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Jamaica — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Jamaica is

2017: 246,0001
2012: 180,0002 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Jamaica is

2017: 8.801
2012: 6.62 3

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 1934
1999: 7435

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 5,3484
1995: 3,4225

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 35,3734
1995: 13,9805

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Jamaica ranked at No. 1146

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Jamaica ranked at No. 743

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Jamaica is reported to be

2016: 34,0554
2010: 25,1007
2006: 27,0008
2004: 50,0009

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Jamaica is

2016: 1.1510
2010: 0.88
2006: 0.98
2004: 1.84

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Jamaica is reported to be

2017: 45,1951
2016: 45,9154
2010: 32,6007
2006: 65,00011 12
2005: 65,0003

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Jamaica is

2016: 1.5510
2010: 1.14
2006: 2.4411
2005: 2.3810

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,13 but in Jamaica there are estimated to be

2017: 200,0851

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Jamaica are reported to have 8,68114 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Jamaica are reported to have 12,00015 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 1,03916
2011: 87617
2010: 267
2009: 19118
1997: 45019
1995: 45920

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 35.2210
2011: 30.5417
2010: 9.38
2009: 6.76
1997: 18.619
1995: 18.5910

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 80017
2010: 241

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 7617
2010: 26

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 1,20721
2014: 1,005
2013: 1,20022
2012: 1,09922 23
2011: 95217
2010: 43
2009: 1,68322 23 24 25 26 27
2008: 1,61922 23 24 25 26
2007: 1,584
2006: 1,340
2005: 1,67428 22 23 24 25 26
2004: 1,471
2003: 975
2002: 1,045
2001: 1,139
2000: 887
1999: 84928 24 29
1998: 953
1997: 1,031
1996: 925
1995: 78028 24
1994: 69028
1993: 654
1992: 629
1991: 561
1990: 542

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 43.2121
2014: 36.11
2013: 43.27
2012: 39.78
2011: 30.5417
2010: 9.38
2009: 62.7722 23 24 25 26 27
2008: 60.5922 23 24 25 26
2007: 59.49
2006: 50.51
2005: 62.92
2004: 55.55
2003: 37.03
2002: 39.86
2001: 43.71
2000: 34.15
1999: 33.424 30
1998: 33.924 30 29
1997: 41.424 29
1996: 37.224 30 29
1995: 31.724
1994: 28.3210
1993: 27.17
1992: 26.45
1991: 23.79
1990: 23.09

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 1,09131
2014: 905
2013: 1,071
2012: 972
2011: 84417
2010: 32

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 11631
2014: 100
2013: 129
2012: 127
2011: 10817
2010: 11

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Jamaica, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 98016
2013: 88422
2012: 778
2011: 64617
2010: 0
2009: 1,29523 24 32
2008: 1,246
2007: 1,251
2006: 1,005
2005: 1,27824 32 9
2004: 1,111
2003: 69032 9
2002: 710
2001: 790
2000: 57532
1995: 45020

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 33.2210
2013: 30.38
2012: 26.93
2011: 22.5217
2010: 0
2009: 45.8310 24 32 26
2008: 44.43
2007: 44.96
2006: 36.42
2005: 47.724 32 26
2004: 41.7
2003: 26.332 10
2002: 27.1
2001: 30.3
2000: 22.232
1997: 18.2329
1995: 16.9720

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Jamaica, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 80%33
2013: 74%22
2012: 71%
2011: 70%22 23 34
2010: 76%22 23
2009: 77%23
2008: 77%
2007: 79%
2006: 75%
2005: 76.3%24
2004: 75.5%
2000: 61%35
1990: 50%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male firearm homicides total

2011: 59217
2010: 0

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female firearm homicides total

2011: 5417
2010: 0

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual suicides by any means total

2015: 5916
2011: 5017
2010: 3
2008: 4736 37
2007: 5036
2006: 53
2005: 58
2004: 4236 37
2003: 6436
2002: 56
2001: 73
2000: 80
1995: 3620

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.0010
2011: 1.7417
2010: 0.11
2008: 1.836 37
2007: 1.936
2006: 2.0
2005: 2.2
2004: 1.6
2003: 2.4
2002: 2.1
2001: 2.8
2000: 3.1
1995: 1.3620

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male suicides by any means total

2011: 4417
2010: 3

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female suicides by any means total

2011: 617
2010: 0

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Jamaica, annual firearm suicides total

2015: 916
2011: 417
2010: 0
1995: 920

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.3110
2011: 0.1417
2010: 0
1995: 0.3420

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male firearm suicides total

2011: 417
2010: 0

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female firearm suicides total

2011: 017
2010: 0

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2011: 417
2010: 0
2009: 19118

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 7.7417
2010: 9.38
2009: 6.7610

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2011: 317
2010: 0

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2011: 117
2010: 0

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Jamaica, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 22217
2010: 267

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 20117
2010: 241

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 2117
2010: 26

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Jamaica, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,38 39 40 41 42 but is not conducted in practice43 44 45 46

Home-made Guns

In Jamaica, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high47

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Jamaica, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law48 49 50 51 52

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Jamaica is reported by Customs to be US$4,31653 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Jamaica, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law48 49 50 51 54 52 55

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Jamaica is reported by Customs to be US$1,553,16653 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Jamaica is high56 57 58 59 60

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Jamaica, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law61 62 45 54

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Jamaica include63 64 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Jamaica is categorised as restrictive65

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Jamaica includes the Firearms Act 1967 and its 2010 Amendments,66 the 2001 Firearms Regulation,49 the Gunpowder and Explosives Act,55 the Customs Act 1941 and the Trade Act 195567

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Jamaica are regulated by the Ministry of National Security68 and the Firearm Licensing Authority69 70 54

Right to Possess Firearms

In Jamaica, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law71 72 73

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Jamaica, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms74 75 76 34

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Jamaica, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited74 75 76 34

Regulation of Handguns

In Jamaica, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence75 76 34

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Jamaica, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law75 76 34

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Jamaica, only licensed gun owners76 75 77 34 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Jamaica are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm77 78

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Jamaica is 17 years75

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Jamaica must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health77 74 79 34 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Jamaica, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required80

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Jamaica, licensing authorities are not required73 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Jamaica does not stipulate73 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Jamaica, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required77 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Jamaica, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every four or five years81

Licensing Records

In Jamaica, authorities maintain a record68 82 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Jamaica are permitted to possess any number of firearms73 83

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Jamaica are permitted to possess only 50 rounds of ammunition per year59

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Jamaica, the law requires68 84 82 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Jamaica, licensed firearm dealers are required85 84 51 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Jamaica, State agencies are required86 87 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Jamaica, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a Firearm Disposal Permit75 88 89

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Jamaica, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful38 75 89 39 40 41 42

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Jamaica, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined73

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Jamaica, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated73 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Jamaica include77 80 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Jamaica include77 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Jamaica include90 87 91 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Jamaica do not include73 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Jamaica, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law45 54 68 92 93 94

Firearm Tracing

In Jamaica, state authorities carry out95 68 96 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Jamaica, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are97 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Jamaica, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law98 99 100 34

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Jamaica, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm101 is five years in prison and a fine75 76 102 38 89 39 40 42 98 99 103 48 50

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Jamaica are known to have104 105 106 107 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 860108
2016: 649108 33
2015: 571109 110
2014: 615109
2013: 726111
2012: 596
2011: 496
2010: 687
2005: 683112
2004: 6209
2003: 517
2002: 481
2001: 546
1999: 4,000106

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2015: 1,468109
2010: 6,000113
2004: 10,132105 114
2002: 1,430
1999: 4,000106

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Jamaica, it is state policy115 104 105 113 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Jamaica adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified116 117 by Jamaica

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006118 by Jamaica.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified119 by Jamaica

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified120 by Jamaica

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Jamaica committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects121 55

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Jamaica against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 122122 123 124 125 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Jamaica has submitted one or more national reports126 127 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Jamaica, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated128 127

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Jamaica, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated129

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Jamaica submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent127

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated127 by Jamaica to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided127 to Jamaica by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Jamaica has not declared130 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Jamaica has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1962131

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list132 Jamaica as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Jamaica, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Jamaica ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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