Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Japan — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Japan is

2017: 377,0001
2007: 710,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Japan is

2017: 0.301
2007: 0.62

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn Japan, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 30,3253
2014: 30,920
2013: 32,136
2012: 33,532
2011: 35,006

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn Japan, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 144,9863
2014: 151,104
2013: 159,574
2012: 170,338
2011: 185,165

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Japan, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 774

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Japan ranked at No. 645

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Japan ranked at No. 1642

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 0.8%6
2003: 0.3%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 0.0%6
2003: 0.0%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Japan is reported to be

2011: 271,0007
2010: 320,0008

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Japan is

2011: 0.219
2010: 0.25

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Japan is reported to be

2017: 175,2211
2015: 216,1963
2014: 225,005
2013: 236,979
2012: 251,537
2011: 271,000

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Japan is 0.329

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,10 but in Japan there are estimated to be

2017: 201,7791

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Japan are reported to have 745,51411 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Japan are reported to have 252,00012 13 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 2814
2013: 32
2012: 25
2011: 3015
2010: 52
2007: 4016
2006: 19
2005: 22
2004: 38
2003: 67

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0214
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.04
2007: 0.039
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.05

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 2714
2013: 31
2012: 25
2011: 28
2010: 48

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 114
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 2
2010: 4

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 35714
2013: 342
2012: 383
2011: 415
2010: 437
2009: 506
2008: 646
2007: 574
2006: 619
2005: 643
2004: 699
2003: 697
2002: 60917
2001: 645
2000: 637
1999: 674
1998: 716
1997: 677
1996: 616
1995: 677

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0214
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.4
2008: 0.518 17 19
2007: 0.5
2006: 0.5
2005: 0.5
2004: 0.6
2003: 0.6
2002: 0.517 19
2001: 0.5
2000: 0.517
1999: 0.5
1998: 0.6
1997: 0.5
1996: 0.5
1995: 0.5
1994: 0.6220

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual male homicides by any means total

2014: 18114
2013: 178
2012: 183
2011: 211
2010: 232

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual female homicides by any means total

2014: 17614
2013: 164
2012: 200
2011: 204
2010: 205

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Japan, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 414
2013: 10
2012: 3
2011: 11
2010: 9
2009: 1421 22
2008: 1117
2002: 4723
2001: 56
1997: 3424
1996: 36
1995: 42

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 014
2013: 0.01
2012: 0
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.017
2002: 0.0423
2001: 0.04
1997: 0.0324
1996: 0.03
1995: 0.03
1994: 0.0225

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Japan, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 2%26
2008: 1.8%17
2002: 6.0%
2001: 7.2%
1997: 4.5%
1996: 5.0%
1995: 5.5%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 314
2014: 3
2013: 9
2012: 3
2011: 9
2010: 8

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 114
2014: 1
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 2
2010: 1

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Japan, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 1122
2012: 15
2011: 17
2010: 16
2009: 12

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.019
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 24,41714
2013: 26,063
2012: 26,433
2011: 28,896
2010: 29,554
1997: 23,50227

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 19.2114
2013: 20.48
2012: 20.75
2011: 22.67
2010: 23.17
1997: 18.4127
1994: 16.7228

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 16,87514
2013: 18,158
2012: 18,485
2011: 19,904
2010: 21,028

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Japan, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 7,54214
2013: 7,905
2012: 7,948
2011: 8,992
2010: 8,526

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Japan, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 1414
2013: 14
2012: 14
2011: 1515
2010: 26
1999: 4727

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0114
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
1999: 0.0427
1994: 0.0429

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 1414
2013: 14
2012: 14
2011: 15
2010: 26

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Japan, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 014
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 314
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 115
2010: 3
1999: 727

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0114
2013: 0
2012: 0.01
2011: 0
2010: 0.01
1999: 0.0127
1994: 0.0030

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 314
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 1
2010: 3

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Japan, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 014
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Japan, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 714
2013: 6
2012: 7
2011: 315
2010: 14
1999: 727

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Japan, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.009
1999: 0.0127
1994: 0.0031

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Japan, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 714
2013: 6
2012: 7
2011: 3
2010: 11

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Japan, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 014
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 3

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Japan, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence32 33 34

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Japan was ranked 'small'35

Home-made Guns

In Japan, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low36

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Japan, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law37 38 39

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Japan is reported by manufacturers to be

2017: 9040
2012: 1
2009: 67
2008: 216
2007: 103
2006: 271

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Japan is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 174,717,90941
2015: 150,497,406
2014: 163,106,578
2013: 160,509,519
2012: 170,260,84641 42 43
2011: 73,272,05444
2010: 84,000,00045
2001: 77,000,00042

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Japan was categorized as 'major'46 47 48 49

Firearm Imports

In Japan, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law37 50 51 52 39

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Japan is reported to be

2017: 67640
2016: 539
2015: 300
2014: 1,303
2013: 1,548
2012: 210
2011: 425
2010: 381
2009: 911
2008: 699
2007: 490
2006: 154

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Japan is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 60,090,80341
2015: 56,321,311
2014: 79,084,676
2013: 54,216,216
2012: 48,613,95141 53 54 55
2011: 27,896,88844 56
2010: 31,000,00057
2001: 38,000,00053

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Japan is negligible58

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Japan, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law59 60 61 62

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Japan include37 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Japan scored

2018: 12.0063
2017: 9.2564
2016: 9.2565
2014: 7.0066
2013: 7.5067
2012: 8.5068
2011: 9.0069
2010: 9.0070
2009: 9.5071
2008: 8.5072
2007: 9.0073
2006: 9.0074
2005: 9.7575
2004: 9.5076

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Japan is categorised as restrictive77

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Japan includes the Firearms and Swords Control Law,78 79 51 the Ordnance Manufacturing Law,34 33 the Explosives Control Law,80 81 the Customs Law50 82 and the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law39

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Japan are regulated by the Prefectural Public Safety Commission83

Right to Possess Firearms

In Japan, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law84 85 86

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Japan, civilians are not allowed to possess handguns, hunting guns without specific approval,87 military rifles, machine guns, any gunpowder charged firearm, certain air guns51 and imitation firearms88

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Japan, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited51 89 26

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Japan, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited51 89

Regulation of Handguns

In Japan, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited, with the exception of accomplished sports shooters90 51 89 26 52

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Japan, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law51 26 52

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Japan, only licensed gun owners87 91 92 26 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Japan are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting (with special permission)87 92

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Japan is 18 years91 92

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Japan must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and addiction87 91 92 26 52 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Japan, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required4

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Japan does not stipulate4 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Japan, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required87 91 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Japan, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years91 93

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Japan are permitted to possess any number of firearms94

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Japan are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition86

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Japan, the law requires95 37 96 97 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Japan, licensed firearm dealers are required96 97 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Japan, licensed gun makers are required32 96 97 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Japan, State agencies are required95 98 97 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Japan, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited99

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Japan, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful99

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Japan, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined86

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Japan, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated86 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Japan include100 52 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Japan do not include86 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Japan include98 100 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Japan do not include86 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Japan, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law32 95 37 97 96

Firearm Tracing

In Japan, state authorities carry out101 97 96 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Japan, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not86 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Japan, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited93 26

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Japan, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit93 26

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Japan, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm102 is 15 years in prison51 79 82

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Japan are known to have103 104 105 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Japan, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2015: 383106
2014: 406
2013: 471107
2012: 373107 104
2011: 426107
2010: 397107 108
2009: 407107 109
2007: 548110
2006: 458
2005: 489
2004: 601
2003: 785
1996: 1,035111

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Japan, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2015: 8,44998
2014: 27103
2012: 8,429112 104

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Japan, it is state policy98 113 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists114 Japan as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006115 by Japan.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified116 by Japan

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified117 by Japan

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Japan committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects118

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Japan against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 41119 120 121 122 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Japan has submitted one or more national reports123 62 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Japan, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated124 62

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Japan, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated124 62

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Japan submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent62 125

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated62 126 by Japan to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Japan has declared127 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Japan has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1956128

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists129 Japan as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Japan, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Japan ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Japan.2016.‘Firearms.’ Changes in the Number of Permissible Firearms and Swords (Heisei 23-27).Tokyo:National Police Agency,1 January. (Q13399)Full Citation

4.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11807)Full Citation

7.

Juliette Jowit, Sandra Laville, Calla Wahlquist, Philip Oltermann, Justin McCurry and Lois Beckett. 2016. ‘So, America, This Is How Other Countries Do Gun Control.’ Guardian. 14 March. (N453) Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2010.‘Elusive Arsenals: Gang and Group Firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups, and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,14 June. (Q2105)Full Citation

9.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Japan.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,19 August. (Q4248)Full Citation

10.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

12.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

13.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 1 - Estimated Law Enforcement Firearms in 20 Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q6544)Full Citation

14.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

15.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

16.

Japan.2008.‘Gun Shooting Cases and Related Deaths, 2003-2007.’ National Police Agency: Crimes in Japan in 2007.Tokyo:Police Policy Research Center, National Police Academy,8 October. (Q12162)Full Citation

17.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Japan.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6318)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in Japan.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10258)Full Citation

19.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘East Asia and the Pacific, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3814)Full Citation

20.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

21.

Japan.2011.‘Gun Homicides, 2009.’ National Police Agency: Crimes in Japan in 2009.Tokyo:Police Policy Research Center, National Police Academy,20 May. (Q12169)Full Citation

22.

Japan.2015.‘Firearms Related Crimes, 2009-2013.’ National Police Agency: Police of Japan 2015.Tokyo:Police Policy Research Center, National Police Academy,6 April. (Q12164)Full Citation

23.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

24.

UNODC.2001.‘Japan: Total Recorded Intentional Homicides (Completed) and Total Recorded Intentional Homicides Committed With a Firearm.’ Sixth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1995-1997.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,27 June. (Q1335)Full Citation

25.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

26.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Japan.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9610)Full Citation

27.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

28.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

29.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

30.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

31.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

32.

Japan.2016.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12100)Full Citation

33.

Japan.2014.‘Ordnance Manufacturing Law, 1953.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12114)Full Citation

34.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Ordnance Manufacturing Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1680)Full Citation

35.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

36.

ImproGuns. 2015. ‘Japanese Man Arrested for Building Homemade Guns.’ The Firearm Blog. 3 September. (N691) Full Citation

37.

Japan.2016.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12101)Full Citation

38.

Japan.2010.‘Three Principles on Arms Export.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1683)Full Citation

39.

Japan.2014.‘Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law, 1949.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12115)Full Citation

40.

UN Register of Conventional Arms.2018.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Japan.’ UNROCA - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q13361)Full Citation

41.

United Nations.2018.‘National Customs Data on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Japan.’ UN Comtrade International Trade Statistics Database.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,1 January. (Q13420)Full Citation

42.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

43.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

44.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

45.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

46.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11068)Full Citation

47.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

48.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

49.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

50.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Customs Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1687)Full Citation

51.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Criminal Offences Relating to Illicit SALW - Firearms and Swords Control Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1685)Full Citation

52.

Reiji Yoshida. 2016. ‘What are the Chances of a Mass Shooting in Japan?.’ Japan Times. 13 June. (N634) Full Citation

53.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

54.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

55.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

56.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

57.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

58.

Japan.2016.‘Number of Firearm Smuggling Cases.’ Provisional Drug and Firearm Situation in the First Half of 2016.Tokyo:National Police Agency,1 September. (Q13398)Full Citation

59.

Japan.2016.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12102)Full Citation

60.

Japan.2014.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12111)Full Citation

61.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

62.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

63.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

64.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2017.‘Key Findings - Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ Trade Update 2017: Out of the Shadows.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 September. (Q13382)Full Citation

65.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

66.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

67.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

68.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

69.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

70.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

71.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

72.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

73.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

74.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

75.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

76.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

77.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

78.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1465)Full Citation

79.

Japan.2014.‘Firearms and Swords Control Law, 1958.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12117)Full Citation

80.

Japan.2010.‘Outline of National Criminal Offences Relating to Illicit SALW - Explosives Control Law.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1686)Full Citation

81.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1467)Full Citation

82.

Japan.2014.‘Customs Law, 1954.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12116)Full Citation

83.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1468)Full Citation

84.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

85.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

86.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q4146)Full Citation

87.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q1466)Full Citation

88.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2102)Full Citation

89.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5369)Full Citation

90.

Japan.2001.‘Firearms Control in Japan.’ National Police Agency, Firearms Division.Tokyo:Firearms Division, Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2101)Full Citation

91.

Japan.2002.‘Firearms Control in Japan 2002.’ No! Guns 2002.Tokyo:Firearms Division, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2122)Full Citation

92.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5420)Full Citation

93.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5439)Full Citation

94.

Karp, Aaron.2005.‘The Count Continues: Stockpiles: North-East Asia: The world's largest regional small arms stockpiles?.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q2104)Full Citation

95.

Japan.2016.‘Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12109)Full Citation

96.

Japan.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1679)Full Citation

97.

Japan.2010.‘Marking, Record Keeping and Tracing.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1678)Full Citation

98.

Japan.2016.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12103)Full Citation

99.

Japan.2002.‘Firearms Control in Japan 2002.’ No! Guns 2002.Tokyo:Firearms Division, National Police Agency,1 January. (Q2103)Full Citation

100.

Japan.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1682)Full Citation

101.

Japan.2016.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12110)Full Citation

102.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

103.

Japan.2016.‘Collection.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12108)Full Citation

104.

Japan.2014.‘Confiscation, Seizure & Collection.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12113)Full Citation

105.

Japan.2012.‘Confiscation, Seizure & Collection.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 February. (Q12119)Full Citation

106.

Japan.2016.‘Seizure of Handguns.’ Provisional Drug and Firearm Situation in the First Half of 2016.Tokyo:National Police Agency,1 September. (Q13397)Full Citation

107.

Japan.2015.‘Number of Seized Handguns, 2009-2013.’ National Police Agency: Police of Japan 2015.Tokyo:Police Policy Research Center, National Police Academy,6 April. (Q12165)Full Citation

108.

Japan.2012.‘Handgun Seizures, 2010.’ National Police Agency: Crimes in Japan in 2010.Tokyo:Police Policy Research Center, National Police Academy,14 May. (Q12166)Full Citation

109.

Japan.2011.‘Handgun Seizures, 2009.’ National Police Agency: Crimes in Japan in 2009.Tokyo:Police Policy Research Center, National Police Academy,20 May. (Q12168)Full Citation

110.

Japan.2008.‘Handgun Seizures, 2003-2007.’ National Police Agency: Crimes in Japan in 2007.Tokyo:Police Policy Research Center, National Police Academy,8 October. (Q12163)Full Citation

111.

Kenji Ogata. 2016. ‘Yakuza 'All-out War' Triggers Apparent Surge in Gun Prices.’ Asahi Shimbun (Japan). 20 June. (N641) Full Citation

112.

Japan.2014.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,10 March. (Q12112)Full Citation

113.

Japan.2010.‘Disposal.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1681)Full Citation

114.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

115.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

116.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

117.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

118.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

119.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

120.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

121.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

122.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

123.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

124.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

125.

Japan.2010.‘Cooperation with Civil Society and NGOs.’ National Report of Japan on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1688)Full Citation

126.

Robin Ballantyne. 2005. ‘Japan's Hidden Arms Trade.’ Asia Times (Hong Kong) / Japan Focus. 1 December. (N192) Full Citation

127.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

128.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

129.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation