Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Jamaica — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Jamaica is

2017: 246,0001
2012: 180,0002 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Jamaica is

2017: 8.801
2012: 6.62 3

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 1934
1999: 7435

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 5,3484
1995: 3,4225

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 35,3734
1995: 13,9805

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Jamaica ranked at No. 1146

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Jamaica ranked at No. 743

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Jamaica is reported to be

2016: 34,0554
2010: 25,1007
2006: 27,0008
2004: 50,0009

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Jamaica is

2016: 1.1510
2010: 0.88
2006: 0.98
2004: 1.84

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Jamaica is reported to be

2017: 45,1951
2016: 45,9154
2010: 32,6007
2006: 65,00011 12
2005: 65,0003

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Jamaica is

2016: 1.5510
2010: 1.14
2006: 2.4411
2005: 2.3810

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Jamaica there are estimated to be

2017: 200,0851

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Jamaica are reported to have 8,68113 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Jamaica are reported to have 12,00014 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 1,03915
2011: 87616
2010: 267
2009: 19117
1997: 45018
1995: 45919

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 35.2210
2011: 30.5416
2010: 9.38
2009: 6.76
1997: 18.618
1995: 18.5910

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 80016
2010: 241

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2011: 7616
2010: 26

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 1,20720
2014: 1,005
2013: 1,20021
2012: 1,09921 22
2011: 95216
2010: 43
2009: 1,68321 22 23 24 25 26
2008: 1,61921 22 23 24 25
2007: 1,584
2006: 1,340
2005: 1,67427 21 22 23 24 25
2004: 1,471
2003: 975
2002: 1,045
2001: 1,139
2000: 887
1999: 84927 23 28
1998: 953
1997: 1,031
1996: 925
1995: 78027 23
1994: 69027
1993: 654
1992: 629
1991: 561
1990: 542

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 43.2120
2014: 36.11
2013: 43.27
2012: 39.78
2011: 30.5416
2010: 9.38
2009: 62.7721 22 23 24 25 26
2008: 60.5921 22 23 24 25
2007: 59.49
2006: 50.51
2005: 62.92
2004: 55.55
2003: 37.03
2002: 39.86
2001: 43.71
2000: 34.15
1999: 33.423 29
1998: 33.923 29 28
1997: 41.423 28
1996: 37.223 29 28
1995: 31.723
1994: 28.3210
1993: 27.17
1992: 26.45
1991: 23.79
1990: 23.09

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 1,09130
2014: 905
2013: 1,071
2012: 972
2011: 84416
2010: 32

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 11630
2014: 100
2013: 129
2012: 127
2011: 10816
2010: 11

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Jamaica, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 98015
2013: 88421
2012: 778
2011: 64616
2010: 0
2009: 1,29522 23 31
2008: 1,246
2007: 1,251
2006: 1,005
2005: 1,27823 31 9
2004: 1,111
2003: 69031 9
2002: 710
2001: 790
2000: 57531
1995: 45019

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 33.2210
2013: 30.38
2012: 26.93
2011: 22.5216
2010: 0
2009: 45.8310 23 31 25
2008: 44.43
2007: 44.96
2006: 36.42
2005: 47.723 31 25
2004: 41.7
2003: 26.331 10
2002: 27.1
2001: 30.3
2000: 22.231
1997: 18.2328
1995: 16.9719

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Jamaica, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 80%32
2013: 74%21
2012: 71%
2011: 70%21 22 33
2010: 76%21 22
2009: 77%22
2008: 77%
2007: 79%
2006: 75%
2005: 76.3%23
2004: 75.5%
2000: 61%34
1990: 50%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male firearm homicides total

2011: 59216
2010: 0

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female firearm homicides total

2011: 5416
2010: 0

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual suicides by any means total

2015: 5915
2011: 5016
2010: 3
2008: 4735 36
2007: 5035
2006: 53
2005: 58
2004: 4235 36
2003: 6435
2002: 56
2001: 73
2000: 80
1995: 3619

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.0010
2011: 1.7416
2010: 0.11
2008: 1.835 36
2007: 1.935
2006: 2.0
2005: 2.2
2004: 1.6
2003: 2.4
2002: 2.1
2001: 2.8
2000: 3.1
1995: 1.3619

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male suicides by any means total

2011: 4416
2010: 3

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female suicides by any means total

2011: 616
2010: 0

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Jamaica, annual firearm suicides total

2015: 915
2011: 416
2010: 0
1995: 919

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.3110
2011: 0.1416
2010: 0
1995: 0.3419

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male firearm suicides total

2011: 416
2010: 0

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female firearm suicides total

2011: 016
2010: 0

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2011: 416
2010: 0
2009: 19117

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Jamaica, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2011: 7.7416
2010: 9.38
2009: 6.7610

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2011: 316
2010: 0

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Jamaica, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2011: 116
2010: 0

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Jamaica, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 22216
2010: 267

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Jamaica, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 20116
2010: 241

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Jamaica, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 2116
2010: 26

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Jamaica, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,37 38 39 40 41 but is not conducted in practice42 43 44

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Jamaica, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law45 46 47 48 49

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Jamaica is reported by Customs to be US$4,31650 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Jamaica, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law45 46 47 48 51 49 52

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Jamaica is reported by Customs to be US$1,553,16650 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Jamaica is high53 9 54 55 56 57 58

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Jamaica, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law59 43 51

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Jamaica include60 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Jamaica is categorised as restrictive61

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Jamaica includes the Firearms Act 1967 and its 2010 Amendments,62 the 2001 Firearms Regulation,46 the Gunpowder and Explosives Act,52 the Customs Act 1941 and the Trade Act 195563

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Jamaica are regulated by the Ministry of National Security64 and the Firearm Licensing Authority65 66 51

Right to Possess Firearms

In Jamaica, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law67 68 69

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Jamaica, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms70 71 72 33

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Jamaica, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited70 71 72 33

Regulation of Handguns

In Jamaica, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence71 72 33

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Jamaica, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law71 72 33

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Jamaica, only licensed gun owners72 71 73 33 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Jamaica are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm73 74

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Jamaica is 17 years71

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Jamaica must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental health73 70 75 33 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Jamaica, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required76

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Jamaica, licensing authorities are not required69 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Jamaica does not stipulate69 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Jamaica, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required73 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Jamaica, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every four or five years77

Licensing Records

In Jamaica, authorities maintain a record64 78 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Jamaica are permitted to possess any number of firearms69 79

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Jamaica are permitted to possess only 50 rounds of ammunition per year57

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Jamaica, the law requires64 80 78 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Jamaica, licensed firearm dealers are required81 80 48 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Jamaica, State agencies are required82 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Jamaica, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a Firearm Disposal Permit71 83 84

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Jamaica, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful37 71 84 38 39 40 41

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Jamaica, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined69

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Jamaica, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated69 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Jamaica include73 76 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Jamaica include73 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Jamaica include82 85 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Jamaica do not include69 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Jamaica, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law43 51 64 86 87 88

Firearm Tracing

In Jamaica, state authorities carry out89 64 90 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Jamaica, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are91 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Jamaica, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law92 93 94 33

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Jamaica, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm95 is five years in prison and a fine71 72 96 37 84 38 39 41 92 93 97 45 47

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Jamaica are known to have98 99 100 101 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2016: 33632
2015: 571102 103
2014: 615102
2013: 726104
2012: 596
2011: 496
2010: 687
2005: 683105
2004: 6209
2003: 517
2002: 481
2001: 546
1999: 4,000100

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Jamaica, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2015: 1,468102
2010: 6,000106
2004: 10,13299 107
2002: 1,430
1999: 4,000100

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Jamaica, it is state policy108 98 99 106 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Jamaica adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified109 110 by Jamaica

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006111 by Jamaica.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified112 by Jamaica

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified113 by Jamaica

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Jamaica committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects114 52

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Jamaica against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 122115 116 117 118 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Jamaica has submitted one or more national reports119 120 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Jamaica, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated121 120

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Jamaica, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated122

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Jamaica submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent120

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated120 by Jamaica to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided120 to Jamaica by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Jamaica has not declared123 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Jamaica has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1962124

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list125 Jamaica as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Jamaica, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Jamaica ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

4.

Jamaica.2016.‘Gun Numbers.’ Ministry of National Security - Number of Civilian Firearms.Kingston:Ministry of National Security,1 April. (Q11843)Full Citation

5.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

7.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Firearm Oversight.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3388)Full Citation

8.

Jamaica Observer. 2006. ‘Gun Licence Rush.’ 4 April. (N419) Full Citation

9.

Jamaica.2005.‘Action at the National Level.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1525)Full Citation

10.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Jamaica.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,16 May. (Q4247)Full Citation

11.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Legally Registered Civilian Firearms.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9208)Full Citation

12.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Civilian Firearms Legally Registered.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5679)Full Citation

13.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

14.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

15.

Jamaica.2016.‘Gun Death and Injury.’ Ministry of National Security - Death and Injury by Firearms.Kingston:Ministry of National Security,1 April. (Q11842)Full Citation

16.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

17.

Fleitas, Diego Manuel, Germán Lodola and Hernán Flom.2014.‘Country Profiles on Crime and Violence: Jamaica.’ Crime and Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: Regional Country Profiles.Buenos Aires:Asociación para Políticas Públicas (APP) and Action on Armed Violence,1 January. (Q11450)Full Citation

18.

Cukier, Wendy and Victor W Sidel.2006.‘The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials to AK-47s: The firearm epidemic: Regional variations: North America and the Caribbean.’ The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials to AK-47s.Westport, CT:Praeger Security International,1 January. (Q11086)Full Citation

19.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

20.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

21.

Igarapé Institute.2015.‘Homicides and Homicide Rates 2000 to 2014 - Jamaica.’ Homicide Monitor 2015.Rio de Janeiro:Igarapé Institute,24 June. (Q11115)Full Citation

22.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Jamaica.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10116)Full Citation

23.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Jamaica.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6360)Full Citation

24.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

25.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

26.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Introduction.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3389)Full Citation

27.

Wortley, Scot, Rosemary Gartner, Randy Seepersad and Andrea McCalla.2006.‘Total Number of Major Crimes and Total Number of Murders Recorded by the Jamaican Government, 1990 to 2005 - Homicide.’ The Jamaican National Crime Victimization Survey.Toronto:Centre of Criminology, University of Toronto,1 January. (Q2145)Full Citation

28.

Kovalski, Serge.1999.‘Murder 'Madness' Bedevils Jamaica: Government struggles to curb wave of slayings and address underlying causes.’ Washington Post Foreign Service.Kingston:Washington Post,27 July. (Q11082)Full Citation

29.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3817)Full Citation

30.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

31.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

32.

Jamaica Observer. 2016. ‘Cops Seize 336 Weapons Under 'Get the Guns' Campaign.’ 12 July. (N645) Full Citation

33.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Jamaica.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9609)Full Citation

34.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Background: Violent Crime in Jamaica.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q11087)Full Citation

35.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

36.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

37.

Jamaica.1967.‘General Restrictions Upon Manufacture and Dealing in Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1399)Full Citation

38.

Jamaica.1967.‘Special Restriction Upon Holders of Firearm Manufacturer's or Firearm Dealer's Licences.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11011)Full Citation

39.

Jamaica.1967.‘General Restriction on Repair and Transfer of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11012)Full Citation

40.

Jamaica.1967.‘Restrictions re Gunsmiths.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11013)Full Citation

41.

Jamaica.1967.‘Special Restrictions on Shortening Firearms and Converting Imitation Firearms into Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11014)Full Citation

42.

Jamaica.2014.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11045)Full Citation

43.

Jamaica.2008.‘Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 March. (Q1520)Full Citation

44.

Jamaica.2016.‘Regulation of Firearm Makers.’ Ministry of National Security - Gun Industry.Kingston:Ministry of National Security,1 April. (Q11841)Full Citation

45.

Jamaica.1967.‘Restriction on Importation, Exportation and Transhipment of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1402)Full Citation

46.

Jamaica.2001.‘The Firearms (Amendments) Regulations, 2001.’ Firearms (Amendments) Regulations, 2001.Kingston:The Jamaica Gazette,2 April. (Q11056)Full Citation

47.

Jamaica.2014.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11046)Full Citation

48.

Jamaica.2016.‘Record Keeping (Import and Export).’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,11 April. (Q11864)Full Citation

49.

Jamaica.2008.‘Implementation of the Programme of Action (UNPoA).’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 March. (Q1598)Full Citation

50.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

51.

Jamaica.2008.‘Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 March. (Q1521)Full Citation

52.

Jamaica.2005.‘Introduction.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1524)Full Citation

53.

Jamaica.2008.‘Implementation of the Programme of Action (UNPoA).’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 March. (Q1599)Full Citation

54.

Jamaica.2005.‘Action at the National Level.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1527)Full Citation

55.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Introduction.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3339)Full Citation

56.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Introduction.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3344)Full Citation

57.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Illegal Ammunition.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3345)Full Citation

58.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Introduction.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3346)Full Citation

59.

Jamaica.2014.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11049)Full Citation

60.

Jamaica.2014.‘End-user Certificate.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11047)Full Citation

61.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

62.

Jamaica.1967.‘Firearms Act.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 26.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1380)Full Citation

63.

Jamaica.2016.‘Firearm Law.’ Ministry of National Security - Gun Regulation.Kingston:Ministry of National Security,1 April. (Q11840)Full Citation

64.

Jamaica.2008.‘Implementation of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 March. (Q1522)Full Citation

65.

Jamaica.1967.‘Establishment of Authority.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1396)Full Citation

66.

Jamaica.1967.‘Functions of Authority.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11020)Full Citation

67.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

68.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

69.

Jamaica.1967.‘Firearms Act.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q4145)Full Citation

70.

Jamaica.1967.‘Interpretation.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1400)Full Citation

71.

Jamaica.1967.‘Restrictions Upon Acquisition or Disposal of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1397)Full Citation

72.

Jamaica.1967.‘Possession of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11017)Full Citation

73.

Jamaica.1967.‘General Provisions as to Grant and Issue of Licences, Certificates and Permits.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1398)Full Citation

74.

Jamaica.1967.‘Firearm User's (Employee's) Certificate.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11021)Full Citation

75.

Jamaica.1967.‘Declaration of Restricted Person.’ Firearms Act (As Amended in 2010).Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11009)Full Citation

76.

Jamaica.2014.‘Requirements for Firearm Licence.’ Frequently Asked Questions.Kingston:Jamaica Firearm Licensing Authority (FLA),13 June. (Q11083)Full Citation

77.

Jamaica.1967.‘Duration of Licence or Permit.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11024)Full Citation

78.

Kytömäki, Elli, and Valerie Yankey-Wayne.2006.‘Five Years of Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Regional analysis of the national reports.’ UNDP / UNIDIR / UNDDA / Small Arms Survey.Geneva:United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research / UNIDIR,1 June. (Q2067)Full Citation

79.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Jamaica.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q11604)Full Citation

80.

Jamaica.2016.‘Record Keeping.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,11 April. (Q11861)Full Citation

81.

Jamaica.1967.‘Records and Returns.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11015)Full Citation

82.

Jamaica.2014.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11050)Full Citation

83.

Jamaica.1967.‘Special Provisions Relating to Firearm Disposal Permit.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11023)Full Citation

84.

Jamaica.1967.‘Restriction on Delivery of Firearm and Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11010)Full Citation

85.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Weapons Storage, Management, and Destruction by Security Forces.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3393)Full Citation

86.

Jamaica.2016.‘Marking at Import.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,11 April. (Q11859)Full Citation

87.

Jamaica.2016.‘Marking.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,11 April. (Q11862)Full Citation

88.

Jamaica.2014.‘Marking.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11053)Full Citation

89.

Jamaica.2016.‘Tracing.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,11 April. (Q11860)Full Citation

90.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Marking and Tracing.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:UN Development Programme / UNDP, UN Institute for Disarmament Research / UNIDIR, UN Office for Disarmament Affairs / UNODA, Small Arms Survey,1 November. (Q1977)Full Citation

91.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Firearm Oversight.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3392)Full Citation

92.

Jamaica.1967.‘General Restriction Upon Carrying Firearms and Ammunition in Public.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1401)Full Citation

93.

Jamaica.1967.‘Special Restriction on Carrying of Firearms and Ammunition in Public Places.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11018)Full Citation

94.

Jamaica.1967.‘Special Provisions Relating to Firearm User's (Special) Permit.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11022)Full Citation

95.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

96.

Jamaica.1967.‘Penalty for Use of Firearm or Ammunition in Contravention of Terms or Conditions of Licences, Etc..’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11019)Full Citation

97.

Jamaica.1967.‘General Penalty.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q11025)Full Citation

98.

Jamaica.2008.‘Implementation of the Programme of Action (UNPoA).’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 March. (Q1523)Full Citation

99.

Jamaica.2005.‘Action at the National Level.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1526)Full Citation

100.

Godnick, William and Helena Vasquez.2003.‘Jamaica.’ Small Arms Control in Latin America: Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Control Projects (MISAC).London:International Alert, Security and Peacebuilding Programme,1 March. (Q5562)Full Citation

101.

Jamaica Constabulary Force. 2015. ‘"Get the Guns Campaign" Launch.’ 20 September. (N414) Full Citation

102.

Jamaica.2016.‘Firearms Collected, Seized and Destroyed.’ Ministry of National Security - Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes.Kingston:Ministry of National Security,1 April. (Q11839)Full Citation

103.

Jamaica.2016.‘Collection.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,11 April. (Q11863)Full Citation

104.

Jamaica.2014.‘Confiscation and Seizure.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11052)Full Citation

105.

Diane Abbott. 2006. ‘The Necessity for International Control of Guns.’ Jamaica Observer. 14 May. (N394) Full Citation

106.

Leslie, Glaister.2010.‘Weapons Storage, Management, and Destruction by Security Forces.’ Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,3 November. (Q3343)Full Citation

107.

Kytömäki, Elli and Valerie Yankey-Wayne.2006.‘Five Years of Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Regional analysis of the national reports.’ UNDP / UNIDIR / UNDDA / Small Arms Survey.Geneva:United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research / UNIDIR,1 June. (Q11085)Full Citation

108.

Jamaica.2014.‘Surplus.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11051)Full Citation

109.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

110.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

111.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

112.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

113.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

114.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

115.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

116.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

117.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

118.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

119.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

120.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

121.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

122.

Jamaica.2014.‘National Coordination Agency.’ National Report of Jamaica on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Jamaica to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11044)Full Citation

123.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

124.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

125.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation