Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Ghana — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Ghana is

2017: 2,280,0001
2016: 2,300,0002
2012: 500,0003

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Ghana is

2017: 81
2016: 8.554
2012: 2.0

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Ghana ranked at No. 1435

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Ghana ranked at No. 1746

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Ghana is reported to be

2017: 1,236,1281
2016: 1,200,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Ghana is

2016: 4.464

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,7 but in Ghana there are estimated to be

2017: 1,043,8721
2016: 1,100,0002 8

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,7 but in Ghana the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2016: 4.094

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Ghana are reported to have 18,6009 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Ghana are reported to have 28,00010 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 2,73711
2015: 2,708
2010: 2,513
2000: 2,013

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 10.1711
2015: 10.29
2010: 10.66
2000: 10.61

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 1,72611
2015: 1,706
2010: 1,600
2000: 1,190

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 13.0111
2015: 13.14
2010: 13.74
2000: 12.64

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 1,01111
2015: 1,002
2010: 913
2000: 824

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 7.4111
2015: 7.51
2010: 7.65
2000: 8.62

Gun Homicides

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Ghana, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 51%12

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 1,51511
2015: 1,459
2010: 1,163
2000: 760

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 5.6311
2015: 5.54
2010: 4.93
2000: 4

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 1,21811
2015: 1,167
2010: 907
2000: 583

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 9.1811
2015: 8.99
2010: 7.79
2000: 6.19

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 29711
2015: 292
2010: 256
2000: 177

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 2.1811
2015: 2.19
2010: 2.15
2000: 1.85

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Ghana, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is prohibited13

Home-made Guns

In Ghana, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate14 15 16

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Ghana, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law17 18

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Ghana is reported by Customs to be US$38019 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Ghana, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law17 18 20 21

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Ghana is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 197,000,00022

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Ghana is moderate23 24 2 25 26

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Ghana, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law27 20

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Ghana include28 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

Law Regulates Civilian Access to Firearms

In Ghana, civilian possession of guns is regulated by law12

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Ghana includes the Arms and Ammunitions Act of 1962 (Act 118), the Africa Defence (Ghana) Act of 1965 (Act 313), the Armed Forces Act of 1962 (Act 105), the Public Order Act of 1994 (Act 491) and the Criminal Code of Ghana of 1960 (Act 29)17

Right to Possess Firearms

In Ghana, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law29 30

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Law Regulates Automatic Weapons

In Ghana, civilian possession of automatic weapons is regulated by law12

Law Regulates Handguns

In Ghana, civilian possession of handguns is regulated by law12

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Ghana, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law12

Gun Ownership and Possession

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Ghana must pass a background check which considers undefined12 records

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Ghana, the law require31 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Ghana, State agencies are required31 32 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Ghana include32 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Ghana, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law12

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Ghana adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200633 34

Economic Community of West African States

In June 2006, as a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Ghana adopted the ECOWAS Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and other Related Materials. This stipulates strict controls on the transfer, manufacture, possession and security of small arms and light weapons35

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists36 Ghana as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200637 by Ghana.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified38 by Ghana

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified39 by Ghana

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Ghana committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects40

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Ghana against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 11441 42 43 44 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Ghana has submitted one or more national reports45 46 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Ghana, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated47

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Ghana, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated47 46

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Ghana submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent47 46

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated46 by Ghana to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided46 to Ghana by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Ghana has not declared48 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Ghana has been a Member State of the United Nations since 195749

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list50 Ghana as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,51 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 2,73711
2015: 2,708
2010: 2,513
2000: 2,013

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 10.1711
2015: 10.29
2010: 10.66
2000: 10.61

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 1,72611
2015: 1,706
2010: 1,600
2000: 1,190

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 13.0111
2015: 13.14
2010: 13.74
2000: 12.64

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 1,01111
2015: 1,002
2010: 913
2000: 824

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Ghana, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 7.4111
2015: 7.51
2010: 7.65
2000: 8.62

Gun Homicides

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Ghana, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 51%12

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Ghana, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in Ghana are known to have52 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Ghana, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2016: 5553
2013: 42854 55
2012: 73
2011: 28
2010: 24

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Ghana, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2016: 1,3002
2010: 3,38752

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Ghana, it is state policy56 52 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Ghana, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law31 57

Firearm Tracing

In Ghana, state authorities carry out58 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Global Peace Index

To see where Ghana ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Ghana on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Seth J. Bokpe. 2016. ‘1,300 Guns Burnt But 1.1 Million Firearms in Wrong Hands — Small Arms Commission.’ Graphic Online (Ghana). 11 July. (N649) Full Citation

3.

Ablor, John. 2012. ‘Over 500,000 Ghanaians Have Weapons.’ Peace FM Online (Ghana). 7 June. (N271) Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Ghana.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,27 July. (Q5555)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

8.

Ghana News Agency. 2011. ‘Security Personnel Urged to Be Vigilant to Stem Small Arms Smuggling.’ 9 August. (N255) Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

11.

WHO.2018.‘Violent Death Estimates by Country.’ Disease Burden and Mortality Estimates: Cause-Specific Mortality, 2000–2016.Geneva:World Health Organization,1 January. (Q14136)Full Citation

12.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Ghana.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9495)Full Citation

13.

Ghana.2016.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12740)Full Citation

14.

Ghana.2018.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13694)Full Citation

15.

Florquin, Nicolas, Sigrid Lipott and Francis Wairagu.2019.‘Excerpts on Illicit/Craft Production - Ghana.’ Weapons Compass: Mapping Illicit Small Arms Flows in Africa.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 January. (Q13982)Full Citation

16.

Mangan, Fiona and Matthias Nowak.2019.‘The Nature of Illicit Arms Trafficking in West Africa and the Sahel.’ The West Africa–Sahel Connection: Mapping Cross-Border Arms Trafficking.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q14061)Full Citation

17.

Ghana.2016.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12741)Full Citation

18.

Ghana.2016.‘Record Keeping [Import and Export].’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12743)Full Citation

19.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

20.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q82)Full Citation

21.

Ghana.2010.‘Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,18 June. (Q4604)Full Citation

22.

Picard, Michael, Paul Holtom and Fiona Mangan.2019.‘Annexe A2: Annual Authorized Small Arms and Light Weapons Imports by Major Importers.’ Trade Update 2019: Transfers, Transparency, and South-east Asia Spotlight.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,12 December. (Q14070)Full Citation

23.

Ghana.2018.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13696)Full Citation

24.

Mangan, Fiona and Matthias Nowak.2019.‘Key Arms-Trafficking Routes and Flow Patterns - Tri-Border Areas: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Mali.’ The West Africa–Sahel Connection: Mapping Cross-Border Arms Trafficking.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q14058)Full Citation

25.

AEFJN.2010.‘Countries that Send Arms to Embargoed Territories.’ Arms Exports and Transfers: From Sub-Saharan Africa to Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Africa Europe Faith and Justice Network,1 December. (Q5101)Full Citation

26.

Florquin, Nicolas, Sigrid Lipott, and Francis Wairagu.2019.‘Excerpts on Trafficking - Ghana.’ Weapons Compass: Mapping Illicit Small Arms Flows in Africa.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 January. (Q13981)Full Citation

27.

Ghana.2016.‘Brokering.’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12744)Full Citation

28.

Ghana.2018.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13695)Full Citation

29.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

30.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

31.

Ghana.2016.‘Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12746)Full Citation

32.

Ghana.2016.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12745)Full Citation

33.

African Union / UNODA.2005.‘Windhoek Common Position.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:African Union / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 December. (Q3216)Full Citation

34.

African Union.2015.‘Member States.’ African Union: A United and Strong Africa.Addis Ababa:African Union,10 August. (Q10548)Full Citation

35.

ECOWAS / UNODA.2006.‘Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and other Related Materials.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Economic Community of West African States Secretariat / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 June. (Q3219)Full Citation

36.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

37.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

38.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

39.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

40.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

41.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

42.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

43.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

44.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

45.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

46.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

47.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

48.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

49.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

50.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation

51.

United Nations.2017.‘Relevant Targets & Indicators.’ Sustainable Development Goal 16.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,6 July. (Q14093)Full Citation

52.

Ghana News Agency. 2010. ‘Commission on Small Arms Destroys Weapons in Kumasi.’ 2 October. (N203) Full Citation

53.

UNODC.2020.‘Arms Seized, Found, and Surrendered, by Type.’ Illicit Arms Flows Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,7 January. (Q14056)Full Citation

54.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Number of Firearms Reported Seized by Police, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10542)Full Citation

55.

Karp, Aaron, Nicholas Marsh and Giorgio Ravagli.2015.‘Selected Examples of Trends in Firearms Seizures Reported by Police, Absolute Numbers Seized in Each Year, 2010-2013.’ UNODC Study on Firearms 2015.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),3 July. (Q10544)Full Citation

56.

UNDPI.2006.‘Major Review at United Nations to Assess Progress Made, Actions Needed to Further Stem Illegal Small Arms Trade.’ Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, Peace and Security Section.New York, NY:United Nations,20 June. (Q5075)Full Citation

57.

Ghana.2016.‘Marking at Import.’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12742)Full Citation

58.

Ghana.2016.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of the Republic of Ghana on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of the Republic of Ghana to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12749)Full Citation