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Finland — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Finland is

2017: 1,793,0001
2015: 1,542,3962
2012: 1,555,1003
2009: 1,738,0004 5 6
2005: 2,400,0007

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Finland is

2017: 32.401
2012: 29.003
2009: 32.618 9 6
2005: 45.77

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn Finland, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 424,1442
2010: 665,00010

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn Finland, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 579,5002
2010: 600,00011

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

ChartIn Finland, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2015: 226,9682
2010: 250,00012 3

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2017 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 206 countries, Finland ranked at No. 4213

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2017 comparison of the rate of privately owned guns in 206 countries, Finland ranked at No.813

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In Finland, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 13%14

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 37.9%15
1999/2003: 23.7%
1995/98: 28.8%
1992: 25.2%16
1992/94: 25.4%15
1989: 25.5%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Finland, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 14.6%16

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Finland, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 18.4%16

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 6.3%15
1999/2003: 6.4%
1995/98: 6.0%
1992/94: 6.3%15 16
1989: 7.2%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Finland is reported to be

2009: 672,77217 18

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Finland is

2009: 12.628

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Finland is reported to be

2021: 1,943,96619
2017: 1,542,3961
2016: 1,500,0020
2010: 1,580,00021

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Finland is

2010: 30.022

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,23 but in Finland there are estimated to be

2017: 250,6041

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,23 but in Finland the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2009: 2.968

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Finland are reported to have 474,03024 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Finland are reported to have 14,00025 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 14626
2017: 138
2016: 143
2015: 131
2014: 135
2013: 177
2012: 15727 28 29 30
2011: 18427 28 29
2010: 19531
2009: 206
2008: 238
2007: 19727 28 29 32
2006: 206
2005: 184
2004: 253
2003: 255
2002: 229
2001: 270
2000: 23527 28 33 32
1999: 31327 28 29 32
1998: 295
1997: 346
1996: 323

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 2.6526
2017: 2.51
2016: 2.61
2015: 2.40
2014: 2.49
2013: 3.27
2012: 2.92
2011: 3.44
2010: 3.66
2009: 3.88
2008: 4.51
2007: 3.75
2006: 3.93
2005: 3.52
2004: 4.86
2003: 4.91
2002: 4.41
2001: 5.21
2000: 4.55
1999: 6.07
1998: 5.73
1997: 6.74
1996: 6.31

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 13826
2017: 132
2016: 132
2015: 128
2014: 127
2013: 165
2012: 143
2011: 172
2010: 187
2009: 189
2008: 213
2007: 182
2006: 192
2005: 177
2004: 238
2003: 236
2001: 254
2000: 219

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2018: 5.0826
2017: 4.88
2016: 4.90
2015: 4.77
2014: 4.76
2013: 6.22
2012: 5.42
2011: 6.55
2010: 7.15
2009: 7.27
2008: 8.24
2007: 7.07
2006: 7.49
2005: 6.93
2004: 9.35
2003: 9.30
2001: 10.04
2000: 8.68

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2018: 826
2017: 6
2016: 11
2015: 3
2014: 8
2013: 12
2012: 14
2011: 12
2010: 8
2009: 17
2008: 25
2007: 15
2006: 14
2005: 7
2004: 15
2003: 19
2001: 16
2000: 16

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.2926
2017: 0.21
2016: 0.40
2015: 0.11
2014: 0.29
2013: 0.44
2012: 0.51
2011: 0.44
2010: 0.29
2009: 0.63
2008: 0.93
2007: 0.56
2006: 0.52
2005: 0.26
2004: 0.56
2003: 0.72
2001: 0.60
2000: 0.60

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual homicides by any means total

2020: 9134
2019: 5
2018: 12
2017: 6
2016: 9
2015: 12
2014: 11
2013: 15
2012: 17
2011: 16
2010: 15
2009: 24
2008: 30
2007: 24
2006: 19
2005: 12
2004: 146
2003: 105
2002: 132
2001: 156
2000: 148
1999: 14335
1998: 113
1997: 13935 36
1996: 153
1995: 146

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2020: 1.6434
2019: 1.59
2018: 1.56
2017: 1.22
2016: 1.35
2015: 1.50
2014: 1.61
2013: 1.64
2012: 1.63
2011: 2.04
2010: 2.22
2009: 2.25
2008: 2.51
2007: 2.44
2006: 2.3
2005: 2.2
2004: 2.8
2003: 2.0
2002: 2.5
2001: 3.0
2000: 2.9
1999: 2.835
1998: 2.2
1997: 2.7
1996: 3.0
1995: 2.9
1994: 3.2437

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual male homicides by any means total

2019: 8934
2018: 124
2017: 74
2016: 99
2015: 132
2014: 61
2013: 65
2012: 48
2011: 73
2010: 91
2009: 86
2008: 89
2007: 81

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 2.1334
2018: 2.28
2017: 1.36
2016: 1.92
2015: 2.45
2014: 2.27
2013: 2.43
2012: 1.80
2011: 2.76
2010: 3.46
2009: 3.28
2008: 3.41
2007: 3.12

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual female homicides by any means total

2019: 4134
2018: 48
2017: 60
2016: 42
2015: 32
2014: 27
2013: 24
2012: 40
2011: 37
2010: 28
2009: 34
2008: 44
2007: 48

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 1.0734
2018: 0.86
2017: 1.07
2016: 0.79
2015: 0.57
2014: 0.97
2013: 0.87
2012: 1.45
2011: 1.35
2010: 1.02
2009: 1.25
2008: 1.62
2007: 1.78

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual firearm homicides total

2019: 534
2018: 12
2017: 6
2016: 934
2015: 12
2014: 1127
2013: 15
2012: 17
2011: 16
2010: 15
2009: 2227 38 35
2008: 30
2007: 23
2006: 17
2005: 11
2004: 3027 35
2003: 18
2002: 2027
2001: 30
2000: 32
1999: 33
1998: 2227 35
1997: 4027
1996: 34

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 0.0934
2018: 0.22
2017: 0.11
2016: 0.16
2015: 0.22
2014: 0.20
2013: 0.28
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.30
2010: 0.26
2009: 0.41
2008: 0.57
2007: 0.44
2006: 0.32
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.5727 35
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.3827
2001: 0.58
2000: 0.62
1999: 0.64
1998: 0.4327 35
1997: 0.7827
1996: 0.66
1994: 0.8639

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 19%38
2011: 14%38 40
2010: 12%38
2009: 20%38
2008: 23%
2007: 19%
2006: 10%
2005: 25%
2004: 19.6%35
2003: 18%
1998: 19.5%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual male firearm homicides total

2016: 234
2015: 10
2014: 9
2013: 9
2012: 8
2011: 10
2010: 12
2009: 12
2008: 12
2007: 10

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.1034
2015: 0.40
2014: 0.26
2013: 0.34
2012: 0.26
2011: 0.38
2010: 0.50
2009: 0.46
2008: 0.46
2007: 0.39

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual female firearm homicides total

2016: 734
2015: 226
2014: 2
2013: 6
2012: 9
2011: 6
2010: 3
2009: 10
2008: 18
2007: 13

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.3034
2015: 0.0726
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.22
2012: 0.33
2011: 0.20
2010: 0.11
2009: 0.37
2008: 0.67
2007: 0.48

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 227
2013: 5
2012: 3
2011: 2
2010: 7
2009: 8
2008: 14
2007: 9
2006: 3
2005: 2
2004: 6
2003: 5
2002: 10
2001: 6
2000: 9
1999: 9
1998: 7
1997: 18
1996: 17

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0427
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.13
2009: 0.15
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.11
2003: 0.10
2002: 0.19
2001: 0.12
2000: 0.17
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.14
1997: 0.35
1996: 0.33

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual long gun homicides total

2014: 527
2013: 6
2012: 9
2011: 2
2010: 5
2009: 7
2008: 8
2007: 5
2006: 7
2005: 4
2004: 15
2003: 11
2002: 9
2001: 13
2000: 12
1999: 14
1998: 6
1997: 22
1996: 13

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0927
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.08
2004: 0.29
2003: 0.21
2002: 0.17
2001: 0.25
2000: 0.23
1999: 0.27
1998: 0.12
1997: 0.43
1996: 0.25

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Finland, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 427
2013: 4
2012: 4
2011: 14
2010: 2
2009: 7
2008: 8
2007: 9
2006: 7
2005: 5
2004: 9
2003: 2
2002: 1
2001: 11
2000: 11
1999: 10
1998: 9
1996: 4

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0727
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.26
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.15
2007: 0.17
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.10
2004: 0.17
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.21
2000: 0.21
1999: 0.19
1998: 0.17
1996: 0.08

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual suicides by any means total

2018: 93926
2017: 950
2016: 914
2015: 848
2014: 905
2013: 1,047
2012: 1,011
2011: 1,073
2010: 1,130
2009: 1,213
2008: 1,239
2007: 1,165
2006: 1,244
2005: 1,160
2004: 1,282
2003: 1,305
2001: 1,437
2000: 1,363
1998: 1,22833

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 026
2018: 16.96
2017: 17.22
2016: 16.62
2015: 15.48
2014: 16.59
2013: 19.28
2012: 18.70
2011: 19.95
2010: 21.10
2009: 22.76
2008: 23.36
2007: 22.06
2006: 23.66
2005: 22.15
2004: 24.56
2003: 25.07
2001: 27.74
2000: 26.37
1998: 23.5833
1994: 27.2641

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual male suicides by any means total

2018: 74626
2017: 736
2016: 738
2015: 674
2014: 713
2013: 820
2012: 788
2011: 869
2010: 890
2009: 934
2008: 1,000
2007: 919
2006: 980
2005: 887
2004: 1,023
2003: 1,035
2001: 1,165
2000: 1,066

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 27.3626
2017: 27.09
2016: 27.27
2015: 25.02
2014: 26.59
2013: 30.73
2012: 29.68
2011: 32.91
2010: 33.88
2009: 35.74
2008: 38.47
2007: 35.54
2006: 38.08
2005: 34.61
2004: 40.07
2003: 40.67
2001: 46.06
2000: 42.27

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual female suicides by any means total

2018: 19326
2017: 214
2016: 176
2015: 174
2014: 192
2013: 227
2012: 223
2011: 204
2010: 240
2009: 279
2008: 239
2007: 246
2006: 264
2005: 273
2004: 259
2003: 270
2001: 272
2000: 297

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2018: 6.8726
2017: 7.64
2016: 6.30
2015: 6.25
2014: 6.93
2013: 8.22
2012: 8.11
2011: 7.45
2010: 8.80
2009: 10.27
2008: 8.83
2007: 9.13
2006: 9.83
2005: 10.21
2004: 9.71
2003: 10.15
2001: 10.26
2000: 11.22

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, annual firearm suicides total

2018: 13026
2017: 129
2016: 128
2015: 119
2014: 122
2013: 160
2012: 13928 30
2011: 16528
2010: 179
2009: 181
2008: 207
2007: 172
2006: 183
2005: 169
2004: 219
2003: 232
2002: 205
2001: 234
2000: 200
1999: 268
1998: 267
1997: 302
1996: 278

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2018: 2.3626
2017: 2.35
2016: 2.34
2015: 2.18
2014: 2.25
2013: 2.96
2012: 2.58
2011: 3.08
2010: 3.36
2009: 3.41
2008: 3.92
2007: 3.27
2006: 3.49
2005: 3.24
2004: 4.21
2003: 4.47
2002: 3.94
2001: 4.52
2000: 3.87
1999: 5.19
1998: 5.18
1997: 5.88
1996: 5.43
1994: 5.7842

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual male firearm suicides total

2018: 12926
2017: 126
2016: 124
2015: 118
2014: 118
2013: 154
2012: 134
2011: 161
2010: 174
2009: 174
2008: 200
2007: 170
2006: 178
2005: 165
2004: 212
2003: 222
2001: 232
2000: 193

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2018: 4.7326
2017: 4.64
2016: 4.58
2015: 4.38
2014: 4.40
2013: 5.77
2012: 5.05
2011: 6.10
2010: 6.62
2009: 6.66
2008: 7.69
2007: 6.57
2006: 6.92
2005: 6.44
2004: 8.30
2003: 8.72
2001: 9.17
2000: 7.65

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual female firearm suicides total

2018: 126
2017: 3
2016: 4
2015: 1
2014: 4
2013: 6
2012: 5
2011: 4
2010: 5
2009: 7
2008: 7
2007: 2
2006: 5
2005: 4
2004: 7
2003: 10
2001: 2
2000: 7

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0426
2017: 0.11
2016: 0.14
2015: 0.04
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.22
2012: 0.18
2011: 0.15
2010: 0.18
2009: 0.26
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.15
2004: 0.26
2003: 0.38
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.26

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 328
2013: 1
2012: 51
2011: 55
2010: 58
2009: 62
2008: 57
2007: 67
2006: 54
2005: 54
2004: 73
2003: 64
2002: 63
2001: 79
2000: 61
1999: 76
1998: 86
1997: 98
1996: 104

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0528
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.94
2011: 1.02
2010: 1.08
2009: 1.16
2008: 1.07
2007: 1.27
2006: 1.03
2005: 1.03
2004: 1.40
2003: 1.23
2002: 1.21
2001: 1.52
2000: 1.18
1999: 1.47
1998: 1.67
1997: 1.91
1996: 2.03

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Finland, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 4728
2013: 51
2012: 78
2011: 104
2010: 110
2009: 109
2008: 140
2007: 97
2006: 120
2005: 112
2004: 139
2003: 156
2002: 130
2001: 146
2000: 125
1999: 172
1998: 152
1997: 199
1996: 168

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.8628
2013: 0.94
2012: 1.44
2011: 1.93
2010: 2.05
2009: 2.04
2008: 2.63
2007: 1.83
2006: 2.28
2005: 2.13
2004: 2.66
2003: 2.99
2002: 2.50
2001: 2.81
2000: 2.41
1999: 3.33
1998: 2.95
1997: 3.87
1996: 3.28

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Finland, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 628
2013: 3
2012: 10
2011: 6
2010: 11
2009: 10
2008: 10
2007: 8
2006: 9
2005: 3
2004: 7
2003: 12
2002: 12
2001: 9
2000: 14
1999: 20
1998: 29
1997: 5
1996: 6

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1128
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.18
2011: 0.11
2010: 0.21
2009: 0.19
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.15
2006: 0.17
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.13
2003: 0.23
2002: 0.23
2001: 0.17
2000: 0.27
1999: 0.39
1998: 0.56
1997: 0.10
1996: 0.12

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2018: 226
2017: 2
2016: 1
2015: 1
2014: 129
2013: 0
2012: 229 30
2011: 129
2010: 1
2007: 1
2006: 4
2005: 1
2004: 2
2003: 3
2002: 3
2001: 2
2000: 033
1999: 629
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 3

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0426
2017: 0.04
2016: 0.02
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013:
2012: 0.04
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009:
2008:
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.04
2000:
1999: 0.1229
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.06
1994: 0.1243

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2018: 126
2017: 2
2016: 1
2015: 1
2014: 1
2013: 0
2012: 2
2011: 1
2010: 1
2007: 1
2006: 4
2005: 1
2004: 2
2003: 3
2001: 2

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0426
2017: 0.07
2016: 0.04
2015: 0.04
2014: 0.04
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.16
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.12
2001: 0.08

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2018: 126
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Finland, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0426

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 129
2010: 1
2005: 1
2004: 1
2003: 2
2002: 1
1999: 1
1998: 1
1997: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0229
2010: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.02

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2014: 129
2012: 2
2007: 1
2006: 3
2004: 1
2003: 1
2002: 2
2001: 2
1999: 5
1998: 2
1997: 1
1996: 2

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0229
2012: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.06
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.04
1999: 0.10
1998: 0.04
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.04

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

In Finland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2006: 129

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

In Finland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.0229

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 226
2017: 1
2016: 5
2015: 1
2014: 132
2013: 2
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 1
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 2
2005: 3
2004: 2
2003: 2
2002: 1
2001: 4
2000: 3
1999: 6
1998: 3
1997: 2
1996: 8

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2019: 026
2018: 0.04
2017: 0.02
2016: 0.09
2015: 0.02
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.04
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.12
1998: 0.06
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.16
1994: 0.1044

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 126
2016: 5
2015: 126
2014: 126
2013: 2
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 1
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 3
2004: 1
2003: 2
2001: 3
2000: 3

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0426
2016: 0.18
2015: 0.04
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.07
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.11
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.08
2001: 0.12
2000: 0.12

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2018: 126
2017: 1
2014: 0
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2006: 1
2004: 1
2001: 1

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2018: 0.0426
2017: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2004: 0.04
2001: 0.04

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 132
2009: 1
2008: 1
2006: 1
2003: 1
2001: 4
1999: 1
1998: 1
1997: 2
1996: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0232
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2001: 0.08
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.02

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 132
2009: 2
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 3
2000: 2
1999: 4
1998: 2
1996: 6

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0232
2009: 0.04
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.06
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.08
1998: 0.04
1996: 0.12

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Finland, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 132
2010: 1
2004: 2
2003: 1
2002: 1
2000: 1
1999: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0232
2010: 0.02
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2000: 0.02
1999: 0.02
1996: 0.02

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2015: 126
2014: 1
2009: 1

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Finland, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence45 46 47 48 49

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Finland was ranked 'small'50

Home-made Guns

In Finland, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low51 5253

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Finland, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Finland is reported by manufacturers to be

2020: 44465
2019: 2,914
2018: 161,289
2017: 1,413
2016: 1,448
2015: 1,050
2014: 1,28966
2013: 1,455

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Finland is reported by Customs to be US$

2021: 130,145,00067
2020: 92,565,000
2019: 94,022,000
2018: 90,443,000
2017: 87,432,000
2016: 87,127,000
2015: 85,722,000
2014: 92,884,000
2013: 93,103,000
2012: 70,574,000
2011: 61,428,000
2010: 54,464,000
2009: 63,433,000
2008: 58,937,000
2007: 47,614,000
2006: 44,310,000
2005: 43,898,000
2004: 33,688,000
2003: 29,138,000
2002: 24,386,000

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Finland was categorized as 'major'68 69 70

Firearm Imports

In Finland, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law71 56 72 73 57 58 59 60 61 63 64 74 75

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Finland is reported to be

2020: 6965
2019: 101,703
2018: 21,135
2017: 51
2013: 67066

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Finland is reported by Customs to be US$

2021: 29,654,00076
2020: 24,075,000
2019: 24,653,000
2018: 26,095,000
2017: 23,404,000
2016: 25,447,000
2015: 21,910,000
2014: 26,044,000
2013: 24,368,000
2012: 22,898,000
2011: 17,700,000
2010: 25,635,000
2009: 23,240,000
2008: 46,073,000
2007: 28,478,000
2006: 22,645,000
2005: 24,313,000
2004: 14,091,000
2003: 15,123,000
2002: 11,516,000

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Finland is low77 78

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Finland, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law79 80 81 82 63 64 83

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Finland include84 85 86 87 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Finland scored

2020: 14.25
2019: 14.7588
2018: 14.5089
2016: 14.7590
2014: 14.7591
2013: 14.2592
2012: 14.2593
2011: 14.0094
2010: 14.2595
2009: 15.0096
2008: 15.0097
2007: 14.7598
2006: 15.0099
2005: 15.50100
2004: 14.75101

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Finland is categorised as restrictive102

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Finland includes the Firearms Act and Decree of 1998,103 47 the Act on the Export and Transit of Defence Materiel,104 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,105 106 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003,107 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms108

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Finland are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior and the local Police,109 110 111 and the European Commission112

Right to Possess Firearms

In Finland, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law113 114 115

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Finland, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, disguised firearms, armour piercing and incendiary ammunition116 117 118 119

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Finland, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, with few exceptions120 116 117 121 40

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Finland, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence in some cases120 121 122 123 124

Regulation of Handguns

In Finland, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence in some cases120 116 125 122 123 124 40

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Finland, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law40

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Finland, only licensed gun owners56 126 127 128 125 122 40 129 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Finland are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, gun collecting, employment requirements130 120 131 132 133 134 135 136

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Finland is 18 years, or 15 years with parental consent131 134 137

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Finland must pass a background check which considers criminal background138 134 40 139 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Finland, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required103 140

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Finland does not stipulate115 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Finland, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required (in the workplace)131 141 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Finland gun owners are licensed for an indefinite period domestically142 143 and five years for a European Firearms Pass129

Licensing Records

In Finland, authorities maintain a record144 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Finland are permitted to possess up to a maximum of 10 firearms115 145

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Finland are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition115 61 146

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Finland, the law requires144 147 121 148 149 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Finland, licensed firearm dealers are required150 121 148 151 149 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Finland, licensed gun makers are required47 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Finland, State agencies are required147 152 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Finland, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without a permit153 83 49 154

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Finland, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful45 155 156 157 56 81 123 83 87 154

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Finland is obliged87 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Finland, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated115 136 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Finland include158 159 160 131 64 161 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Finland include162 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Finland include163 164 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Finland include158 165 75 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Finland, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited, except for an authorised work assignment166 167 40 168

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Finland, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited, except for an authorised work assignment166 167 40

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Finland, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm169 is two years in prison170 171

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Finland is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament172 173

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Finland is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Finland has submitted one or more national reports174 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006175 by Finland.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified176 by Finland

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified177 by Finland

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Finland committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects178

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Finland against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 9179 180 181 182 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Finland has submitted one or more national reports183 184 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Finland, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated184

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Finland, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated185

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Finland submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent186 184

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated184 by Finland to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Finland has declared187 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Finland has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1955188

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists189 Finland as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,190 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual homicides by any means total

2020: 9134
2019: 5
2018: 12
2017: 6
2016: 9
2015: 12
2014: 11
2013: 15
2012: 17
2011: 16
2010: 15
2009: 24
2008: 30
2007: 24
2006: 19
2005: 12
2004: 146
2003: 105
2002: 132
2001: 156
2000: 148
1999: 14335
1998: 113
1997: 13935 36
1996: 153
1995: 146

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2020: 1.6434
2019: 1.59
2018: 1.56
2017: 1.22
2016: 1.35
2015: 1.50
2014: 1.61
2013: 1.64
2012: 1.63
2011: 2.04
2010: 2.22
2009: 2.25
2008: 2.51
2007: 2.44
2006: 2.3
2005: 2.2
2004: 2.8
2003: 2.0
2002: 2.5
2001: 3.0
2000: 2.9
1999: 2.835
1998: 2.2
1997: 2.7
1996: 3.0
1995: 2.9
1994: 3.2437

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual male homicides by any means total

2019: 8934
2018: 124
2017: 74
2016: 99
2015: 132
2014: 61
2013: 65
2012: 48
2011: 73
2010: 91
2009: 86
2008: 89
2007: 81

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 2.1334
2018: 2.28
2017: 1.36
2016: 1.92
2015: 2.45
2014: 2.27
2013: 2.43
2012: 1.80
2011: 2.76
2010: 3.46
2009: 3.28
2008: 3.41
2007: 3.12

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Finland, annual female homicides by any means total

2019: 4134
2018: 48
2017: 60
2016: 42
2015: 32
2014: 27
2013: 24
2012: 40
2011: 37
2010: 28
2009: 34
2008: 44
2007: 48

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2019: 1.0734
2018: 0.86
2017: 1.07
2016: 0.79
2015: 0.57
2014: 0.97
2013: 0.87
2012: 1.45
2011: 1.35
2010: 1.02
2009: 1.25
2008: 1.62
2007: 1.78

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Finland, annual firearm homicides total

2019: 534
2018: 12
2017: 6
2016: 934
2015: 12
2014: 1127
2013: 15
2012: 17
2011: 16
2010: 15
2009: 2227 38 35
2008: 30
2007: 23
2006: 17
2005: 11
2004: 3027 35
2003: 18
2002: 2027
2001: 30
2000: 32
1999: 33
1998: 2227 35
1997: 4027
1996: 34

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2019: 0.0934
2018: 0.22
2017: 0.11
2016: 0.16
2015: 0.22
2014: 0.20
2013: 0.28
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.30
2010: 0.26
2009: 0.41
2008: 0.57
2007: 0.44
2006: 0.32
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.5727 35
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.3827
2001: 0.58
2000: 0.62
1999: 0.64
1998: 0.4327 35
1997: 0.7827
1996: 0.66
1994: 0.8639

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Finland, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 19%38
2011: 14%38 40
2010: 12%38
2009: 20%38
2008: 23%
2007: 19%
2006: 10%
2005: 25%
2004: 19.6%35
2003: 18%
1998: 19.5%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual male firearm homicides total

2016: 234
2015: 10
2014: 9
2013: 9
2012: 8
2011: 10
2010: 12
2009: 12
2008: 12
2007: 10

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.1034
2015: 0.40
2014: 0.26
2013: 0.34
2012: 0.26
2011: 0.38
2010: 0.50
2009: 0.46
2008: 0.46
2007: 0.39

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Finland, annual female firearm homicides total

2016: 734
2015: 226
2014: 2
2013: 6
2012: 9
2011: 6
2010: 3
2009: 10
2008: 18
2007: 13

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Finland, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.3034
2015: 0.0726
2014: 0.14
2013: 0.22
2012: 0.33
2011: 0.20
2010: 0.11
2009: 0.37
2008: 0.67
2007: 0.48

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in Finland, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in Finland are known to have191 192 193 194 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Finland, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2004-2010: 25,000195

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Finland, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2020: 7,80619
2019: 16,445196
2018: 23,190
2017: 21,702197
2016: 13,123145
2015: 3,675
2013: 3,149198
2012: 2,642
2011: 3,023
2010: 2,783

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Finland, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2019: 16,617196
2018: 23,133
2017: 21,658197 199
2016: 14,587
2011: 6,677200
2009: 6,338191

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Finland, it is state policy201 202 191 203 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In Finland, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law204 205 147 206 207 208 48 136

Firearm Tracing

In Finland, state authorities carry out204 205 207 148 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Finland, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not originally115 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where Finland ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on Finland on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


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European Parliament.2021.‘Final Provisions.’ Directive (EU) 2021/555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (codification).Brussels:European Union,24 March. (Q14638)Full Citation

113.

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119.

Finland.1998.‘Sections 61-63 Acquisition and Possession of Ammunition (Patruunoiden hankkiminen ja hallussapito).’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up 1249/2020 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q15139)Full Citation

120.

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121.

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122.

European Parliament.2021.‘Article 10.’ Directive (EU) 2021/555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (codification).Brussels:European Union,24 March. (Q14631)Full Citation

123.

European Parliament.2021.‘Article 11.’ Directive (EU) 2021/555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (codification).Brussels:European Union,24 March. (Q14632)Full Citation

124.

European Parliament.2021.‘Annex I.’ Directive (EU) 2021/555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (codification).Brussels:European Union,24 March. (Q14639)Full Citation

125.

European Parliament.2021.‘Article 9.’ Directive (EU) 2021/555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (codification).Brussels:European Union,24 March. (Q14630)Full Citation

126.

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Finland.1998.‘Possession Permit.’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up to 804/2003 included).Helsinki:Ministry of the Interior,1 March. (Q2015)Full Citation

128.

European Parliament.2021.‘Article 5.’ Directive (EU) 2021/555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons (codification).Brussels:European Union,24 March. (Q14626)Full Citation

129.

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135.

Finland.1998.‘Section 44 General Conditions for the Firearm and Firearm Parts to be Acquired (Hankittavaa ampuma-asetta ja aseen osaa koskevat yleiset edellytykset).’ Firearms Act (1/1998; amendments up 1249/2020 included).Helsinki:Minister of the Interior,1 March. (Q15122)Full Citation

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