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Germany — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Germany is

2018: 26,100,0001 2 3 4
2016: 25,900,0005
2013: 25,500,0006 2
2005: 25,000,0007

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Germany is

2018: 32.478 9
2016: 32.0
2013: 31.42
2005: 30.37

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 410

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Germany ranked at No. 157

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In Germany, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 5%11

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Germany, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 12.5%12
1989: 9.2%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Germany, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 4.2%12
1989: 6.7%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Germany is reported to be

2018: 960,0001
2016: 970,00013
2013: 1,400,0006
1999: 2,000,00014

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Germany is

2018: 1.198
2016: 1.20
2013: 1.72
1999: 2.44

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Germany is reported to be

2018: 6,100,0001
2016: 5,900,0005 2 3
2013: 5,500,0006 2
2005: 7,200,0007
2004: 7,000,00015

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Germany is

2018: 7.598
2016: 7.30
2013: 6.77
2005: 8.73
2004: 8.49

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,16 but in Germany there are estimated to be

2016: 20,000,0002 3
2013: 20,000,0002
2004: 17,000,00015

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,16 but in Germany the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2016: 24.788
2013: 24.65
2004: 20.61

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Germany are reported to have 483,01617 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Germany are reported to have 466,00018 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 81519
2017: 819
2016: 831
2015: 848
2014: 824
2013: 931
2012: 822
2011: 880
2010: 907
2009: 939
2008: 954
2007: 962
2006: 957
2005: 1,045
2004: 1,148
2003: 1,123
2002: 1,061
2001: 1,103
2000: 1,116
1999: 1,201
1998: 1,164

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.0119
2017: 1.01
2016: 1.03
2015: 1.05
2014: 1.02
2013: 1.15
2012: 1.01
2011: 1.08
2010: 1.11
2009: 1.14
2008: 1.16
2007: 1.17
2006: 1.16
2005: 1.27
2004: 1.39
2003: 1.36
2002: 1.29
2001: 1.34
2000: 1.36
1999: 1.46
1998: 1.42

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 76219
2017: 764
2016: 779
2015: 794
2014: 771
2013: 856
2012: 770
2011: 810
2010: 844
2009: 850
2008: 886
2007: 891
2006: 890
2005: 968
2004: 1,058
2003: 1,021
2001: 1,015
2000: 1,011

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.9319
2017: 1.93
2016: 1.96
2015: 1.99
2014: 1.93
2013: 2.14
2012: 1.92
2011: 2.02
2010: 2.10
2009: 2.11
2008: 2.20
2007: 2.21
2006: 2.21
2005: 2.40
2004: 2.62
2003: 2.53
2001: 2.52
2000: 2.52

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 5319
2017: 55
2016: 52
2015: 54
2014: 53
2013: 75
2012: 52
2011: 70
2010: 63
2009: 89
2008: 68
2007: 71
2006: 67
2005: 77
2004: 90
2003: 102
2001: 88
2000: 105

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.1319
2017: 0.13
2016: 0.13
2015: 0.13
2014: 0.13
2013: 0.18
2012: 0.13
2011: 0.17
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.21
2008: 0.16
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.16
2005: 0.18
2004: 0.21
2003: 0.24
2001: 0.21
2000: 0.25

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual homicides by any means total

2018: 78820
2017: 813
2016: 96320
2015: 682
2014: 716
2013: 682
2012: 659
2011: 738
2010: 793
2009: 803
2008: 722
2007: 757
2006: 808
2005: 869
2004: 868
2003: 859
2002: 955
2001: 925
2000: 1,015
1999: 1,02021
1998: 998
1997: 1,265
1996: 1,382
1995: 1,406

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.9520
2017: 0.98
2016: 1.17
2015: 0.83
2014: 0.88
2013: 0.84
2012: 0.81
2011: 0.91
2010: 0.98
2009: 0.98
2008: 0.88
2007: 0.92
2006: 1.0
2005: 1.0
2004: 1.0
2003: 1.0
2002: 1.1
2001: 1.1
2000: 1.2
1999: 1.221
1998: 1.2
1997: 1.5
1996: 1.7
1995: 1.7
1994: 1.1722

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 42123
2017: 433
2016: 494
2015: 355
2014: 377
2013: 354
2012: 363
2011: 400
2010: 400
2009: 417
2008: 385
2007: 395

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.0323
2017: 1.06
2016: 1.22
2015: 0.88
2014: 0.94
2013: 0.89
2012: 0.91
2011: 1.01
2010: 1.01
2009: 1.05
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.99

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 36723
2017: 380
2016: 469
2015: 327
2014: 339
2013: 328
2012: 296
2011: 338
2010: 393
2009: 386
2008: 337
2007: 362

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.8723
2017: 0.91
2016: 1.12
2015: 0.79
2014: 0.82
2013: 0.79
2012: 0.72
2011: 0.82
2010: 0.95
2009: 0.93
2008: 0.81
2007: 0.87

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 8220
2014: 81
2013: 93
2012: 99
2011: 92
2010: 84
2009: 75
2008: 57
2007: 59
2006: 6524 25 21
2005: 89
2004: 9824 21
2003: 85
2002: 106
2001: 84
2000: 101
1999: 155
1998: 126
1997: 55521
1996: 582
1995: 804

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0619
2014: 0.05
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.0824 8 21
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.1224 21
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.13
2001: 0.10
2000: 0.12
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.15
1997: 0.721
1996: 0.7
1995: 1.0
1994: 0.2226

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Germany, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 13%27
2010: 26.3%21
2009: 29.9%
2008: 26.1%
2007: 26.9%
2006: 24%25
2005: 24%
2004: 30.5%21
2003: 33.8%
2002: 29.4%
2001: 38.1%
2000: 40.0%
1999: 41.2%
1998: 41.2%
1997: 47.1%
1996: 46.6%
1995: 58.6%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Germany, annual male firearm homicides total

2018: 1319
2017: 10
2016: 16
2015: 11
2014: 16
2013: 9
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 18
2009: 15
2008: 19
2007: 18
2006: 14
2005: 23
2004: 34
2003: 26
2001: 29
2000: 36

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 19
2018: 0.03
2017: 0.03
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.06
2001: 0.07
2000: 0.09

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Germany, annual female firearm homicides total

2018: 1719
2017: 17
2016: 17
2015: 12
2014: 9
2013: 12
2012: 15
2011: 15
2010: 17
2009: 20
2008: 15
2007: 17
2006: 19
2005: 28
2004: 25
2003: 28
2001: 24
2000: 25

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 19
2018: 0.04
2017: 0.04
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.06

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 1524
2013: 29
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 15
2009: 37
2008: 21
2007: 21
2006: 27
2005: 34
2004: 32
2003: 26
2002: 38
2001: 27
2000: 32
1999: 52
1998: 54

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0224
2013: 0.04
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.07

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 224
2013: 4
2012: 6
2011: 3
2010: 1
2009: 3
2008: 2
2007: 3
2006: 5
2005: 4
2004: 7
2003: 5
2002: 11
2001: 4
2000: 8
1999: 10
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0024
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 2524
2013: 21
2012: 35
2011: 33
2010: 35
2009: 35
2008: 34
2007: 35
2006: 33
2005: 51
2004: 59
2003: 54
2002: 57
2001: 53
2000: 61
1999: 93
1998: 64

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0324
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.11
1998: 0.08

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual suicides by any means total

2018: 10,08319
2017: 9,941
2016: 10,545
2015: 10,814
2014: 10,928
2013: 10,871
2012: 10,580
2011: 10,897
2010: 10,793
2009: 10,338
2008: 10,251
2007: 10,207
2006: 10,564
2005: 11,128
2004: 11,640
2003: 12,065
2001: 12,022
2000: 11,901
1999: 11,16028

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 019
2018: 12.53
2017: 12.33
2016: 13.06
2015: 13.37
2014: 13.49
2013: 13.40
2012: 13.01
2011: 13.38
2010: 13.22
2009: 12.63
2008: 12.49
2007: 12.41
2006: 12.83
2005: 13.50
2004: 14.11
2003: 14.62
2001: 14.60
2000: 14.48
1999: 13.5328
1994: 15.6429

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual male suicides by any means total

2018: 7,78019
2017: 7,664
2016: 8,064
2015: 8,108
2014: 8,314
2013: 8,211
2012: 7,955
2011: 8,364
2010: 8,209
2009: 7,929
2008: 7,808
2007: 7,787
2006: 8,000
2005: 8,358
2004: 8,810
2003: 9,052
2001: 9,021
2000: 8,929

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 19.7019
2017: 19.37
2016: 20.34
2015: 20.41
2014: 20.89
2013: 20.59
2012: 19.91
2011: 20.90
2010: 20.48
2009: 19.75
2008: 19.41
2007: 19.33
2006: 19.84
2005: 20.71
2004: 21.82
2003: 22.43
2001: 22.43
2000: 22.25

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual female suicides by any means total

2018: 2,30319
2017: 2,277
2016: 2,481
2015: 2,706
2014: 2,614
2013: 2,660
2012: 2,625
2011: 2,533
2010: 2,584
2009: 2,409
2008: 2,443
2007: 2,420
2006: 2,564
2005: 2,770
2004: 2,830
2003: 3,013
2001: 3,001
2000: 2,972

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 5.6219
2017: 5.55
2016: 6.04
2015: 6.58
2014: 6.35
2013: 6.45
2012: 6.35
2011: 6.11
2010: 6.22
2009: 5.78
2008: 5.84
2007: 5.77
2006: 6.10
2005: 6.58
2004: 6.72
2003: 7.15
2001: 7.13
2000: 7.07

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm suicides total

2018: 68719
2017: 706
2016: 707
2015: 736
2014: 71930
2013: 795
2012: 69030 31
2011: 75330
2010: 772
2009: 767
2008: 800
2007: 805
2006: 799
2005: 868
2004: 907
2003: 915
2002: 815
2001: 866
2000: 836
1999: 906
1998: 904

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 19
2018: 0.85
2017: 0.87
2016: 0.87
2015: 0.91
2014: 0.89
2013: 0.98
2012: 0.85
2011: 0.92
2010: 0.94
2009: 0.93
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.98
2006: 0.97
2005: 1.05
2004: 1.10
2003: 1.11
2002: 0.99
2001: 1.05
2000: 1.02
1999: 1.1
1998: 1.1
1994: 1.1732

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Germany, annual male firearm suicides total

2018: 66919
2017: 679
2016: 690
2015: 711
2014: 690
2013: 762
2012: 668
2011: 718
2010: 744
2009: 730
2008: 769
2007: 778
2006: 775
2005: 835
2004: 871
2003: 873
2001: 833
2000: 798

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.6919
2017: 1.72
2016: 1.74
2015: 1.79
2014: 1.73
2013: 1.91
2012: 1.67
2011: 1.79
2010: 1.86
2009: 1.82
2008: 1.91
2007: 1.93
2006: 1.92
2005: 2.07
2004: 2.16
2003: 2.16
2001: 2.07
2000: 1.99

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Germany, annual female firearm suicides total

2018: 1819
2017: 27
2016: 17
2015: 25
2014: 29
2013: 33
2012: 22
2011: 35
2010: 28
2009: 37
2008: 31
2007: 27
2006: 24
2005: 33
2004: 36
2003: 42
2001: 33
2000: 38

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0419
2017: 0.07
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.06
2014: 0.07
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.07
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.06
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.10
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.09

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 20330
2013: 280
2012: 216
2011: 237
2010: 238
2009: 253
2008: 217
2007: 242
2006: 246
2005: 241
2004: 248
2003: 263
2002: 245
2001: 258
2000: 246
1999: 258
1998: 274

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2530
2013: 0.35
2012: 0.26
2011: 0.29
2010: 0.29
2009: 0.31
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.29
2006: 0.30
2005: 0.29
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.32
2002: 0.30
2001: 0.31
2000: 0.30
1999: 0.31
1998: 0.33

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Germany, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 5230
2013: 62
2012: 51
2011: 72
2010: 64
2009: 67
2008: 77
2007: 56
2006: 88
2005: 90
2004: 76
2003: 80
2002: 60
2001: 71
2000: 67
1999: 64
1998: 74

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0630
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.09
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.11
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.09

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 46430
2013: 453
2012: 423
2011: 444
2010: 470
2009: 447
2008: 506
2007: 507
2006: 465
2005: 537
2004: 583
2003: 572
2002: 510
2001: 537
2000: 523
1999: 584
1998: 556

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.5730
2013: 0.56
2012: 0.52
2011: 0.54
2010: 0.57
2009: 0.55
2008: 0.62
2007: 0.62
2006: 0.56
2005: 0.65
2004: 0.71
2003: 0.69
2002: 0.62
2001: 0.65
2000: 0.64
1999: 0.71
1998: 0.68

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2018: 4319
2017: 29
2016: 18
2015: 6
2014: 233
2013: 12
2012: 6 31
2011: 1133
2010: 13
2009: 14
2008: 15
2007: 8
2006: 14
2005: 8
2004: 13
2003: 17
2002: 18
2001: 20
2000: 23
1999: 16
1998: 13

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0519
2017: 0.04
2016: 0.02
2015: 0.01
2014: 0
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.02
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1994: 0.0434

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2018: 3719
2017: 29
2016: 16
2015: 4
2014: 2
2013: 11
2012: 6
2011: 11
2010: 12
2009: 13
2008: 13
2007: 8
2006: 13
2005: 7
2004: 12
2003: 16
2001: 19
2000: 21

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0919
2017: 0.07
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.04
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.05

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2018: 619
2016: 2
2015: 2
2014: 0
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 2
2006: 1
2005: 1
2004: 1
2003: 1
2001: 1
2000: 2

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0119
2016: 0
2015: 0
2013: 0
2010: 0
2009: 0
2008: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2001: 0
2000: 0

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2013: 133
2012: 1
2011: 1
2010: 2
2009: 2
2008: 5
2007: 2
2006: 2
2004: 1
2003: 3
2002: 3
2001: 2
2000: 4
1999: 8
1998: 2

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0033
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 233
2012: 2
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 6
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 3
2005: 3
2004: 5
2003: 3
2002: 2
2001: 6
2000: 3
1999: 3
1998: 4

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0033
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Germany, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2014: 233
2013: 9
2012: 3
2011: 8
2010: 7
2009: 6
2008: 9
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 5
2004: 7
2003: 11
2002: 13
2001: 12
2000: 16
1999: 5
1998: 7

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0033
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.02
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 4719
2017: 34
2016: 43
2015: 50
2014: 5735
2013: 65
2012: 62 31
2011: 6035
2010: 67
2009: 80
2008: 81
2007: 87
2006: 75
2005: 79
2004: 127
2003: 105
2002: 122
2001: 132
2000: 152
1999: 124
1998: 121

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2019: 019
2018: 0.06
2017: 0.04
2016: 0.05
2015: 0.06
2014: 0.07
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.10
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.11
2006: 0.09
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.13
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.16
2000: 0.18
1999: 0.15
1998: 0.15
1994: 0.1536

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 4019
2017: 33
2016: 40
2015: 4619
2014: 5219
2013: 56
2012: 56
2011: 53
2010: 61
2009: 74
2008: 74
2007: 75
2006: 67
2005: 74
2004: 114
2003: 93
2001: 117
2000: 130

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.1019
2017: 0.08
2016: 0.10
2015: 0.12
2014: 0.13
2013: 0.14
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.13
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.18
2008: 0.18
2007: 0.19
2006: 0.17
2005: 0.18
2004: 0.28
2003: 0.23
2001: 0.29
2000: 0.32

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 719
2017: 1
2016: 3
2015: 4
2014: 5
2013: 9
2012: 6
2011: 7
2010: 6
2009: 6
2008: 7
2007: 12
2006: 8
2005: 5
2004: 13
2003: 12
2001: 15
2000: 22

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0219
2017: 0
2016: 0.01
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.03
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.05

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 1935
2013: 16
2012: 20
2011: 11
2010: 26
2009: 23
2008: 24
2007: 25
2006: 32
2005: 34
2004: 59
2003: 28
2002: 45
2001: 47
2000: 76
1999: 41
1998: 37

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0235
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.09
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.05

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 635
2013: 4
2012: 6
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 5
2006: 9
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 8
2002: 7
2001: 7
2000: 7
1999: 3
1998: 8

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0135
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.00
1998: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Germany, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 3235
2013: 45
2012: 36
2011: 47
2010: 37
2009: 54
2008: 56
2007: 57
2006: 34
2005: 41
2004: 63
2003: 69
2002: 70
2001: 78
2000: 69
1999: 80
1998: 76

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0435
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.08
1999: 0.10
1998: 0.09

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2015: 419
2014: 5
2013: 5
2012: 4
2011: 2
2010: 5
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 3

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Germany, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence37

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Germany was ranked 'medium'38 39

Home-made Guns

In Germany, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate40

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law41 42 43 44 45

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Germany is reported by manufacturers to be

2018: 31,64146
2017: 29,654
2016: 28,368
2015: 74,021
2014: 90,24547
2013: 60,196
2012: 43,553
2011: 19,559
2010: 19,280
2009: 34,625
2008: 34,616
2007: 29,857
2006: 15,239

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Germany is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 499,000,00048
2015: 797,139,08549
2014: 897,903,761
2013: 1,080,721,897
2012: 885,205,05249 50 51
2011: 387,920,29852
2010: 495,000,00053
2001: 150,000,00050 54 55

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Germany was categorized as 'major'56 57 58 59 55 60

Firearm Imports

In Germany, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law61 42 43 44 45

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Germany is reported to be

2018: 5,59946
2017: 1,136
2016: 276
2015: 602
2014: 13747
2009: 125
2008: 368
2007: 119
2006: 122

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Germany is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 203,000,00062
2015: 309,562,11449
2014: 341,854,082
2013: 393,550,031
2012: 346,184,81849 63 56 64 65
2011: 156,548,48452 58 66
2010: 160,000,00067
2001: 97,000,00063 68

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Germany is moderate69

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Germany, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law70

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Germany include71 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Germany scored

2019: 19.5072
2018: 18.5073
2016: 19.7574
2014: 19.7575
2013: 20.5076
2012: 18.5077
2011: 18.7578
2010: 18.2579
2009: 18.0080
2008: 17.2581
2007: 17.2582
2006: 16.7583
2005: 17.2584
2004: 17.0085

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Germany is categorised as restrictive86 87

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Germany includes the Basic Law (War Weapons Control Act),88 89 90 the Weapons Act of 2002,91 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,92 93 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003,94 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms95

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Germany are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior88 96 97 and the Federal States,98 and the European Commission93

Right to Possess Firearms

In Germany, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law99 100 101 3

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Germany, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition102 103

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Germany, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited103 104 105

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Germany, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation103 106 107 105

Regulation of Handguns

In Germany, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation104 106 107 105 27

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Germany, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law27

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Germany, only licensed gun owners108 109 104 106 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Germany are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sport shooting, collection, tradition, commerical activity, and security110 111

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Germany is 18 years108 111

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Germany must pass a background check which considers extremist affiliations, criminal, mental health and addiction112 113 111 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Germany does not stipulate (unless reflected in a criminal record)14 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Germany, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required114 for a firearm licence

Licensing Records

In Germany, authorities maintain a record115 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess one firearm per licence3 116 117

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Germany are permitted to possess only ammunition suitable for the intended firearm118

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Germany, the law requires115 119 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed firearm dealers are required120 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Germany, licensed gun makers are required120 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Germany, State agencies are required121 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Germany, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful122

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in Germany is reported to be

2018: 3,7501
2016: 3,500123

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Germany include124 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Germany include124 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Germany include121 125 126 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Germany include127 128 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Germany, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law118

Gun Free Zones

In Germany, private guns are prohibited in public events unless specifically authorized129

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Germany, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm130 is 10 years in prison131

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Germany is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament132 133

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Germany is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Germany has submitted one or more national reports134 on its arms transfers

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists135 Germany as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006136 by Germany.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified137 by Germany

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified138 by Germany

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Germany committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects139

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Germany against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 5140 141 142 143 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Germany has submitted one or more national reports144 145 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Germany, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated146 145

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Germany, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated146 145

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Germany submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent146 145

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated145 by Germany to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Germany has declared147 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Germany has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1973148

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists149 Germany as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,150 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual homicides by any means total

2018: 78820
2017: 813
2016: 96320
2015: 682
2014: 716
2013: 682
2012: 659
2011: 738
2010: 793
2009: 803
2008: 722
2007: 757
2006: 808
2005: 869
2004: 868
2003: 859
2002: 955
2001: 925
2000: 1,015
1999: 1,02021
1998: 998
1997: 1,265
1996: 1,382
1995: 1,406

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.9520
2017: 0.98
2016: 1.17
2015: 0.83
2014: 0.88
2013: 0.84
2012: 0.81
2011: 0.91
2010: 0.98
2009: 0.98
2008: 0.88
2007: 0.92
2006: 1.0
2005: 1.0
2004: 1.0
2003: 1.0
2002: 1.1
2001: 1.1
2000: 1.2
1999: 1.221
1998: 1.2
1997: 1.5
1996: 1.7
1995: 1.7
1994: 1.1722

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual male homicides by any means total

2018: 42123
2017: 433
2016: 494
2015: 355
2014: 377
2013: 354
2012: 363
2011: 400
2010: 400
2009: 417
2008: 385
2007: 395

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 1.0323
2017: 1.06
2016: 1.22
2015: 0.88
2014: 0.94
2013: 0.89
2012: 0.91
2011: 1.01
2010: 1.01
2009: 1.05
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.99

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Germany, annual female homicides by any means total

2018: 36723
2017: 380
2016: 469
2015: 327
2014: 339
2013: 328
2012: 296
2011: 338
2010: 393
2009: 386
2008: 337
2007: 362

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.8723
2017: 0.91
2016: 1.12
2015: 0.79
2014: 0.82
2013: 0.79
2012: 0.72
2011: 0.82
2010: 0.95
2009: 0.93
2008: 0.81
2007: 0.87

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Germany, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 8220
2014: 81
2013: 93
2012: 99
2011: 92
2010: 84
2009: 75
2008: 57
2007: 59
2006: 6524 25 21
2005: 89
2004: 9824 21
2003: 85
2002: 106
2001: 84
2000: 101
1999: 155
1998: 126
1997: 55521
1996: 582
1995: 804

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0619
2014: 0.05
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.09
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.0824 8 21
2005: 0.11
2004: 0.1224 21
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.13
2001: 0.10
2000: 0.12
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.15
1997: 0.721
1996: 0.7
1995: 1.0
1994: 0.2226

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Germany, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 13%27
2010: 26.3%21
2009: 29.9%
2008: 26.1%
2007: 26.9%
2006: 24%25
2005: 24%
2004: 30.5%21
2003: 33.8%
2002: 29.4%
2001: 38.1%
2000: 40.0%
1999: 41.2%
1998: 41.2%
1997: 47.1%
1996: 46.6%
1995: 58.6%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Germany, annual male firearm homicides total

2018: 1319
2017: 10
2016: 16
2015: 11
2014: 16
2013: 9
2012: 20
2011: 18
2010: 18
2009: 15
2008: 19
2007: 18
2006: 14
2005: 23
2004: 34
2003: 26
2001: 29
2000: 36

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 19
2018: 0.03
2017: 0.03
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.06
2001: 0.07
2000: 0.09

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Germany, annual female firearm homicides total

2018: 1719
2017: 17
2016: 17
2015: 12
2014: 9
2013: 12
2012: 15
2011: 15
2010: 17
2009: 20
2008: 15
2007: 17
2006: 19
2005: 28
2004: 25
2003: 28
2001: 24
2000: 25

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Germany, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 19
2018: 0.04
2017: 0.04
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.07
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.06

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Germany, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in Germany are known to have151 152 153 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Germany, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2020: 30,739154
2011: 5,420155
2010/13: 43,543156 101

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Germany, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2019: 42,089157
2018: 49,994
2017: 2,385158
2016: 17,938
2015: 57,161159
2011: 27,082160
1991/2004: 1,781,696161
1990/2009: 2,303,252151 152 153

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Germany, it is state policy162 163 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Germany, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law120 164

Firearm Tracing

In Germany, state authorities carry out165 164 119 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Global Peace Index

To see where Germany ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Germany on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


Short References

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Germany.2019.‘Key Data on the National Weapons Register (Eckwerte zum Nationalen Waffenregister).’ The Expansion of the National Weapons Register (Der Ausbau des Nationalen Waffenregisters).Berlin:Federal Ministry of Interior, Building and Community,28 February. (Q14313)Full Citation

2.

Spiegel (Germany). 2013. ‘Gun Ownership in Germany.’ 22 February. (N670) Full Citation

3.

Emma Anderson. 2016. ‘Five Things to Know About Guns in Germany.’ Local (Germany). 16 June. (N637) Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Number of Privately Owned Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G1) Full Citation

5.

Germany.2017.‘Expansion of the National Firearms Register NWRII - Number of Registered Firearms.’ Federal Ministry of Interior, Building and Community (Bundesministerium des Innern, für Bau und Heimat).Berlin:Federal Interior Ministry,9 August. (Q13274)Full Citation

6.

USA.2015.‘Firearms Control Legislation and Policy in Germany.’ Law Library of the US Congress.Washington DC:United States Congress,30 July. (Q13272)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

8.

GunPolicy.org.2021.‘Calculated Rates - Germany.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,27 June. (Q4238)Full Citation

9.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G6) Full Citation

10.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

11.

Directorate-General for Home Affairs.2015.‘Firearms Ownership - Firearms in the EU.’ Flash Eurobarometer 383: Firearms in the European Union.Brussels:European Commission,19 January. (Q13506)Full Citation

12.

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