Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Central African Republic — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Central African Republic is

2017: 94,0001
2007: 40,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in the Central African Republic is

2017: 1.801
2007: 1.02

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Central African Republic ranked at No. 1593

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Central African Republic ranked at No. 1532

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,4 but in the Central African Republic there are estimated to be

2005: 50,0005 6

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the Central African Republic are reported to have 8,5807 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the Central African Republic are reported to have 10,0008 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 9139
2015: 642
2012: 53210
2010: 606
2008: 1,24011

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 16.589
2015: 13.09
2012: 11.810
2010: 13.63
2008: 29.311
2004: 29.1012
2002: 23.50

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 67013
2010: 51913

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Central African Republic, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 29.4013

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 24313
2010: 87

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Central African Republic, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 10.3813

Gun Homicides

In the Central African Republic, annual firearm homicides total

2016: 5689

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

In the Central African Republic, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 12.309

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 35414
2015: 367
2010: 421
2000: 330

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 6.4314
2015: 6.81
2010: 8.69
2000: 8.29

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual male suicides by any means total

2016: 26014
2015: 267
2010: 306
2000: 238

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 9.5214
2015: 9.99
2010: 12.78
2000: 12.18

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual female suicides by any means total

2016: 9414
2015: 100
2010: 115
2000: 92

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 3.3914
2015: 3.68
2010: 4.69
2000: 4.54

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Central African Republic, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence, but is not conducted in practice15 16

Home-made Guns

In the Central African Republic, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate17 18

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In the Central African Republic, firearm and ammunition exports are not limited by transfer control law19 20 21

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Central African Republic is reported by Customs to be US$022 (2002)

Firearm Imports

In the Central African Republic, firearm and ammunition imports are not limited by transfer control law19 20 21

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Central African Republic is reported by Customs to be US$1,373,40322 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the Central African Republic is high17 23

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Central African Republic, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law24 21

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Central African Republic includes the Law No. 6434 of 20 November 196425 26

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Central African Republic, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law27 28

Firearm Registration

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Central African Republic, State agencies are required29 30 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Central African Republic include29 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the Central African Republic do not include21 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, the Central African Republic adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200631 32

Regional Centre on Small Arms

In March 2000, as a member of the Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA), the Central African Republic adopted the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, then on 21 April 2004 adopted the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States, a legally-binding multilateral protocol of which the RECSA is depository. The Nairobi Protocol has since been signed, but not yet ratified33 34 by the Central African Republic

United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa

In November 2010, as a member of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC), the Central African Republic adopted the Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly, known as the ‘Kinshasa Convention. A legally binding multilateral treaty for which UNSAC is depository, the Kinshasa Convention has since been signed and ratified35 36 37 by the Central African Republic

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed38 by the Central African Republic.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been acceded to39 by the Central African Republic

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified40 by the Central African Republic

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Central African Republic committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects41

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Central African Republic against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 15542 43 44 45 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Central African Republic has submitted one or more national reports46 47 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Central African Republic, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated48 47

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the Central African Republic, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated48

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the Central African Republic submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent47

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated47 by the Central African Republic to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Central African Republic has not declared49 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Central African Republic has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196050

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list51 the Central African Republic as a Participating State

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal Profile

About SDG 16

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 goals set by the United Nations to be implemented by all member states by 2030. Adopted in 2015, they outline a vision of development in which peace and security are an integral part. SDG 16,52 which seeks to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,” includes targets and indicators focused on reducing violence (Target 16.1) and the proliferation of illicit arms (Target 16.4). The indicators – or measurement criteria – of these targets include the number of victims of intentional homicide (Indicator 16.1.1), the number of conflict-related deaths (Indicator 16.1.2), and the number of illicit firearms collected and traced (Indicator 16.4.2). In light of these targets and indicators, GunPolicy.org provides granular national data pertaining to homicides, gun homicides, conflict deaths, disarmament efforts, and marking and tracing.

Conflict Deaths

For a profile of conflict in the Central African Republic, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Disarmament

Authorities in the Central African Republic are known to have53 54 55 56 57 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

1996: 2,00056
003: 1,30058

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 74659
2016: 1,006

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2017: 74659
2016: 1,006
2003: 21260
2002: 71455

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the Central African Republic, it is state policy29 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

Marking and Tracing

Firearm Marking

In the Central African Republic, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law30

Global Peace Index

To see where the Central African Republic ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

5.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5358)Full Citation

6.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Executive Summary.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5246)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

9.

UNODC.2020.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q13355)Full Citation

10.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in Central African Republic.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q9955)Full Citation

11.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Central African Republic.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6406)Full Citation

12.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3812)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

14.

WHO.2018.‘Violent Death Estimates by Country.’ Disease Burden and Mortality Estimates: Cause-Specific Mortality, 2000–2016.Geneva:World Health Organization,1 January. (Q14136)Full Citation

15.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13593)Full Citation

16.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Weapons Generated within CAR - Indigenous Production.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5244)Full Citation

17.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13594)Full Citation

18.

Florquin, Nicolas, Sigrid Lipott and Francis Wairagu.2019.‘Excerpts on Illicit/Craft Production - Central African Republic.’ Weapons Compass: Mapping Illicit Small Arms Flows in Africa.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 January. (Q13974)Full Citation

19.

Central African Republic.2018.‘International Transfers (Transferts internationaux).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13601)Full Citation

20.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Analysis of National Arms Transfer Control Systems - Outmoded and Incomplete Regulation.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5011)Full Citation

21.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Transactions and Activities Covered - Imports, Exports, Transit and Brokering.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5013)Full Citation

22.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

23.

Florquin, Nicolas, Sigrid Lipott, and Francis Wairagu.2019.‘Excerpts on Trafficking - Central African Republic.’ Weapons Compass: Mapping Illicit Small Arms Flows in Africa.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 January. (Q13973)Full Citation

24.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Brokering (Courtage).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13595)Full Citation

25.

Central African Republic.2003.‘Legal and Legislative Provisions (Dispositions légales et législatives).’ National Report of the Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Central African Republic to the United Nations,16 June. (Q3842)Full Citation

26.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Analysis of National Arms Transfer Control Systems - Arms Categories Covered.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5012)Full Citation

27.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

28.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

29.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Stockpile Management (Gestion des stocks).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13596)Full Citation

30.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13598)Full Citation

31.

African Union / UNODA.2005.‘Windhoek Common Position.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:African Union / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 December. (Q3216)Full Citation

32.

African Union.2015.‘Member States.’ African Union: A United and Strong Africa.Addis Ababa:African Union,10 August. (Q10548)Full Citation

33.

RECSA / UNODA.2004.‘Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Regional Centre on Small Arms / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 April. (Q3218)Full Citation

34.

RECSA.2010.‘Ratified and Deposited Instruments of the Nairobi Protocol.’ Regional Centre on Small Arms and Light Weapons Website - Ratifications.Nairobi:Regional Centre on Small Arms,19 November. (Q3263)Full Citation

35.

UNODA / UNREC.2010.‘Kinshasa Convention: Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly.’ United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC).Kinshasa:United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC),22 November. (Q3320)Full Citation

36.

UNDPI.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa Adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ United Nations Press Release AFR/1974 DC/3237.New York, NY:UN Department of Public Information,12 May. (Q1940)Full Citation

37.

UNODA.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ UNODA Update.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,3 July. (Q5095)Full Citation

38.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

39.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

40.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

41.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

42.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

43.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

44.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

45.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

46.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

47.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

48.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

49.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

50.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

51.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation

52.

United Nations.2017.‘Relevant Targets & Indicators.’ Sustainable Development Goal 16.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,6 July. (Q14093)Full Citation

53.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Arms Recovery and Disarmament Efforts - Unilateral National Initiatives.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5108)Full Citation

54.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Arms Recovery and Disarmament Efforts - Internationally Assisted Initiatives.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5237)Full Citation

55.

Central African Republic.2003.‘Field of Interventions (Domaine des interventions).’ National Report of the Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Central African Republic to the United Nations,16 June. (Q3840)Full Citation

56.

Faltas, Sami, Glenn McDonald and Camilla Waszink.2001.‘Central African Republic.’ Removing Small Arms From Society: A Review of Weapons Collection and Destruction Programmes.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q5104)Full Citation

57.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Internationally Assisted Initiatives - MISAB and MINURCA Programmes.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5245)Full Citation

58.

UN Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). 2003. ‘Chadian Troops Recover 1,300 Firearms in Bangui.’ 25 March. (N223) Full Citation

59.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Collection (Collecte).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13597)Full Citation

60.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Arms Recovery and Disarmament Efforts - Internationally Assisted Initiatives.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5238)Full Citation