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France — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in France is

2017: 12,732,0001
2016: 10,000,0002 3
2005: 19,000,0004

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in France is

2017: 19.601
2016: 14.965
2005: 31.24

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, France ranked at No. 56

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, France ranked at No. 124

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn France, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 16.1%7
1999/2003: 18.2%
1995/98: 22.6%
1989: 25.3%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn France, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 3.7%7
1999/2003: 2.8%
1995/98: 4.9%
1989: 5.9%

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in France is reported to be

2017: 4,501,2351
2016: 2,763,0002
2015: 4,000,0003
2005: 2,802,0574

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in France is

2016: 4.135
2015: 6.01
2005: 4.44

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

ChartUnlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in France there are estimated to be

2017: 8,320,7651
2016: 7,237,0002
2015: 6,000,0003

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in France the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2016: 10.835
2015: 9.02

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of France are reported to have 566,4308 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In France, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms9 10 11 12

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in France are reported to have 497,00013 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2013: 1,74514
2012: 1,863
2011: 1,793
2010: 1,736
2009: 1,86115 16 17 18 19
2008: 1,95215 16 17 18
2007: 1,829
2006: 2,039
2005: 2,095
2004: 2,054
2003: 2,203
2002: 2,218
2001: 2,331
2000: 2,465
1999: 2,28420 21 22
1998: 2,96420 21 22 23
1997: 2,85620 21 22

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 2.6514
2012: 2.84
2011: 2.75
2010: 2.67
2009: 2.885 19
2008: 3.045
2007: 2.86
2006: 3.21
2005: 3.32
2004: 3.28
2003: 3.54
2002: 3.58
2001: 3.78
2000: 4.02
1999: 3.75
1998: 4.89
1997: 4.73

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2013: 1,62214
2012: 1,725
2011: 1,663
2010: 1,611

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2013: 12314
2012: 138
2011: 130
2010: 125

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn France, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 1,01724
2014: 792
2013: 39514
2012: 395
2011: 394
2010: 405
2009: 472
2008: 441
2007: 368
2006: 413
2005: 430
2004: 458
2003: 449
2002: 481
2001: 486
2000: 495
1999: 95325 26 27
1998: 961
1997: 963
1996: 1,171
1995: 1,33626 27

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn France, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.5824
2014: 1.24
2013: 2.6514
2012: 2.84
2011: 2.75
2010: 2.67
2009: 0.8
2008: 0.7
2007: 0.6
2006: 0.7
2005: 0.7
2004: 0.8
2003: 0.7
2002: 0.8
2001: 0.8
2000: 0.8
1999: 1.625 26
1998: 1.6
1997: 1.7
1996: 2.0
1995: 2.326
1994: 1.1228

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn France, annual male homicides by any means total

2013: 24514
2012: 237
2011: 253
2010: 255

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn France, annual female homicides by any means total

2013: 15014
2012: 158
2011: 141
2010: 150

Gun Homicides

ChartIn France, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 13414
2012: 141
2011: 146
2010: 127
2009: 134
2008: 142
2007: 9615 20 26
2006: 11115 20
2005: 122
2004: 129
2003: 122
2002: 158
2001: 160
2000: 152
1999: 15520
1998: 170
1997: 214

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.2014
2012: 0.21
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.20
2009: 0.21
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.155 20 26
2006: 0.175 20
2005: 0.19
2004: 0.21
2003: 0.20
2002: 0.25
2001: 0.26
2000: 0.25
1999: 0.2620
1998: 0.29
1997: 0.37
1994: 0.4429

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In France, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2007: 9.6%26

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn France, annual male firearm homicides total

2013: 9714
2012: 98
2011: 103
2010: 85

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn France, annual female firearm homicides total

2013: 3714
2012: 43
2011: 43
2010: 42

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn France, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 320
2012: 015
2011: 115 20
2010: 1
2009: 015
2008: 0
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 115 20
2004: 015
2003: 215 20
2002: 015
2001: 115 20
2000: 2

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0020
2012: 0.015
2011: 0.015 20
2010: 0.0
2009: 0.015
2008: 0.0
2007: 0.0
2006: 0.0
2005: 0.015 20
2004: 0.015
2003: 0.0 15 20
2002: 0.015
2001: 0.015 20
2000: 0.0

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn France, annual long gun homicides total

2013: 1420
2012: 1215 20
2011: 11
2010: 6
2009: 6
2008: 7
2007: 5
2006: 5
2005: 9
2004: 7
2003: 11
2002: 11
2001: 9
2000: 11

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0220
2012: 0.0220 15
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.02
2000: 0.02

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn France, annual gun homicides (other) total

2013: 12120
2012: 12815 20
2011: 129
2010: 118
2009: 128
2008: 135
2007: 91
2006: 106
2005: 112
2004: 122
2003: 109
2002: 147
2001: 150
2000: 139

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.1920
2012: 0.2020 15
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.19
2009: 0.20
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.15
2006: 0.17
2005: 0.19
2004: 0.21
2003: 0.18
2002: 0.24
2001: 0.26
2000: 0.24

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn France, annual suicides by any means total

2013: 9,58914
2012: 9,722
2011: 10,400
2010: 10,373
2009: 10,46416 30
2008: 10,31616
2007: 10,088
2006: 10,39016 30
2005: 10,67316
2004: 10,762
2003: 10,820
2002: 10,607
2001: 10,408
2000: 10,806
1998: 10,53423

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn France, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 14.5414
2012: 14.81
2011: 15.93
2010: 15.97
2009: 16.716 30
2008: 16.616
2007: 16.3
2006: 16.916 30
2005: 17.416
2004: 17.7
2003: 17.9
2002: 17.7
2001: 17.5
2000: 18.3
1998: 17.5123
1994: 20.7931

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn France, annual male suicides by any means total

2013: 7,21714
2012: 7,312
2011: 7,785
2010: 7,638

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn France, annual female suicides by any means total

2013: 2,37214
2012: 2,410
2011: 2,615
2010: 2,735

Gun Suicides

ChartIn France, annual firearm suicides total

2013: 1,33414
2012: 1,425
2011: 1,398
2010: 1,378
2009: 1,445
2008: 1,546
2007: 1,403
2006: 1,576
2005: 1,644
2004: 1,601
2003: 1,738
2002: 1,712
2001: 1,883
2000: 2,051
1999: 2,02921
1998: 2,386
1997: 2,556

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 2.0214
2012: 2.17
2011: 2.14
2010: 2.12
2009: 2.24
2008: 2.41
2007: 2.20
2006: 2.48
2005: 2.61
2004: 2.55
2003: 2.79
2002: 2.76
2001: 3.06
2000: 3.35
1999: 3.4621
1998: 4.05
1997: 4.36
1994: 5.1432

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn France, annual male firearm suicides total

2013: 1,27914
2012: 1,360
2011: 1,333
2010: 1,315

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn France, annual female firearm suicides total

2013: 5514
2012: 65
2011: 65
2010: 63

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn France, annual handgun suicides total

2013: 1921
2012: 1616 21
2011: 16
2010: 11
2009: 16
2008: 16
2007: 12
2006: 13
2005: 17
2004: 10
2003: 8
2002: 14
2001: 16
2000: 21

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0321
2012: 0.0321 16
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.04

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn France, the number of long gun suicides is

2013: 13421
2012: 15916 21
2011: 130
2010: 113
2009: 97
2008: 96
2007: 108
2006: 111
2005: 124
2004: 116
2003: 153
2002: 150
2001: 161
2000: 203

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.2121
2012: 0.2521 16
2011: 0.21
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.16
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.18
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.19
2003: 0.25
2002: 0.25
2001: 0.27
2000: 0.34

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn France, annual gun suicides (other) total

2013: 1,18221
2012: 1,24516 21
2011: 1,249
2010: 1,253
2009: 1,332
2008: 1,436
2007: 1,283
2006: 1,452
2005: 1,503
2004: 1,475
2003: 1,577
2002: 1,548
2001: 1,706
2000: 1,827

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 1.8521
2012: 1.9721 16
2011: 1.99
2010: 1.99
2009: 2.13
2008: 2.30
2007: 2.08
2006: 2.36
2005: 2.48
2004: 2.44
2003: 2.63
2002: 2.60
2001: 2.89
2000: 3.11

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2013: 1722
2012: 2417 22
2011: 71
2010: 34
2009: 29
2008: 39
2007: 32
2006: 53
2005: 36
2004: 19
2003: 26
2002: 19
2001: 33
2000: 44
1999: 10022
1998: 68
1997: 86

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.3914
2012: 0.42
2011: 0.27
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.1722
1998: 0.12
1997: 0.15
1994: 0.1133

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2013: 1614
2012: 22
2011: 64
2010: 32

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2013: 114
2012: 2
2011: 7
2010: 2

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn France, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 922
2012: 917 22
2011: 15
2010: 8
2009: 12
2008: 13
2007: 8
2006: 13
2005: 20
2004: 8
2003: 23
2002: 13
2001: 25
2000: 26

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0122
2012: 0.0122 17
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.04

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn France, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2013: 822
2012: 1517 22
2011: 55
2010: 24
2009: 17
2008: 26
2007: 24
2006: 40
2005: 16
2004: 11
2003: 3
2002: 6
2001: 8
2000: 18

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0122
2012: 0.0222 17
2011: 0.09
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.03

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 26034
2012: 273
2011: 178
2010: 19718 34
2009: 253
2008: 225
2007: 298
2006: 299
2005: 293
2004: 305
2003: 317
2002: 329
2001: 255
2000: 218
1998: 34023

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.4134
2012: 0.415 34
2011: 0.27
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.39
2008: 0.35
2007: 0.47
2006: 0.47
2005: 0.46
2004: 0.49
2003: 0.51
2002: 0.53
2001: 0.41
2000: 0.36
1998: 0.5723
1994: 0.6535

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 23014
2012: 245
2011: 163
2010: 179

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 3014
2012: 28
2011: 15
2010: 18

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 234
2012: 118 34
2011: 1
2010: 018
2009: 0
2008: 0
2007: 318 34
2006: 018
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 118 34
2002: 5
2001: 1
2000: 3

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0034
2012: 0.0034 18
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.018
2009: 0.0
2008: 0.0
2007: 0.0034 18
2006: 0.018
2005: 0.0
2004: 0.0
2003: 0.0034 18
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 2634
2012: 2418 34
2011: 14
2010: 18
2009: 23
2008: 10
2007: 29
2006: 28
2005: 28
2004: 32
2003: 33
2002: 33
2001: 27
2000: 19

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0434
2012: 0.0434 18
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.05
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.03

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn France, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 23234
2012: 24718 34
2011: 160
2010: 179
2009: 230
2008: 215
2007: 266
2006: 271
2005: 265
2004: 273
2003: 337
2002: 291
2001: 227
2000: 196

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn France, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.3634
2012: 0.3934 18
2011: 0.26
2010: 0.28
2009: 0.37
2008: 0.35
2007: 0.43
2006: 0.44
2005: 0.43
2004: 0.46
2003: 0.56
2002: 0.49
2001: 0.39
2000: 0.35

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In France, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, France was ranked 'medium'48

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In France, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from France is reported by manufacturers to be

2017: 16072
2016: 306
2015: 8
2014: 708
2013: 2
2012: 342
2011: 642
2010: 66
2009: 60
2008: 237
2007: 737
2006: 584

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from France is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 144,435,60073
2015: 151,881,041
2014: 184,906,289
2013: 189,302,038
2012: 149,253,89773 74 75
2011: 71,435,16376
2010: 40,000,00077
2001: 39,000,00074

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, France was categorized as 'major'78 79 80

Firearm Imports

In France, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law 81 57 58 82 83 84 60 64 65 66 67 68 69

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to France is reported to be

2017: 14,84672
2016: 21,339
2015: 6,131
2014: 4,124
2013: 2,161
2012: 8,613
2011: 9,213
2010: 1,883
2009: 3,378
2008: 3,728
2007: 43,729
2006: 449

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to France is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 254,696,67873
2015: 241,936,249
2014: 249,635,241
2013: 261,981,327
2012: 263,228,69073 85 86 87 88
2011: 139,034,02776 89 90
2010: 114,000,00091
2001: 64,000,00085 92

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in France is moderate93 94 95

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In France, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law36 38 96 97 98 99 100 101

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in France include49 51 102 53 103 104 61 64 105 62 63 84 65 67 69 106 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, France scored

2016: 15.75107
2014: 15.00108
2013: 14.25109
2012: 14.00110
2011: 14.00111
2010: 14.50112
2009: 14.75113
2008: 14.00114
2007: 13.75115
2006: 17.25116
2005: 12.00117
2004: 14.25118

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in France is categorised as restrictive119

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in France includes the Internal Security Code,120 121 the Decree No. 2013-700 of 30 July 2013 on the Implementation of the Act No. 2012-304 of 6 March 2012 on the Establishment of a Modern, Simplified and Preventive Control of Weapons,122 the Defence Code,123 120 the Order of 2007 on the Creation of the Application for the Management of the Computerized Register of Owners and Holders of Firearms,124 the Decree on Exports of Firearms of 2014,125 the Order of November 15, 2000 on Modalities for Destruction by Gunsmiths of Firearms,126 the Ordinance 2004-1374 of 20 December 2004 concerning the legislative part of the Defence Code that repealed the Decree-Law of 18 April, 1939 on Weapons of War, Firearms and Ammunition,127 the Council Directive of 18 June, 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,128 129 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003130 and the Convention of 1 July, 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms131

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in France are regulated by the Ministers of Defence,132 Interior, Industry, Customs,43 and Sports,133 the Prefect,134 National Police, National Gendarmerie,38 and the European Commission129

Right to Possess Firearms

In France, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law135 136

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In France, civilians are not allowed to possess weapons of war, certain handguns and long guns, automatic firearms, firearms disguised as other objects, and armour-piercing, incendiary and expanding ammunition137 138 139 140 141

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In France, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited138 142 143 140 141

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In France, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence142 144 145 146 141

Regulation of Handguns

In France, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited with only narrow exemptions138 142 147 140 145 146 141

Law Regulates Long Guns

In France, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law138 142 144 148 145 146 141

Gun Ownership and Possession

In France, only licensed gun owners (for certain arms)149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 83 161 140 145 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in France are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, personal protection, security and collection162 163 164 165 166 103 167

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in France is 18 years (except for sports shooters between 12 and 18 years old)121 164 133 168 167

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in France must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health and health149 169 170 165 171 172 173 150 37 167 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In France, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required174 175

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In France, licensing authorities are not required174 175 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in France does not stipulate174 175 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In France, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required, only for persons exposed to serious risks due to their professional activity,165 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In France, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years176 177 178 179 180 156

Licensing Records

In France, authorities maintain a record124 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 98 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in France are permitted to possess a limited number of firearms188 164 163

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in France are permitted to possess a limited quantity of ammunition188 189 190 191 192 193

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In France, the law requires124 181 182 183 194 195 98 196 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In France, licensed firearm dealers are required96 42 197 198 199 98 196 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In France, licensed gun makers are required96 42 198 199 98 47 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In France, State agencies are required200 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In France, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited unless conducted by the Commissioner of Police, the Commander of the Gendarmerie or by a licensed firearm dealer and registered by the competent Prefect195 201 202 194 203 204 153 154 205 206 146

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In France, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful39 40 38 41 42 207 179 208 153 154 192 209 186 36 37 206 210 146

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in France is obliged211 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in France is obliged211 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

The number of licensed firearm dealers in France is reported to be 360211

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In France, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined174 175

Regulation of Gun Shows

In France, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated212 213 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in France include46 214 215 216 217 170 165 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in France include46 44 212 170 165 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in France include46 200 218 219 220 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in France include221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In France, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law229 230 45 131 231 47 232 233 234 235

Firearm Tracing

In France, state authorities carry out124 236 234 235 196 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In France, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law237 238 239 240 241 242 243 147

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In France, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm244 is three years in prison and a fine245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in France are known to have95 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn France, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2014: 5,8713 265 266
2013: 825267
2012: 6,965268 267
2011: 26,591268 269 267
2010: 33,554269
2009: 32,762

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn France, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2014: 34,317270
2012: 12,532271
2011: 41,105272
2010: 63,017
2009: 68,608
1998/2000: 140,000273

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In France, it is not state policy274 275 276 277 169 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, France is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament288 289

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, France is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that France has submitted one or more national reports290 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006291 by France.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified292 by France

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed293 by France

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, France committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects294

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored France against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 57295 296 297 298 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, France has submitted one or more national reports299 300 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In France, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated301 300

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In France, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated300 301

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of France submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent300

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated300 by France to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, France has declared302 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, France has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945303

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists304 France as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in France, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where France ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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France.2014.‘Article R. 312-39 - Authorisations for Individuals Exposed to Risks.’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10970)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 312-53 - Purchase of Firearms of Categories C and D (Acquisition des armes de catégories C et D).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10977)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 312-6 - Medical Certificate (Certificat médical).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10920)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 312-8 - Mental Records (Antécédents mentaux).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10921)Full Citation

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187.

France.2014.‘Article R. 312-43 - Shooting Booklet (Carnet de tir).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10972)Full Citation

188.

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189.

France.2014.‘Article R. 312-46 - Purchase of Ammunition for Firearms of Category B (Acquisition de munitions des armes de catégorie B).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10974)Full Citation

190.

France.2014.‘Article R. 312-47 - Limit on the Purchase of Ammunition (Limitation quant à l'acquisition de munitions).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10975)Full Citation

191.

France.2014.‘Article R. 312-49 - Ammunition per Firearm (Munitions par arme).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10976)Full Citation

192.

France.2014.‘Article R. 312-45 - Purchase and Possession of Magazines and Ammunition (Acquisition et détention des systèmes d'alimentation et des munitions).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10973)Full Citation

193.

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195.

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196.

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198.

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199.

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200.

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201.

France.2013.‘Article L. 314-3 - Transfers of Firearms of Categories A and B Not Intended for Commerce.’ Internal Security Code - Legislative Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie législative).Paris:President of the French Republic,20 June. (Q10779)Full Citation

202.

France.2013.‘Article L. 314-2 - Transfer of Firearms of Category B, Between Individuals.’ Internal Security Code - Legislative Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie législative).Paris:President of the French Republic,20 June. (Q10778)Full Citation

203.

France.2014.‘Article R. 314-20 - Transfer of Ownership Between Individuals (Transfert de propriété entre particuliers).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10979)Full Citation

204.

France.2014.‘Article R. 314-17 - Private Sales (Authority).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10961)Full Citation

205.

France.2014.‘Article R. 314-18 - Purchase of a Replacement Firearm by an Individual.’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10934)Full Citation

206.

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207.

France.2014.‘Article R. 312-10 - Authorisation to Purchase and Possess Firearms.’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10963)Full Citation

208.

France.2014.‘Article R. 313-8 - Authorisation to Open a Retail Store (Autorisation d'ouverture du commerce de détail).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10931)Full Citation

209.

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211.

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212.

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213.

France.2014.‘Article R. 313-20 - Retail Sale Outside of Premises (Vente au détail hors de locaux).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10933)Full Citation

214.

France.2014.‘Article R. 314-8 - Storage - Sports Shooting (Conservation - Tir sportif).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10938)Full Citation

215.

France.2014.‘Article R. 314-9 - Storage - Shooting Gallery (Conservation - Tir forain).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10939)Full Citation

216.

France.2014.‘Article R. 314-7 - Storage - Shows (Conservation - Spectacles).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10936)Full Citation

217.

France.2014.‘Article R. 314-10 - Storage - Public Authorities, Museums, and Collections.’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10937)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-12 - Security of Shipments and Transports of Firearms (Sécurité des expéditions et des transports des armes).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10948)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-13 - Shipments of Firearms (Expéditions des armes).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10949)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-14 - Exemptions Concerning Shipments of Firearms (Dérogations concernant les expéditions d'armes).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10950)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-15 - Postal Shipments of Firearms (Expéditions d'armes par voie postale).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10951)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-16 - Firearm Shipments by Rail, Air or Sea (Expéditions d'armes par voie ferré, aérienne ou maritime).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10952)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-17 - Firearm Transport by Road (Expéditions d'armes par voie routière).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10953)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-18 - Responsibilities of Transport Companies (Responsabilité des companies de transport).’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10954)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-2 - Carrying and Transport of Firearms for Hunting and Sports Purposes.’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10941)Full Citation

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France.2014.‘Article R. 315-11 - Authorised Carrying of Firearms for Companies.’ Internal Security Code - Regulatory Part (Code de la sécurité intérieure - Partie réglementaire).Paris:President of the French Republic,27 October. (Q10944)Full Citation

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