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Haiti — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Haiti is

2017: 291,0001
2010: 200,0002 3
2005: 190,000 4 5 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Haiti is

2017: 2.736
2010: 2.04
2005: 2.1

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Haiti, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 5,7285

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Haiti, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 14,6515

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 206 countries, Haiti ranked at No. 1077

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of privately owned guns in 206 countries, Haiti ranked at No.1427

Proportion of Households with Firearms

In Haiti, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be 2010: 2.3%8 (Port au Prince area only)

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Haiti is reported to be

2017: 20,3791 9 3 4
:

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Haiti is

2017: 0.196

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,10 but in Haiti there are estimated to be

2022: 500,00011
2017: 270,6211
2005: 169,6214 5 3
:

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,10 but in Haiti the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2022: 4.416
2017: 2.54

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Haiti are reported to have 38012 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In Haiti, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms13

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Haiti are reported to have 15,00014 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual homicides by any means total

2021: 1,63015
2020: 1,47816
2016: 3,03617
2015: 2,970
2010: 2,841
2000: 2,089

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2021: 13.7015
2020: 13.0016
2016: 28.9517
2015: 28.96
2010: 29.74
2000: 25.23

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 2,43017
2015: 2,379
2010: 2,287
2000: 1,694

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 46.8617
2015: 47.01
2010: 48.52
2000: 41.53

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 60617
2015: 591
2010: 554
2000: 395

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 11.4317
2015: 11.38
2010: 11.45
2000: 9.40

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 1,26517
2015: 1,250
2010: 1,018
2000: 747

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 12.0617
2015: 12.19
2010: 10.66
2008: 1.118
2003: 0.0
2002: 0.0
2001: 0.2
2000: 9.02

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 91117
2015: 901
2010: 732
2000: 555

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 17.5717
2015: 17.80
2010: 15.53
2000: 13.61

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 35417
2015: 349
2010: 286
2000: 192

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 6.6817
2015: 6.72
2010: 5.91
2000: 4.57

Gun Suicides

In Haiti, annual firearm suicides total

2001: 119

Male Gun Suicide Victims

In Haiti, annual male firearm suicides total

2001: 119

Unintentional Gun Deaths

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Haiti, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2004: 419
2003: 1

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2004: 0.0919
2003: 0.02

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

In Haiti, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2001: 119

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Haiti, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.0219

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Haiti, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited outside the monopoly of State for weapons of war20 21

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Haiti, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law20 21

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Haiti is reported by Customs to be US$

2018: 699,00022
2015: 19,000
2013: 4,000

Firearm Imports

In Haiti, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law20 23 24 21

Firearm Imports (Number)

The annual number of firearms imported to Haiti is reported to be

2006: 56525

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Haiti is reported by Customs to be US$

2021: 959,00026
2020: 1,164,000
2019: 127,000
2018: 243,000
2017: 281,000
2016: 972,000
2015: 634,000
2014: 2,578,000
2013: 3,001,000

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Haiti is high27 28

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Haiti, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law29

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Haiti do not include29 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Haiti is categorised as restrictive30

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Haiti includes the Decree on Firearms of 1988,31 the Decree of 1989 modifying the Decree of 198832 and the Constitution of 198721

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Haiti are regulated by the Haiti Armed Forces31 and the Police33 34

Right to Possess Firearms

In Haiti, the right to private gun ownership is conditionally guaranteed by the Constitution,21 35 36 37 3 as limited by statute law32

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Haiti, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons of war,20 21 38 39 automatic firearms,40 destructive weapons41 and incendiary or exploding bullets42

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Haiti, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited40 24

Regulation of Handguns

In Haiti, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence38

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Haiti, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law38 39

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Haiti, only licensed gun owners32 43 44 33 21 3 34 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Haiti are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example self-defence,38 sports and recreational purposes39

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Haiti is 18 years32 45

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Haiti must pass a background check which considers undefined29 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Haiti, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required29

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Haiti, licensing authorities are not required29 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Haiti does not stipulate29 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Haiti, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required29 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Haiti, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every year46

Licensing Records

In Haiti, authorities do not maintain a record29 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Haiti are permitted to possess any number of firearms29

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Haiti are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition29

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Haiti, the law does not require29 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Haiti, licensed firearm dealers are not required29 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Haiti, licensed gun makers are not required29 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Haiti, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without an authorisation from Haiti Armed Forces23

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Haiti, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful23 24

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Haiti, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined29

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Haiti, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated29 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Haiti do not include29 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Haiti do not include29 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Haiti do not include29 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Haiti, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law43 44

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Haiti, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed29

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Haiti, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed29

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Haiti, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm47 is five years in prison and a fine24

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Haiti adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed and ratified48 49 by Haiti

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed50 by Haiti.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified51 by Haiti

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been acceded to52 by Haiti

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Haiti committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects53

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Haiti against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 13654 55 56 57 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Haiti has submitted one or more national reports58 59 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Haiti, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated59

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated59 by Haiti to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided59 to Haiti by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Haiti has not declared60 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Haiti has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194561

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list62 Haiti as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,63 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual homicides by any means total

2021: 1,63015
2020: 1,47816
2016: 3,03617
2015: 2,970
2010: 2,841
2000: 2,089

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2021: 13.7015
2020: 13.0016
2016: 28.9517
2015: 28.96
2010: 29.74
2000: 25.23

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 2,43017
2015: 2,379
2010: 2,287
2000: 1,694

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 46.8617
2015: 47.01
2010: 48.52
2000: 41.53

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 60617
2015: 591
2010: 554
2000: 395

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Haiti, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 11.4317
2015: 11.38
2010: 11.45
2000: 9.40

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Haiti, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in Haiti are known to have64 65 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Haiti, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 20066 (2006)

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

In Haiti, the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be 3,68465 (1994-95)

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Haiti, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be 33,00065 (1994-95)

Small Arms Destroyed

In Haiti, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 24964 (2003)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Haiti, it is state policy67 64 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Haiti, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is not required by law29

Firearm Tracing

In Haiti, state authorities do not carry out29 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Haiti, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not originally29 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where Haiti ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Haiti on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


Short References

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Estimated Civilian Gun Ownership.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q8972)Full Citation

3.

Muggah, Robert.2005.‘Civilian Gun Possession.’ Securing Haiti's Transition: Reviewing Human Insecurity and the Prospects for Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 October. (Q9880)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

5.

Haiti.2003.‘Law Enforcement and Criminalisation (Application des Lois et Criminalisation ).’ National Report of Haiti on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Haiti to the United Nations,8 July. (Q4786)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2011.‘Calculated Rates - Haiti.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,22 August. (Q4242)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org.2022.‘Calculated Ranking.’ Estimating global civilian-held firearm numbers..Geneva:GunPolicy.org,30 June. (Q15876)Full Citation

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Kolbe, Athena and Robert Muggah.2011.‘Securing the State: Haiti Before and After the Earthquake.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q9878)Full Citation

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GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
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InSight Crime. 2022. ‘Illegal Firearms in Haiti (2022).’ 3 June. (N920) Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Country Analyses: Haiti.’ Measurement and Use of Statistical Data to Analyze Small Arms in the Caribbean and Latin America.Mexico City:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Center of Excellence, National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI),28 April. (Q9876)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

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InSight Crime. 2022. ‘InSight Crime's 2021 Homicide Round-Up.’ 1 February. (N872) Full Citation

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21.

Haiti.1987.‘Firearms (Armes à feu).’ Constitution of the Republic of Haiti of 1987 (Constitution de la République d'Haïti de 1987).Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Republic of Haiti,10 March. (Q9875)Full Citation

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International Trade Centre (ITC).2022.‘Exported values (2002-2021).’ Trade Map.Geneva:International Trade Centre (ITC),31 August. (Q16040)Full Citation

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Haiti.1989.‘Imports and Transfers of Firearms (Importations et transferts d'armes à feu).’ Decree of 23 May 1989, Modifying Certain Articles of the Decree of 12 January 1988, on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,23 May. (Q9870)Full Citation

24.

Haiti.1989.‘Penalties (Sanctions).’ Decree of 23 May 1989, Modifying Certain Articles of the Decree of 12 January 1988, on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,23 May. (Q9874)Full Citation

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UN Register of Conventional Arms.2018.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports.’ UNROCA - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q13952)Full Citation

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International Trade Centre (ITC).2022.‘Imported values (2002-2021).’ Trade Map.Geneva:International Trade Centre (ITC),31 August. (Q16041)Full Citation

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Haiti.1988.‘Decree on Firearms of 1988 (Décret sur les armes à feu de 1988).’ Decree of 12 January 1988, Laying Down the Conditions for the Ownership, Possession and Use of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons Listed as Dangerous on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,12 January. (Q11990)Full Citation

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Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

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Haiti.1988.‘Decree on Firearms of 1988 (Décret sur les armes à feu de 1988).’ Decree of 12 January 1988, Laying Down the Conditions for the Ownership, Possession and Use of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons Listed as Dangerous on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,12 January. (Q9859)Full Citation

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Haiti.1989.‘Firearm Possession Requirements (Conditions pour la possession d'armes à feu).’ Decree of 23 May 1989, Modifying Certain Articles of the Decree of 12 January 1988, on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,23 May. (Q9866)Full Citation

33.

Haiti.1989.‘Competent Authority to Issue Licences (Autorité compétente pour délivrer les licences).’ Decree of 23 May 1989, Modifying Certain Articles of the Decree of 12 January 1988, on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,23 May. (Q9872)Full Citation

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Muggah, Robert.2005.‘Policing Small Arms.’ Securing Haiti's Transition: Reviewing Human Insecurity and the Prospects for Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 October. (Q9881)Full Citation

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Comparative Constitutions Project.2013.‘Right to Armed Self-defense.’ Haiti's Constitution of 1987 with Amendments through 2012 - English.Austin, TX:Comparative Constitutions Project / CCP,1 September. (Q8504)Full Citation

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Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

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Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

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Haiti.1988.‘Firearm Possession for Personal Defence (Possession d'armes à feu pour défense personnelle).’ Decree of 12 January 1988, Laying Down the Conditions for the Ownership, Possession and Use of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons Listed as Dangerous on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,12 January. (Q9862)Full Citation

39.

Haiti.1989.‘Firearm Possession for Sports and Recreational Purposes (Possession d'armes à feu à des fins récréatives ou sportives).’ Decree of 23 May 1989, Modifying Certain Articles of the Decree of 12 January 1988, on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,23 May. (Q9865)Full Citation

40.

Haiti.1988.‘Automatic Firearms (Armes à feu automatiques).’ Decree of 12 January 1988, Laying Down the Conditions for the Ownership, Possession and Use of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons Listed as Dangerous on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,12 January. (Q9863)Full Citation

41.

Haiti.1989.‘Possession of Destructive Weapons (Possession d'engins destructeurs).’ Decree of 23 May 1989, Modifying Certain Articles of the Decree of 12 January 1988, on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,23 May. (Q9868)Full Citation

42.

Haiti.1988.‘Ammunition (Munitions).’ Decree of 12 January 1988, Laying Down the Conditions for the Ownership, Possession and Use of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons Listed as Dangerous on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,12 January. (Q9864)Full Citation

43.

Haiti.1989.‘Carrying and Possession of Firearms (Port et possession d'armes à feu).’ Decree of 23 May 1989, Modifying Certain Articles of the Decree of 12 January 1988, on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Categories of Weapons on the National Territory.Port au Prince:Le Moniteur, Ministry of the Interior and of Local Government of the Republic of Haiti,23 May. (Q9869)Full Citation

44.

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