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Estonia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Estonia is

2017: 65,0001
2007: 123,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Estonia is

2017: 51
2007: 9.22

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Estonia, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 4,2003

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Estonia, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 28,2003

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Estonia, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 10,1003

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Estonia ranked at No. 1314

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Estonia ranked at No. 652

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In Estonia, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 3%5

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Estonia, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 7.0%6
1999/2003: 7.4%
1995/98: 8.3%
1992/94: 7.5%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Estonia, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 3.6%6
1999/2003: 3.5%
1995/98: 3.0%
1992/94: 1.9%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Estonia is reported to be 31,0003

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Estonia is 2.237

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Estonia is reported to be

2017: 47,0001
2007: 47,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Estonia is 3.537

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Estonia there are estimated to be

2017: 18,0001

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Estonia are reported to have 38,7608 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Estonia are reported to have 18,0009 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 1910 11 12
2013: 24
2012: 3410 11 12 13
2011: 4110 11 14 12
2010: 3415
2009: 3810 11 12
2008: 2610 11 14 12
2007: 2410 11 12
2006: 2910 11 14 12
2005: 3810 11 12
2004: 36
2003: 4210 11 14 12
2002: 4810 11 12
2001: 45
2000: 6210 11 14 12
1999: 71
1998: 8210 11 14
1997: 7910 11 14 12
1996: 10710 11 14
1995: 151
1994: 182

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.4916
2013: 1.88
2012: 2.64
2011: 3.16
2010: 2.61
2009: 2.917
2008: 1.98
2007: 1.82
2006: 2.19
2005: 2.85
2004: 2.69
2003: 3.11
2002: 3.53
2001: 3.29
2000: 4.49
1999: 5.11
1998: 5.85
1997: 5.59
1996: 7.49
1995: 10.44
1994: 12.40

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 1816
2013: 23
2012: 31
2011: 40
2010: 32

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 116
2013: 1
2012: 3
2011: 1
2010: 2

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 4217
2014: 4216
2013: 52
2012: 65
2011: 6518 19 20
2010: 62
2009: 70
2008: 84
2007: 93
2006: 9118 21
2005: 113
2004: 9118 22
2003: 147
2002: 14218 19
2001: 137
2000: 14318 23
1999: 15723
1998: 196
1997: 17824
1996: 214
1995: 246

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 3.2017
2014: 1.4916
2013: 1.88
2012: 2.64
2011: 3.16
2010: 2.61
2009: 5.4
2008: 6.418 19 25
2007: 7.1
2006: 6.918 21 25
2005: 8.5
2004: 6.818 22 25
2003: 11.0
2002: 10.518 19 25
2001: 10.1
2000: 10.518 23 25
1999: 11.3223 25
1998: 13.94
1997: 12.2124 25
1996: 14.60
1995: 16.58
1994: 28.2126

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 3227
2014: 3316
2013: 34
2012: 47
2011: 51
2010: 48

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 1027
2014: 9
2013: 18
2012: 18
2011: 14
2010: 14

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Estonia, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 210
2013: 3
2012: 210 13
2011: 910
2010: 4
2009: 7
2008: 310 19
2007: 510
2006: 9
2005: 5
2004: 5
2003: 14
2002: 21
2001: 18
2000: 23
1999: 31
1998: 40
1997: 31
1996: 55
1995: 91
1994: 121

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1616
2013: 0.23
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.69
2010: 0.31
2009: 0.52
2008: 0.2210 19
2007: 0.3710
2006: 0.67
2005: 0.37
2004: 0.37
2003: 1.03
2002: 1.55
2001: 1.32
2000: 1.68
1999: 2.25
1998: 2.89
1997: 2.22
1996: 3.89
1995: 6.33
1994: 8.27

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Estonia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 6%20
2008: 3.9%19

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Estonia, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 116
2014: 1
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 9
2010: 4

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Estonia, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 116
2014: 1
2013: 1
2012: 1
2011: 0
2010: 0

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Estonia, annual handgun homicides total

2014: 110
2013: 1
2012: 1
2011: 3
2009: 1
2007: 1
2006: 4
2005: 3
2003: 7
2002: 7
2001: 4
2000: 17
1999: 24
1998: 33
1997: 23

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0810
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.22
2009: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.30
2005: 0.22
2003: 0.52
2002: 0.52
2001: 0.29
2000: 1.24
1999: 1.74
1998: 2.38
1997: 1.64

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Estonia, annual long gun homicides total

2011: 310
2009: 1
2006: 1
2003: 2
2001: 3
2000: 2
1999: 4
1998: 5
1997: 6

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.2210
2009: 0.07
2006: 0.07
2003: 0.15
2001: 0.22
2000: 0.15
1999: 0.29
1998: 0.36
1997: 0.43

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Estonia, annual gun homicides (other) total

2014: 110
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 3
2010: 4
2009: 5
2008: 3
2007: 4
2006: 4
2005: 2
2004: 5
2003: 5
2002: 14
2001: 11
2000: 4
1999: 3
1998: 2
1997: 2

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.08 10
2013: 0.15
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.37
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.30
2006: 0.30
2005: 0.15
2004: 0.37
2003: 0.37
2002: 1.03
2001: 0.81
2000: 0.29
1999: 0.22
1998: 0.14
1997: 0.14

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 24116
2013: 218
2012: 237
2011: 218
2010: 223
1999: 46928

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 18.9416
2013: 17.03
2012: 18.39
2011: 16.80
2010: 17.12
1999: 35.4528
1994: 40.9529

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 19316
2013: 171
2012: 190
2011: 178
2010: 181

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Estonia, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 4816
2013: 47
2012: 47
2011: 40
2010: 42

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Estonia, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 1411
2013: 17
2012: 2811 13
2011: 2511
2010: 21
2009: 23
2008: 19
2007: 18
2006: 14
2005: 24
2004: 24
2003: 23
2002: 21
2001: 25
2000: 31
1999: 32
1998: 40
1997: 40
1996: 48
1995: 54
1994: 47

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.1016
2013: 1.33
2012: 2.17
2011: 1.93
2010: 1.61
2009: 1.72
2008: 1.42
2007: 1.34
2006: 1.04
2005: 1.78
2004: 1.78
2003: 1.7
2002: 1.55
2001: 1.83
2000: 2.26
1999: 2.33
1998: 2.89
1997: 2.86
1996: 3.39
1995: 3.76
1994: 3.21

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Estonia, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 1416
2013: 17
2012: 27
2011: 24
2010: 20

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Estonia, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 016
2013: 0
2012: 1
2011: 1
2010: 1

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Estonia, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 211
2013: 6
2012: 7
2011: 2
2010: 4
2009: 3
2008: 1
2007: 3
2006: 2
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 8
2002: 7
2001: 9
2000: 19
1999: 21
1998: 26
1997: 22

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1511
2013: 0.46
2012: 0.53
2011: 0.15
2010: 0.30
2009: 0.22
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.22
2006: 0.15
2005: 0.30
2004: 0.37
2003: 0.59
2002: 0.52
2001: 0.66
2000: 1.39
1999: 1.53
1998: 1.88
1997: 1.57

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Estonia, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 211
2013: 2
2012: 7
2011: 7
2010: 7
2009: 3
2008: 3
2007: 7
2006: 5
2005: 6
2004: 11
2003: 7
2002: 7
2001: 7
2000: 6
1999: 8
1998: 9
1997: 8

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1511
2013: 0.15
2012: 0.53
2011: 0.52
2010: 0.52
2009: 0.22
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.52
2006: 0.37
2005: 0.45
2004: 0.82
2003: 0.52
2002: 0.52
2001: 0.51
2000: 0.44
1999: 0.58
1998: 0.65
1997: 0.57

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Estonia, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 1011
2013: 9
2012: 14
2011: 16
2010: 10
2009: 17
2008: 15
2007: 8
2006: 7
2005: 14
2004: 8
2003: 8
2002: 7
2001: 9
2000: 6
1999: 3
1998: 5
1997: 10

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.7611
2013: 0.68
2012: 1.05
2011: 1.19
2010: 0.75
2009: 1.27
2008: 1.12
2007: 0.60
2006: 0.52
2005: 1.04
2004: 0.59
2003: 0.59
2002: 0.52
2001: 0.66
2000: 0.44
1999: 0.22
1998: 0.36
1997: 0.71

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 016
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 214
2010: 1
2008: 1
2006: 1
2003: 1
2000: 1
1999: 1
1998: 2
1997: 2
1996: 4
1995: 6
1994: 14

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2416
2013: 0.31
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.39
2010: 0.61
2008: 0.07
2006: 0.07
2003: 0.07
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.07
1998: 0.14
1997: 0.14
1996: 0.28
1995: 0.42
1994: 0.9614 30

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 016
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 2
2010: 1

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 016
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 114
2003: 1
1999: 1
1998: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0714
2003: 0.07
1999: 0.07
1998: 0.07

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Estonia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2011: 114
2000: 1
1998: 1

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0714
2000: 0.07
1998: 0.07

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Estonia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2010: 114
2008: 1
2006: 1
1997: 2

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0714
2008: 0.07
2006: 0.07
1997: 0.14

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Estonia, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 312
2013: 4
2012: 412 13
2011: 512
2010: 8
2009: 8
2008: 3
2007: 1
2006: 5
2005: 9
2004: 7
2003: 4
2002: 6
2001: 2
2000: 7
1999: 7
1997: 6

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2312
2013: 0.30
2012: 0.30
2011: 0.37
2010: 0.60
2009: 0.60
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.37
2005: 0.67
2004: 0.52
2003: 0.30
2002: 0.44
2001: 0.15
2000: 0.51
1999: 0.51
1997: 0.43
1994: 0.6731

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Estonia, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 316
2013: 4
2012: 3
2011: 5
2010: 7

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Estonia, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 016
2013: 0
2012: 1
2011: 0
2010: 1

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Estonia, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 112
2009: 1
2006: 2
2005: 2
2004: 1
2002: 1
2000: 4
1999: 3
1997: 6

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0712
2009: 0.07
2006: 0.15
2005: 0.15
2004: 0.07
2002: 0.07
2000: 0.29
1999: 0.22
1997: 0.43

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Estonia, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 112
2010: 2
2007: 1
2004: 2
2003: 1
2002: 1
2001: 1
2000: 2
1999: 3

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0812
2010: 0.15
2007: 0.07
2004: 0.15
2003: 0.07
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.07
2000: 0.15
1999: 0.22

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Estonia, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 312
2013: 4
2012: 3
2011: 5
2010: 5
2009: 7
2008: 3
2006: 3
2005: 7
2004: 4
2003: 3
2002: 4
2001: 1
2000: 1
1999: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Estonia, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2312
2013: 0.30
2012: 0.23
2011: 0.37
2010: 0.37
2009: 0.52
2008: 0.22
2006: 0.22
2005: 0.52
2004: 0.30
2003: 0.22
2002: 0.29
2001: 0.07
2000: 0.07
1999: 0.07

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Estonia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence,32 33 34 but is not conducted in practice 35

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Estonia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Estonia is reported by Customs to be US$718,49948 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Estonia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law36 37 38 39 49 41 42 43 44 45 46

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Estonia is reported by Customs to be US$12,053,67548 (2011)50 51 52 53

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Estonia is moderate3

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Estonia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law54 55 56

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Estonia include57 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Estonia is categorised as restrictive58

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Estonia includes the Weapons Act 2001,59 the Strategic Goods Act,41 54 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons,60 61 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012 and the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 200362

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Estonia are regulated by the Government of the Republic of Estonia and the Minister of Internal Affairs, and the Police,63 64 65 and the European Commission61

Right to Possess Firearms

In Estonia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law66 67 68

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Estonia, civilians are not allowed to possess smoothbore guns with an overall length of less than 840mm, automatic firearms, military weapons, armour-piercing, explosive, incendiary, or hollow-pointed ammunition, and silencers, laser or night sight devices69 70 71 72 73 74

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Estonia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited69 70 73 74 20

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Estonia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence69 75 76 74

Regulation of Handguns

In Estonia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence77 70 73 75 76 74 20

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Estonia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law69 77 20

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Estonia, only licensed gun owners78 79 80 81 82 83 84 73 75 20 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Estonia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security, and during filming or performance85 79 86 82 87 88 89

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Estonia is 18 years for sporting and hunting firearms, shotguns, gas and air-powered firearms, and 21 for all other firearms90 82 89

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Estonia must pass a background check which considers criminal, medical, mental health, addiction, and military91 92 82 93 94 65 89 20 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Estonia, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required68

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Estonia does not stipulate68 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Estonia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required65 95 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Estonia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years78 96 97

Licensing Records

In Estonia, authorities maintain a record80 70 98 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Estonia are permitted to possess a limited quantity of ammunition78 99 100

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Estonia, the law requires101 80 102 70 98 72 103 104 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Estonia, licensed firearm dealers are required105 102 70 98 80 104 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Estonia, licensed gun makers are required105 101 106 102 98 72 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Estonia, State agencies are required64 102 103 107 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Estonia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited unless with a special permit and conducted by a police officer108 109

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Estonia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful33 34 110 111 76

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Estonia is obliged91 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Estonia is obliged91 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Estonia include112 113 96 114 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Estonia include112 32 110 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Estonia include107 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Estonia include115 116 117 49 40 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Estonia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law118 103 119 120 121

Firearm Tracing

In Estonia, state authorities carry out122 120 104 123 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Estonia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not68 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Estonia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited124 96 20

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Estonia, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit124 96 20

Gun Free Zones

In Estonia, private guns are prohibited in public events125

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Estonia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm126 is up to three years in prison or a fine96 54 127 128

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Estonia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2011: 21129 130
2009/14: 95131

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Estonia, it is not state policy132 133 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Estonia is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament134 135

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Estonia is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Estonia has submitted one or more national reports136 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed137 by Estonia.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified138 by Estonia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified139 by Estonia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Estonia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects140

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Estonia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 10141 142 143 144 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Estonia has submitted one or more national reports145 146 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Estonia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated147 146

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Estonia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated147 146

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Estonia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent147 146

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated146 by Estonia to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Estonia has declared148 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Estonia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1991149

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists150 Estonia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Estonia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Estonia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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