance Manufacturing Law,31 the Explosives Control Law,74 75 the Customs Law,76 and the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law34

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Japan are regulated by the Prefectural Public Safety Commission77

Right to Possess Firearms

In Japan, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law78

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Japan, civilians are not allowed to possess handguns, military rifles, machine guns, large caliber guns, imitation firearms,79 as well as hunting guns and certain air gun without specific approval78

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Japan, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited79 78

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Japan, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited80 81

Regulation of Handguns

In Japan, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited, with the exception of accomplished sports shooters79 78

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Japan, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law80 24 82

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Japan, only licensed gun owners83 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Japan are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, or art collection (with special permission)84 85

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Japan is 18 years86

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Japan must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and addiction86 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Japan, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required7

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Japan stipulates86 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Japan, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required87 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Japan, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years88

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Japan are permitted to possess one firearm per license83

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Japan are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition89

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Japan, the law requires90 56 91 92 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Japan, licensed firearm dealers are required93 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Japan, licensed gun makers are required93 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Japan, State agencies are required90 94 92 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Japan, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited95

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Japan, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful95

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Japan, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined89

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Japan, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated89 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Japan include96 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Japan include96 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Japan include96 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Japan do not include97 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Japan, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited98 97

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Japan, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit98 97 99

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Japan, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm100 is 15 years in prison101

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists102 Japan as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006103 by Japan.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified104 by Japan

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified105 by Japan

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Japan committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects106

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Japan against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 41107 108 109 110 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Japan has submitted one or more national reports111 112 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Japan, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated113 112

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Japan, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated113 112

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Japan submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent112 114

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated112 115 by Japan to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Japan has declared116 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Japan has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1956117

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists118 Japan as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,119 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual homicides by any means total

2018: 33416
2017: 306
2016: 362
2015: 363
2014: 395
2013: 370
2012: 429
2011: 442
2010: 465
2009: 506
2008: 654
2007: 574
2006: 619
2005: 643
2004: 699
2003: 697
2002: 60917
2001: 645
2000: 637
1999: 674
1998: 716
1997: 677
1996: 616
1995: 677

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.2616
2017: 0.24
2016: 0.28
2015: 0.28
2014: 0.31
2013: 0.29
2012: 0.33
2011: 0.34
2010: 0.36
2009: 0.40
2008: 0.51
2007: 0.45
2006: 0.5
2005: 0.5
2004: 0.6
2003: 0.6
2002: 0.517 18
2001: 0.5
2000: 0.517
1999: 0.5
1998: 0.6
1997: 0.5
1996: 0.5
1995: 0.5
1994: 0.6219

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 15520
2017: 133
2016: 165
2015: 145
2014: 189
2013: 179
2012: 189
2011: 208
2010: 228
2009: 253
2008: 315
2007: 292

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.2520
2017: 0.21
2016: 0.26
2015: 0.23
2014: 0.30
2013: 0.29
2012: 0.30
2011: 0.33
2010: 0.36
2009: 0.40
2008: 0.50
2007: 0.46

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 17920
2017: 173
2016: 197
2015: 218
2014: 206
2013: 191
2012: 240
2011: 234
2010: 237
2009: 253
2008: 339
2007: 282

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.2820
2017: 0.27
2016: 0.30
2015: 0.33
2014: 0.31
2013: 0.29
2012: 0.37
2011: 0.36
2010: 0.36
2009: 0.39
2008: 0.52
2007: 0.43

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Japan, annual firearm homicides total

2017: 114
2016: 1
2015: 2
2014: 2
2013: 5
2012: 3
2011: 6
2010: 5
2009: 1
2008: 5
2007: 9
2006: 1
2005: 4
2004: 7
2003: 6
2002: 4721
2001: 9
2000: 3
1997: 3422
1996: 36
1995: 42

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 14
2018:
2017: 0
2016: 0
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0.01
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0.01
2003: 0
2002: 0.0421
2001: 0.01
2000: 0
1997: 0.0322
1996: 0.03
1995: 0.03
1994: 0.0223

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 2%24
2008: 1.8%17
2002: 6.0%
2001: 7.2%
1997: 4.5%
1996: 5.0%
1995: 5.5%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual male firearm homicides total

2017: 114
2016: 1
2015: 114
2014: 1
2013: 4
2012: 3
2011: 5
2010: 5
2009: 1
2008: 4
2007: 7
2006: 1
2005: 3
2004: 7
2003: 5
2001: 8
2000: 3

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 14
2018:
2017: 0
2016: 0
2015:
2014: 0
2013: 0.01
2012: 0
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 214
2014: 1
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 1
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 1
2007: 2
2005: 1
2003: 1
2001: 1

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 014
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 0.01

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Japan, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in Japan are known to have120 121 122 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Japan, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2020: 355123
2019: 401
2018: 315
2017: 360
2016: 341
2015: 383124
2014: 406
2013: 471125
2012: 373125 121
2011: 426125
2010: 397125 126
2009: 407125 127
2007: 548128
2006: 458
2005: 489
2004: 601
2003: 785
1996: 1,035129

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Japan, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2018: 3,463130
2017/2016: 8,863131
2015: 8,44994
2014: 27120
2012: 8,429132 121

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Japan, it is state policy94 133 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Japan, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law134 90 56 92 91

Firearm Tracing

In Japan, state authorities carry out135 92 91 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Japan, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not89 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where Japan ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Japan on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


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