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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Congo (ROC) — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Congo (ROC) is

2007: 100,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in the Congo (ROC) is

2017: 2.402
2007: 2.71

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Congo (ROC) ranked at No. 1373

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Congo (ROC) ranked at No. 1221

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,4 but in the Congo (ROC) there are estimated to be

2006: 34,0005
2003: 41,0006
1999: 73,5007 8

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the Congo (ROC) are reported to have 12,0009 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the Congo (ROC) are reported to have 11,00010 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual homicides by any means total

2015: 46511
2012: 54112
2010: 432
2008: 1,18013
2007: 1714
2006: 1215

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.5911
2012: 12.512
2010: 0.62
2008: 30.813
2004: 18.8016
2002: 16.20

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 35317
2010: 36317

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 14.1317

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 11217
2010: 70

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 4.5117

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual suicides by any means total

2016: 30118
2015: 303
2010: 323
2000: 323

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 6.2018
2015: 6.37
2010: 7.62
2000: 10.99

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 21618
2015: 216
2010: 224
2000: 224

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 8.8818
2015: 9.06
2010: 10.55
2000: 15.43

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 8518
2015: 87
2010: 99
2000: 98

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.5118
2015: 3.67
2010: 4.68
2000: 6.59

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Congo (ROC), the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence, but is not conducted in practice19 20 21

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In the Congo (ROC), firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law21 22 23

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Congo (ROC) is reported by Customs to be US$141,48924 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In the Congo (ROC), firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law25 26 22 23

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Congo (ROC) is reported by Customs to be US$403,79624 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the Congo (ROC) is moderate27 28

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Congo (ROC), the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law23

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in the Congo (ROC) include29 30 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the Congo (ROC) is categorised as permissive31

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Congo (ROC) includes the Ordinance No. 62/24 of 16 October 196232 and the Criminal Code33 23

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the Congo (ROC) are regulated by the Government, the Minister responsible for the armed forces and the Home Office23

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Congo (ROC), the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law34 35 36

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the Congo (ROC), civilians are not allowed to possess weapons of war36 37 38

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the Congo (ROC), private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited36 37 38

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the Congo (ROC), private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence36 37 38

Regulation of Handguns

In the Congo (ROC), private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence36 37 38

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the Congo (ROC), only licensed gun owners36 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in the Congo (ROC) are not required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm39

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the Congo (ROC) is the legal age40

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in the Congo (ROC) must pass a background check which considers moral and criminal40 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In the Congo (ROC), third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required39

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the Congo (ROC) does not stipulate39 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In the Congo (ROC), an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required39 for a firearm licence

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in the Congo (ROC) are permitted to possess no more than one self-defence firearm40

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in the Congo (ROC) are permitted to possess up to 50 cartridges of self-defence firearm ammunition40

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the Congo (ROC), the law does not require39 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Congo (ROC), State agencies are required41 42 30 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the Congo (ROC), the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited without authorisation26

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the Congo (ROC), dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful26

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In the Congo (ROC), the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined39

Regulation of Gun Shows

In the Congo (ROC), gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated39 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Congo (ROC) include42 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the Congo (ROC) do not include23 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the Congo (ROC), carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited, with rare exceptions43

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the Congo (ROC), carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited, with rare exceptions43

Gun Free Zones

In the Congo (ROC), private guns are prohibited in churches, temples, fairs, markets, public meetings, voting facilities and other gathering places43

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the Congo (ROC), the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm44 is five years in prison and a fine45

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, the Congo (ROC) adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200646 47

Regional Centre on Small Arms

In March 2000, as a member of the Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA), the Congo (ROC) adopted the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, then on 21 April 2004 adopted the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States, a legally-binding multilateral protocol of which the RECSA is depository. The Nairobi Protocol has since been signed, and ratified48 49 by the Congo (ROC)

United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa

In November 2010, as a member of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC), the Congo (ROC) adopted the Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly, known as the ‘Kinshasa Convention. A legally binding multilateral treaty for which UNSAC is depository, the Kinshasa Convention has since been signed and ratified50 51 52 by the Congo (ROC)

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed53 by the Congo (ROC).

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified54 by the Congo (ROC)

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed55 by the Congo (ROC)

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Congo (ROC) committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects56

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Congo (ROC) against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 13257 58 59 60 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Congo (ROC) has submitted one or more national reports61 62 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Congo (ROC), a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated63 62

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the Congo (ROC), a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated62

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the Congo (ROC) submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent62

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated62 by the Congo (ROC) to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided62 64 to the Congo (ROC) by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Congo (ROC) has not declared65 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Congo (ROC) has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196066

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list67 the Congo (ROC) as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,68 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual homicides by any means total

2015: 46511
2012: 54112
2010: 432
2008: 1,18013
2007: 1714
2006: 1215

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.5911
2012: 12.512
2010: 0.62
2008: 30.813
2004: 18.8016
2002: 16.20

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 35317
2010: 36317

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 14.1317

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 11217
2010: 70

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Congo (ROC), the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 4.5117

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in the Congo (ROC), select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in the Congo (ROC) are known to have69 70 71 72 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2009: 3,85469
2007: 1,30870
2003: 20,5807 73
2002: 16,000671

Exchanged in Gun Buyback

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the total number of firearms exchanged for monetary or in-kind compensation during recent gun buyback and disposal programmes is reported to be

2009: 3,00074 75
2003: 6,55072

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn the Congo (ROC), the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2009: 2,87375
2007: 26470
2005: 50776
2005/02: 2,00070

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the Congo (ROC), it is not state policy42 70 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In the Congo (ROC), a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law41 22 77

Firearm Tracing

In the Congo (ROC), state authorities carry out30 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In the Congo (ROC), the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not39 recorded in a register

Global Peace Index

To see where the Congo (ROC) ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index, and then click on the Congo (ROC) on the map or in the "Select Country" menu on the right of the web page


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