Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Central African Republic — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the Central African Republic is

2017: 94,0001
2007: 40,0002

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in the Central African Republic is

2017: 1.801
2007: 1.02

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the Central African Republic ranked at No. 1593

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the Central African Republic ranked at No. 1532

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

Unregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,4 but in the Central African Republic there are estimated to be

2005: 50,0005 6

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the Central African Republic are reported to have 8,5807 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the Central African Republic are reported to have 10,0008 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 9139
2015: 6429
2012: 53210
2010: 606
2008: 1,24011

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 16.589
2015: 13.09
2012: 11.810
2010: 13.63
2008: 29.311
2004: 29.1012
2002: 23.50

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 67013
2010: 51913

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Central African Republic, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 29.4013

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn the Central African Republic, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 24313
2010: 87

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In the Central African Republic, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 10.3813

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the Central African Republic, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence, but is not conducted in practice14 15

Home-made Guns

In the Central African Republic, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate16 15

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In the Central African Republic, firearm and ammunition exports are not limited by transfer control law17 18 19

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the Central African Republic is reported by Customs to be US$020 (2002)

Firearm Imports

In the Central African Republic, firearm and ammunition imports are not limited by transfer control law17 18 19

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the Central African Republic is reported by Customs to be US$1,373,40320 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the Central African Republic is moderate16 21 22 23 24

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the Central African Republic, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law25 19

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the Central African Republic includes the Law No. 6434 of 20 November 196426 27

Right to Possess Firearms

In the Central African Republic, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law28 29

Firearm Registration

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the Central African Republic, State agencies are required30 31 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the Central African Republic include30 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the Central African Republic do not include19 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the Central African Republic, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law31

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in the Central African Republic are known to have32 33 34 35 36 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

1996: 2,00035
003: 1,30037

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 74638
2016: 1,006

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn the Central African Republic, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2017: 74638
2016: 1,006
2003: 21239
2002: 71434

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the Central African Republic, it is state policy30 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, the Central African Republic adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200640 41

Regional Centre on Small Arms

In March 2000, as a member of the Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA), the Central African Republic adopted the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, then on 21 April 2004 adopted the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States, a legally-binding multilateral protocol of which the RECSA is depository. The Nairobi Protocol has since been signed, but not yet ratified42 43 by the Central African Republic

United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa

In November 2010, as a member of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC), the Central African Republic adopted the Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly, known as the ‘Kinshasa Convention. A legally binding multilateral treaty for which UNSAC is depository, the Kinshasa Convention has since been signed and ratified44 45 46 by the Central African Republic

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed47 by the Central African Republic.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been acceded to48 by the Central African Republic

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified49 by the Central African Republic

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the Central African Republic committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects50

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the Central African Republic against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 15551 52 53 54 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the Central African Republic has submitted one or more national reports55 56 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the Central African Republic, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated57 56

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the Central African Republic, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated57

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the Central African Republic submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was not apparent56

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated56 by the Central African Republic to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the Central African Republic has not declared58 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the Central African Republic has been a Member State of the United Nations since 196059

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list60 the Central African Republic as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in the Central African Republic, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where the Central African Republic ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

5.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5358)Full Citation

6.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Executive Summary.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5246)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

8.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

9.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

10.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in Central African Republic.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q9955)Full Citation

11.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Central African Republic.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6406)Full Citation

12.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3812)Full Citation

13.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

14.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13593)Full Citation

15.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Weapons Generated within CAR - Indigenous Production.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5244)Full Citation

16.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13594)Full Citation

17.

Central African Republic.2018.‘International Transfers (Transferts internationaux).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13601)Full Citation

18.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Analysis of National Arms Transfer Control Systems - Outmoded and Incomplete Regulation.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5011)Full Citation

19.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Transactions and Activities Covered - Imports, Exports, Transit and Brokering.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5013)Full Citation

20.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

21.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Indirect Transfers from Regional Armies and Armed Groups - Chad.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5240)Full Citation

22.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Indirect Transfers from Regional Armies and Armed Groups - Sudan.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5241)Full Citation

23.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Indirect Transfers from Regional Armies and Armed Groups - Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire).’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5242)Full Citation

24.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Indirect Transfers from Regional Armies and Armed Groups - Republic of the Congo.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5243)Full Citation

25.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Brokering (Courtage).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13595)Full Citation

26.

Central African Republic.2003.‘Legal and Legislative Provisions (Dispositions légales et législatives).’ National Report of the Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Central African Republic to the United Nations,16 June. (Q3842)Full Citation

27.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Analysis of National Arms Transfer Control Systems - Arms Categories Covered.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5012)Full Citation

28.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

29.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

30.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Stockpile Management (Gestion des stocks).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13596)Full Citation

31.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Marking and Record Keeping.’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13598)Full Citation

32.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Arms Recovery and Disarmament Efforts - Unilateral National Initiatives.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5108)Full Citation

33.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Arms Recovery and Disarmament Efforts - Internationally Assisted Initiatives.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5237)Full Citation

34.

Central African Republic.2003.‘Field of Interventions (Domaine des interventions).’ National Report of the Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the Central African Republic to the United Nations,16 June. (Q3840)Full Citation

35.

Faltas, Sami, Glenn McDonald and Camilla Waszink.2001.‘Central African Republic.’ Removing Small Arms From Society: A Review of Weapons Collection and Destruction Programmes.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q5104)Full Citation

36.

Berman, Eric G and Louisa N. Lombard.2008.‘Internationally Assisted Initiatives - MISAB and MINURCA Programmes.’ The Central African Republic and Small Arms: A Regional Tinderbox.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q5245)Full Citation

37.

UN Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). 2003. ‘Chadian Troops Recover 1,300 Firearms in Bangui.’ 25 March. (N223) Full Citation

38.

Central African Republic.2018.‘Collection (Collecte).’ National Report of Central African Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Central African Republic to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13597)Full Citation

39.

Berman, Eric G.2005.‘Arms Recovery and Disarmament Efforts - Internationally Assisted Initiatives.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Oxford University Press,1 January. (Q5238)Full Citation

40.

African Union / UNODA.2005.‘Windhoek Common Position.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:African Union / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 December. (Q3216)Full Citation

41.

African Union.2015.‘Member States.’ African Union: A United and Strong Africa.Addis Ababa:African Union,10 August. (Q10548)Full Citation

42.

RECSA / UNODA.2004.‘Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Regional Centre on Small Arms / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 April. (Q3218)Full Citation

43.

RECSA.2010.‘Ratified and Deposited Instruments of the Nairobi Protocol.’ Regional Centre on Small Arms and Light Weapons Website - Ratifications.Nairobi:Regional Centre on Small Arms,19 November. (Q3263)Full Citation

44.

UNODA / UNREC.2010.‘Kinshasa Convention: Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly.’ United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC).Kinshasa:United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC),22 November. (Q3320)Full Citation

45.

UNDPI.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa Adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ United Nations Press Release AFR/1974 DC/3237.New York, NY:UN Department of Public Information,12 May. (Q1940)Full Citation

46.

UNODA.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ UNODA Update.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,3 July. (Q5095)Full Citation

47.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

48.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

49.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

50.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

51.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

52.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

53.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

54.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

55.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

56.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

57.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

58.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

59.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

60.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation