Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

England & Wales — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

For combined British figures and legislation, see 'United Kingdom'

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in England & Wales is

2017: 2,731,0001
2007: 3,400,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in England & Wales is

2017: 4.61
2007: 6.22

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

ChartIn England & Wales, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 539,1943
2012: 477,8884
2011: 464,839
2010: 451,131
2009: 435,383
2006: 368,600
2005: 358,300
2004: 342,200
2003: 316,700
2002: 311,000
2001: 301,000
2000: 296,800
1999: 296,400
1998: 295,000
1997: 305,000
1996: 418,300
1995: 413,600

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

ChartIn England & Wales, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2016: 1,330,0003
2012: 1,328,6475
2011: 1,336,701
2010: 1,358,522
2009: 1,366,082
2006: 1,360,800
2005: 1,384,000
2004: 1,372,700
2003: 1,325,400
2002: 1,314,600
2001: 1,307,600
2000: 1,320,900
1999: 1,327,800
1998: 1,343,100
1997: 1,343,900
1996: 1,335,000
1995: 1,325,800

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, England & Wales ranked at No. 226

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, England & Wales ranked at No. 882

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 6.1%7
1999/2003: 3.1%
1995/98: 3.9%
1992: 4.4%8
1992/94: 4.2%7
1989: 4.7%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 0.6%8

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 3.1%8

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn England & Wales, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 0.5%7
1999/2003: 0.1%
1995/98: 0.5%
1992/94: 0.6%7 8
1989: 0.4%

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in England & Wales is reported to be

2014: 734,3369
2012: 704,5165 4

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in England & Wales is

2014: 1.2810
2012: 1.25

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in England & Wales is reported to be

2017: 1,870,7351
2014: 1,837,2439
2012: 1,806,5355 4

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in England & Wales is

2017: 3.1810
2014: 3.20
2012: 3.22

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,11 but in England & Wales there are estimated to be

2017: 860,2651

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,11 but in England & Wales the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2017: 1.4610

Government Guns

Routine Arming of Police

In England & Wales, police officers on routine patrol do not carry a firearm12 13 14

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in England & Wales are reported to have 28,00015 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 9616
2013: 122
2012: 9817
2011: 116
2010: 121
2009: 12618
2008: 13019
2007: 9820
2006: 17021
2005: 12022
2004: 11423
2003: 13224
2002: 13525
2001: 13326
2000: 16227
1999: 15928
1998: 13529
1997: 13430
1996: 15431
1995: 19832

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1716
2013: 0.21
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.21
2010: 0.22
2009: 0.23
2008: 0.24
2007: 0.18
2006: 0.32
2005: 0.22
2004: 0.21
2003: 0.25
2002: 0.26
2001: 0.25
2000: 0.31
1999: 0.31
1998: 0.26
1997: 0.26
1996: 0.30
1995: 0.39

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 9016
2013: 115
2012: 96
2011: 108
2010: 115

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 616
2013: 7
2012: 2
2011: 8
2010: 6

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 6216
2013: 68
2012: 59
2011: 92
2010: 71
2009: 64033 34 35
2008: 734
2007: 712
2006: 708
2005: 780
2004: 772
2003: 942
2002: 793
2001: 764
2000: 671
1999: 640
1998: 604
1997: 60833 36 35
1996: 586
1995: 662

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1716
2013: 0.21
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.21
2010: 0.22
2009: 1.18
2008: 1.36
2007: 1.33
2006: 1.33
2005: 1.47
2004: 1.46
2003: 1.79
2002: 1.52
2001: 1.44
2000: 1.27
1999: 1.22
1998: 1.16
1997: 1.18
1996: 1.14
1995: 1.30
1992: 0.5537

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual male homicides by any means total

2014: 3216
2013: 48
2012: 29
2011: 58
2010: 44

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual female homicides by any means total

2014: 3016
2013: 20
2012: 30
2011: 34
2010: 27

Gun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 1016
2013: 19
2012: 417
2011: 25
2010: 22
2009: 2018 38 35
2008: 2719 38 39 35
2007: 320 38 39 35
2006: 4321 38 39 35
2005: 2022 38 39 35
2004: 1823 38 39 35
2003: 1824 38 39 35
2002: 3325 38 39
2001: 3126 38 39 35
2000: 2927 38 39
1999: 2328 39 35
1998: 1029 39 35
1997: 2830 40 35
1996: 2531 35
1995: 2632 35

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0216
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.0418 35
2008: 0.0519 35
2007: 0.0120 35
2006: 0.0821 35
2005: 0.0422 35
2004: 0.0323 35
2003: 0.0324 35
2002: 0.0625
2001: 0.0626 35
2000: 0.0627
1999: 0.0428 35
1998: 0.0229 35
1997: 0.0530 35
1996: 0.0531 35
1995: 0.0532 35
1992: 0.0741 35

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn England & Wales, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 7%42
2010: 10%
2009: 7%42
2008: 6%
2007: 7%
2006: 8%
2001: 10.8%35
2000: 9%43
1999: 8.1%
1998: 6.5%
1997: 8.0%
1996: 7.2%
1995: 9.3%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn England & Wales, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 616
2014: 6
2013: 14
2012: 3
2011: 21
2010: 17

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn England & Wales, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 416
2014: 4
2013: 5
2012: 1
2011: 4
2010: 5

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual handgun homicides total

2011: 4444
2010: 3445
2008: 4146
2006: 2947
1999: 128

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0810
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.0019
2007: 0.0810
2006: 0.0021
2005: 0.0510
1999: 0.0028

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual long gun homicides total

2011: 1048
2010: 649 44
2009: 218 45
2008: 319 50
2007: 320 46
2006: 521 51
2005: 222 47
2004: 523
2003: 524
2002: 625
2001: 726
2000: 727
1999: 528

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0248
2010: 0.0149
2009: 0.0018
2008: 0.0119
2007: 0.0120
2006: 0.0121
2005: 0.0022
2004: 0.0123
2003: 0.0124
2002: 0.0125
2001: 0.0126
2000: 0.0127
1999: 0.0128

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual gun homicides (other) total

2011: 2148
2010: 2249 44
2009: 1818 45
2008: 046
2006: 3721 51
2005: 1822 47
2004: 1323
2003: 1324
2002: 2725
2001: 2426
2000: 2227
1999: 1728
1997: 2230
1996: 1931
1995: 2032

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0448
2010: 0.0449
2009: 0.0318
2008: 0.0419
2007: 0.0010
2006: 0.0721
2005: 0.0322
2004: 0.0223
2003: 0.0224
2002: 0.0525
2001: 0.0526
2000: 0.0427
1999: 0.0328
1997: 0.0430
1996: 0.0431
1995: 0.0432

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 4,04716
2013: 3,977
2012: 3,671
2011: 3,644
2010: 3,377
2009: 4,675
2008: 4,587
2007: 4,306
2006: 4,504
2005: 4,702
2004: 4,871
2003: 4,796
2002: 4,751
2001: 4,891
2000: 5,069
1999: 5,233
1998: 5,332
1997: 4,814
1996: 4,898
1995: 5,111
1994: 5,068
1993: 5,165
1992: 5,458
1991: 5,467
1990: 5,523

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 7.0516
2013: 6.98
2012: 6.49
2011: 6.54
2010: 6.11
2009: 10.4
2008: 10.3
2007: 9.7
2006: 10.2
2005: 10.8
2004: 11.2
2003: 11.1
2002: 11.1
2001: 11.5
2000: 12.0
1999: 12.4
1998: 12.8
1997: 11.5
1996: 11.7
1995: 12.3
1994: 12.1
1993: 12.5
1992: 13.2
1991: 13.3
1990: 13.4

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual male suicides by any means total

2014: 3,15916
2013: 3,163
2012: 2,921
2011: 2,866
2010: 2,613

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual female suicides by any means total

2014: 88816
2013: 814
2012: 750
2011: 778
2010: 764

Gun Suicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 7316
2013: 92
2012: 7817
2011: 8348
2010: 8349
2009: 8418
2008: 8919
2007: 8420
2006: 11021
2005: 8822
2004: 8123
2003: 10224
2002: 8325
2001: 9326
2000: 10727
1999: 11528 52
1998: 10729
1997: 10630
1996: 10731
1995: 13432

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1316
2013: 0.16
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.15
2010: 0.15
2009: 0.1518
2008: 0.1619
2007: 0.1520
2006: 0.2021
2005: 0.1622
2004: 0.1523
2003: 0.1924
2002: 0.1625
2001: 0.1826
2000: 0.2027
1999: 0.2228 52
1998: 0.2129
1997: 0.2130
1996: 0.2131
1995: 0.2632
1992: 0.3353

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn England & Wales, annual male firearm suicides total

2014: 7216
2013: 90
2012: 77
2011: 79
2010: 82

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn England & Wales, annual female firearm suicides total

2014: 116
2013: 2
2012: 1
2011: 4
2010: 1

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual handgun suicides total

2008: 319
2007: 120
2006: 121
2003: 324
2002: 125
2001: 126
2000: 227

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.0119
2007: 0.0020
2006: 0.0021
2003: 0.0124
2002: 0.0025
2001: 0.0026
2000: 0.0027

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn England & Wales, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 3748
2010: 4449
2009: 4218
2008: 4619
2007: 4420
2006: 6121
2005: 4122
2004: 4123
2003: 5024
2002: 4025
2001: 5026
2000: 5827
1999: 7528
1998: 5929
1997: 5030
1996: 5531
1995: 6432

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0748
2010: 0.0849
2009: 0.0818
2008: 0.0819
2007: 0.0820
2006: 0.1121
2005: 0.0822
2004: 0.0823
2003: 0.0924
2002: 0.0825
2001: 0.1026
2000: 0.1127
1999: 0.1428
1998: 0.1129
1997: 0.1030
1996: 0.1131
1995: 0.1232

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 4648
2010: 3949
2009: 4218
2008: 4019
2007: 3920
2006: 4821
2005: 4722
2004: 4023
2003: 4924
2002: 4225
2001: 4226
2000: 4627
1999: 4028
1998: 4629
1997: 5530
1996: 5031
1995: 6432

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0848
2010: 0.0749
2009: 0.0818
2008: 0.0719
2007: 0.0720
2006: 0.0921
2005: 0.0922
2004: 0.0823
2003: 0.0924
2002: 0.0825
2001: 0.0826
2000: 0.0927
1999: 0.0828
1998: 0.0929
1997: 0.1130
1996: 0.1031
1995: 0.1232

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 716
2013: 2
2012: 517
2011: 148
2010: 849
2009: 1118
2008: 519
2007: 220
2006: 321
2005: 122
2004: 223
2003: 324
2002: 125
2001: 226
2000: 1127
1999: 628 52
1995: 1032

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0116
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.0218
2008: 0.0119
2007: 0.0020
2006: 0.0121
2005: 0.0022
2004: 0.0023
2003: 0.0124
2002: 0.0025
2001: 0.0026
2000: 0.0227
1999: 0.0128 52
1995: 0.0232
1992: 0.0154

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2014: 616
2013: 2
2012: 5
2011: 1
2010: 8

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 116
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2006: 121
2000: 227

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.0021
2000: 0.0027

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2010: 349
2009: 518
2008: 319
2005: 122
2003: 124
2002: 125
2001: 126
2000: 327
1999: 228

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.0149
2009: 0.0118
2008: 0.0119
2005: 0.0022
2003: 0.0024
2002: 0.0025
2001: 0.0026
2000: 0.0127
1999: 0.0028

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn England & Wales, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2011: 148
2010: 549
2009: 618
2008: 219
2007: 220
2006: 221
2004: 223
2003: 224
2001: 126
2000: 427
1999: 428

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0048
2010: 0.0149
2009: 0.0118
2008: 0.0019
2007: 0.0020
2006: 0.0021
2004: 0.0023
2003: 0.0024
2001: 0.0026
2000: 0.0127
1999: 0.0128

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 616
2013: 9
2012: 1117
2011: 748
2010: 849
2009: 818
2008: 719
2007: 920
2006: 1221
2005: 1022
2004: 1323
2003: 924
2002: 1825
2001: 726
2000: 1527
1999: 1528
1998: 1829
1996: 2231
1995: 2832

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0210
2011: 0.0148
2010: 0.0149
2009: 0.0118
2008: 0.0119
2007: 0.0220
2006: 0.0221
2005: 0.0222
2004: 0.0223
2003: 0.0224
2002: 0.0325
2001: 0.0126
2000: 0.0327
1999: 0.0352
1998: 0.0329
1996: 0.0431
1995: 0.0532
1992: 0.0455

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 616
2013: 9
2012: 11
2011: 7
2010: 8

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 016
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2003: 124
2002: 125

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2003: 0.0024
2002: 0.0025

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 548
2010: 449
2009: 418
2008: 319
2007: 120
2006: 321
2005: 622
2004: 623
2003: 324
2002: 1225
2001: 626
2000: 427
1999: 728
1996: 1231

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0148
2010: 0.0149
2009: 0.0118
2008: 0.0119
2007: 0.0020
2006: 0.0121
2005: 0.0122
2004: 0.0123
2003: 0.0124
2002: 0.0225
2001: 0.0126
2000: 0.0127
1999: 0.0128
1996: 0.0231

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn England & Wales, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 248
2010: 449
2009: 418
2008: 419
2007: 820
2006: 921
2005: 422
2004: 723
2003: 524
2002: 525
2001: 126
2000: 1127
1999: 728
1998: 1029
1996: 1031
1995: 1832

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0048
2010: 0.0149
2009: 0.0118
2008: 0.0119
2007: 0.0120
2006: 0.0221
2005: 0.0122
2004: 0.0123
2003: 0.0124
2002: 0.0125
2001: 0.0026
2000: 0.0227
1999: 0.0128
1998: 0.0229
1996: 0.0231
1995: 0.0432

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn England & Wales, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2011: 248
2010: 449
2009: 318
2008: 219
2006: 221
2005: 122

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries56 is

2011: 1,89157
2010: 1,874
2009: 1,722
2008: 3,188
2007: 2,955
2006: 3,773
2005: 3,828
2004: 2,299
2003: 2,099
2002: 1,783
2000: 1,310

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

ChartIn England & Wales, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury56 per 100,000 population is

2010: 3.4010
2009: 3.39
2008: 3.14
2007: 5.86
2006: 5.48
2005: 7.04
2004: 7.20
2003: 4.35
2002: 3.99
2001: 3.41
2000: 2.51

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in England & Wales includes the Firearms Act 1968 (see United Kingdom)58

Right to Possess Firearms

In England & Wales, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law59 60

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In England & Wales, the law requires5 4 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Sales and Transfers

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in England & Wales is reported to be

2012: 3,41761
2011: 3,205
2009: 2,840
2008: 2,792
2006: 2,030
2005: 1,970
2004: 1,950
2003: 1,970
2001: 1,960
2000: 2,070
1999: 2,090
1998: 2,180
1997: 2,400
1996: 2,490
1995: 2,470

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In England & Wales, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 40,50762 (2003)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In England & Wales, it is state policy63 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

John Miller, Caroline Copley, Violette Goarant, Matthias Blamont, Michel Rose, Giled Elgood, Francois Murphy. 2016. ‘Ownership of Guns, Scare Devices in Europe.’ Reuters. 23 August. (N665) Full Citation

4.

UK.2012.‘Table 1: Firearm Certificates: Applications, Certificates on Issue and Firearms Covered by Certificates: 1995 to 2011/12.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 1995 to 2011/12 - Data tables.London:Office for National Statistics,16 August. (Q6617)Full Citation

5.

UK.2012.‘Table 3: Shotgun Certificates: Applications, Certificates on Issue and Shotguns Covered by Certificates: 1995 to 2011/12.’ Firearm and Shotgun Certificates in England and Wales, 1995 to 2011/12 - Data tables.London:Office for National Statistics,16 August. (Q6616)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

7.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11796)Full Citation

8.

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