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Canada — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Canada is

2017: 12,708,0001
2011: 8,619,3282 3 4
2010: 8,383,265
2009: 8,205,454
2008: 8,044,572
2005: 9,950,0005

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Canada is

2017: 34.701
2011: 25.336 7 4
2010: 24.83
2009: 24.50
2008: 24.22
2005: 30.85

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Canada, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 3,500,0008

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Canada, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,600,0008

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Canada, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 1,100,0008

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Canada ranked at No. 129

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Canada ranked at No. 135

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 15.5%10
1999/2003: 17.0%
1995/98: 20.8%
1992: 24.2%11
1992/94: 26.0%10
1989: 31.0%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Canada, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 19.3%11

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Canada, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 15.4%11

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 2.9%10
1999/2003: 1.8%
1995/98: 2.3%
1992/94: 3.9%10 11
1989: 5.2%10

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Canada is reported to be

2016: 2,076,84012
2015: 2,026,01113
2014: 1,989,18114
2013: 1,960,38015
2012: 1,938,080
2011: 1,902,815
2010: 1,848,00015 16
2009: 1,843,91315
2008: 1,859,501
2006: 1,908,01116

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Canada is

2016: 5.876
2015: 5.77
2014: 5.9414
2013: 5.676
2012: 5.65
2011: 5.59
2010: 5.47
2009: 5.51
2008: 5.60
2006: 5.84

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Canada is reported to be

2016: 1,022,62817
2015: 978,34713
2014: 911,78914 18 19
2013: 847,31220 18 19
2012: 767,019
2011: 7,835,75320
2010: 7,646,69916 20 21
2009: 7,459,50420
2008: 7,313,247
2006: 7,102,46616

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Canada is

2016: 2.896
2014: 2.7214 18 19
2013: 2.456 18 19
2012: 2.24
2011: 23.036
2010: 22.576 21
2009: 22.286
2008: 22.02
2006: 21.74

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,22 but in Canada there are estimated to be

2011: 783,5752 22 4
2010: 762,115
2009: 745,950
2008: 731,325

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,22 but in Canada the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2011: 2.306
2010: 2.26
2009: 2.23
2008: 2.20

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Canada are reported to have 233,94923 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Canada are reported to have 103,00024 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2012: 73025
2011: 679
2010: 778
2009: 735
2008: 747
2007: 744
2006: 798
2005: 839
2004: 767
2003: 813
2002: 827
2001: 86026 27 28
2000: 89826 27

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 2.1325
2011: 2
2010: 2.30
2009: 2.19
2008: 2.25
2007: 2.26
2006: 2.44
2005: 2.59
2004: 2.39
2003: 2.55
2002: 2.61
2001: 2.74
2000: 2.89

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2012: 68425
2011: 631
2010: 725

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2012: 4625
2011: 48
2010: 53

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual homicides by any means total

2017: 66029
2016: 612
2015: 610
2014: 522
2013: 509
2012: 548
2011: 606
2010: 556
2009: 61030 31 32 33 34 35
2008: 614
2007: 597
2006: 608
2005: 664
2004: 625
2003: 551
2002: 582
2001: 553
2000: 546
1999: 539
1998: 559
1997: 586
1996: 634
1995: 587
1994: 59636
1993: 626
1992: 733
1991: 754
1990: 657
1989: 654
1988: 575
1987: 644
1986: 567
1985: 704
1984: 667
1983: 682
1982: 667
1981: 647
1980: 591
1979: 632
1978: 662
1977: 712
1976: 667
1975: 700
1974: 597

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2017: 1.8529
2016: 1.73
2015: 1.74
2014: 1.50
2013: 1.47
2012: 1.60
2011: 1.78
2010: 1.65
2009: 1.82
2008: 1.85
2007: 1.81
2006: 1.86
2005: 2.05
2004: 1.94
2003: 1.73
2002: 1.84
2001: 1.76
2000: 1.76
1999: 1.75
1998: 1.83
1997: 1.93
1996: 2.11
1995: 1.98
1994: 2.03
1993: 2.16
1992: 2.57
1991: 2.68
1990: 2.36
1989: 2.39
1988: 2.14
1987: 2.43
1986: 2.16
1985: 2.71
1984: 2.60
1983: 2.68
1982: 2.65
1981: 2.60
1980: 2.40
1979: 2.60
1978: 2.75
1977: 2.99
1976: 2.84
1975: 3.02
1974: 2.61

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual male homicides by any means total

2017: 48529
2016: 460
2015: 432
2014: 371
2013: 358
2012: 391
2011: 427
2010: 401
2009: 448
2008: 467
2007: 431
2006: 446
2005: 484
2004: 425
2003: 394
2002: 375
2001: 391
2000: 397
1999: 366
1998: 382
1997: 381
1996: 434
1995: 391
1994: 395
1993: 419
1992: 488
1991: 484
1990: 421
1989: 408
1988: 373
1987: 417
1986: 364
1985: 451
1984: 436
1983: 440
1982: 448
1981: 401
1980: 386
1979: 404
1978: 446
1977: 481
1976: 435
1975: 464
1974: 373

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual female homicides by any means total

2017: 17329
2016: 152
2015: 178
2014: 151
2013: 151
2012: 157
2011: 179
2010: 154
2009: 162
2008: 147
2007: 166
2006: 162
2005: 180
2004: 200
2003: 157
2002: 207
2001: 162
2000: 149
1999: 173
1998: 177
1997: 205
1996: 200
1995: 196
1994: 200
1993: 207
1992: 245
1991: 270
1990: 236
1989: 245
1988: 202
1987: 226
1986: 202
1985: 253
1984: 231
1983: 242
1982: 219
1981: 245
1980: 205
1979: 228
1978: 216
1977: 230
1976: 232
1975: 236
1974: 224

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual firearm homicides total

2017: 26637
2016: 223
2015: 179
2014: 155
2013: 134
2012: 171
2011: 159
2010: 175
2009: 18226 32 33 38
2008: 201
2007: 18826 32 33 39 38
2006: 192
2005: 224
2004: 17326 33 38
2003: 163
2002: 152
2001: 172
2000: 183
1999: 166
1998: 152
1997: 194
1996: 213
1995: 174
1994: 196
1993: 195
1992: 247
1991: 271
1990: 195
1989: 216
1988: 169
1987: 202
1986: 175
1985: 222
1984: 229
1983: 224
1982: 249
1981: 199
1980: 194
1979: 207
1978: 250
1977: 260
1976: 258
1975: 292
1974: 283

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.7537
2016: 0.63
2015: 0.51
2014: 0.44
2013: 0.39
2012: 0.50
2011: 0.47
2010: 0.52
2009: 0.54
2008: 0.61
2007: 0.57
2006: 0.59
2005: 0.69
2004: 0.54
2003: 0.51
2002: 0.48
2001: 0.55
2000: 0.59
1999: 0.54
1998: 0.50
1997: 0.64
1996: 0.71
1995: 0.59
1994: 0.67
1993: 0.67
1992: 0.87
1991: 0.96
1990: 0.70
1989: 0.79
1988: 0.63
1987: 0.76
1986: 0.67
1985: 0.86
1984: 0.89
1983: 0.88
1982: 0.99
1981: 0.80
1980: 0.79
1979: 0.85
1978: 1.04
1977: 1.09
1976: 1.10
1975: 1.26
1974: 1.24

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Canada, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 27%26
2012: 33%26 40
2011: 27%26 32
2010: 39%
2009: 31%
2008: 34%
2007: 33%
2006: 32%
2005: 34%
2004: 28%26
2003: 31%
2002: 27%
2001: 31%
2000: 34%
1999: 31%
1998: 27%
1997: 35.6%33
1996: 36.0%
1995: 31.2%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Canada, annual male firearm homicides total

2012: 13525
2011: 109
2010: 143

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Canada, annual female firearm homicides total

2012: 2625
2011: 30
2010: 29

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual handgun homicides total

2017: 14537
2016: 130
2015: 102
2014: 103
2013: 90
2012: 106
2011: 95
2010: 104
2009: 111
2008: 127
2007: 125
2006: 112
2005: 131
2004: 112
2003: 111
2002: 98
2001: 111
2000: 108
1999: 90
1998: 71
1997: 100
1996: 108
1995: 95
1994: 90
1993: 91
1992: 129
1991: 135
1990: 68
1989: 54
1988: 47
1987: 58
1986: 38
1985: 73
1984: 67
1983: 78
1982: 89
1981: 59
1980: 62
1979: 54
1978: 63
1977: 61
1976: 68
1975: 88
1974: 76

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.4137
2016: 0.37
2015: 0.29
2014: 0.30
2013: 0.26
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.28
2010: 0.31
2009: 0.33
2008: 0.38
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.34
2005: 0.40
2004: 0.35
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.31
2001: 0.35
2000: 0.35
1999: 0.29
1998: 0.23
1997: 0.33
1996: 0.36
1995: 0.32
1994: 0.31
1993: 0.31
1992: 0.45
1991: 0.48
1990: 0.24
1989: 0.20
1988: 0.17
1987: 0.22
1986: 0.15
1985: 0.28
1984: 0.26
1983: 0.31
1982: 0.35
1981: 0.24
1980: 0.25
1979: 0.22
1978: 0.26
1977: 0.26
1976: 0.29
1975: 0.38
1974: 0.33

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Canada, annual long gun homicides total

2017: 8637
2016: 69
2015: 66
2014: 42
2013: 3926
2012: 57
2011: 48
2010: 57
2009: 54
2008: 56
2007: 52
2006: 66
2005: 77
2004: 54
2003: 48
2002: 49
2001: 56
2000: 71
1999: 70
1998: 77
1997: 89
1996: 105
1995: 79
1994: 106
1993: 103
1992: 118
1991: 134
1990: 100
1989: 133
1988: 101
1987: 115
1986: 115
1985: 140
1984: 144
1983: 131
1982: 155
1981: 125
1980: 123
1979: 139
1978: 179
1977: 175
1976: 170
1975: 193
1974: 192

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.2437
2016: 0.20
2015: 0.19
2014: 0.12
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.14
2010: 0.17
2009: 0.16
2008: 0.17
2007: 0.16
2006: 0.20
2005: 0.24
2004: 0.17
2003: 0.15
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.18
2000: 0.23
1999: 0.23
1998: 0.25
1997: 0.29
1996: 0.35
1995: 0.27
1994: 0.36
1993: 0.36
1992: 0.41
1991: 0.48
1990: 0.36
1989: 0.49
1988: 0.38
1987: 0.43
1986: 0.44
1985: 0.54
1984: 0.56
1983: 0.51
1982: 0.62
1981: 0.50
1980: 0.50
1979: 0.57
1978: 0.74
1977: 0.74
1976: 0.72
1975: 0.83
1974: 0.84

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual gun homicides (other) total

2017: 3537
2016: 24
2015: 11
2014: 10
2013: 5
2012: 8
2011: 16
2010: 14
2009: 17
2008: 18
2007: 11
2006: 14
2005: 16
2004: 7
2003: 4
2002: 5
2001: 5
2000: 4
1999: 6
1998: 4
1997: 5
1996: 0
1995: 0
1994: 0
1993: 1
1992: 0
1991: 2
1990: 27
1989: 29
1988: 21
1987: 29
1986: 22
1985: 9
1984: 18
1983: 15
1982: 5
1981: 15
1980: 9
1979: 14
1978: 8
1977: 24
1976: 20
1975: 11
1974: 15

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2017: 0.1037
2016: 0.07
2015: 0.03
2014: 0.03
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.02
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.02
1998: 0.01
1997: 0.02
1996: 0
1995: 0
1994: 0
1993: 0
1992: 0
1991: 0.01
1990: 0.10
1989: 0.11
1988: 0.08
1987: 0.11
1986: 0.08
1985: 0.03
1984: 0.07
1983: 0.06
1982: 0.02
1981: 0.06
1980: 0.04
1979: 0.06
1978: 0.03
1977: 0.10
1976: 0.09
1975: 0.05
1974: 0.07

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual suicides by any means total

2012: 3,92425
2011: 3,72631
2010: 3,948
2009: 3,885
2008: 3,70031 41
2007: 3,60831 41 42
2006: 3,511
2005: 3,741
2004: 3,613
2003: 3,764
2002: 3,648
2001: 3,68831 41 42
2000: 3,605
1999: 4,07428

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 11.4425
2011: 10.95
2010: 11.69
2009: 11.60
2008: 11.146 41
2007: 10.956 41 42
2006: 10.75
2005: 11.55
2004: 11.24
2003: 11.80
2002: 11.53
2001: 11.75
2000: 11.59
1999: 12.9328
1992: 13.1943

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual male suicides by any means total

2012: 2,97025
2011: 2,780
2010: 2,980

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Canada, annual female suicides by any means total

2012: 95425
2011: 946
2010: 968

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, annual firearm suicides total

2012: 54425
2011: 51827 44
2010: 58727
2009: 531
2008: 518
2007: 534
2006: 586
2005: 593
2004: 568
2003: 618
2002: 633
2001: 651
2000: 685

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2012: 1.5925
2011: 1.52
2010: 1.74
2009: 1.59
2008: 1.60
2007: 1.62
2006: 1.79
2005: 1.83
2004: 1.77
2003: 1.94
2002: 2.00
2001: 2.076 28
2000: 2.206
1992: 3.7245

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Canada, annual male firearm suicides total

2012: 52825
2011: 500
2010: 563

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Canada, annual female firearm suicides total

2012: 1625
2011: 18
2010: 24

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, annual handgun suicides total

2011: 2527
2010: 42
2009: 42
2008: 33
2007: 13
2006: 25
2005: 13
2004: 18
2003: 20
2002: 15
2001: 15
2000: 16

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.076
2010: 0.12
2009: 0.13
2008: 0.10
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.05

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Canada, the number of long gun suicides is

2011: 16627
2010: 242
2009: 215
2008: 243
2007: 125
2006: 129
2005: 120
2004: 125
2003: 107
2002: 127
2001: 123
2000: 131

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.496
2010: 0.72
2009: 0.64
2008: 0.73
2007: 0.38
2006: 0.40
2005: 0.37
2004: 0.39
2003: 0.36
2002: 0.40
2001: 0.39
2000: 0.42

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual gun suicides (other) total

2011: 32727
2010: 303
2009: 274
2008: 242
2007: 396
2006: 432
2005: 460
2004: 425
2003: 491
2002: 491
2001: 513
2000: 538

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.966
2010: 0.90
2009: 0.82
2008: 0.73
2007: 1.20
2006: 1.31
2005: 1.42
2004: 1.32
2003: 1.54
2002: 1.55
2001: 1.63
2000: 1.73

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2012: 1725
2011: 1627 44
2010: 1127
2009: 10
2008: 20
2007: 17
2006: 17
2005: 17
2004: 23
2003: 27
2002: 31
2001: 2827 28
2000: 2027

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0225
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.06
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.05
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.08
2002: 0.10
2001: 0.096 28
2000: 0.06
1992: 0.2246

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2012: 1425
2011: 16
2010: 11

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2012: 325
2011: 0
2010: 0

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 027
2010: 0
2009: 1
2008: 3
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 1
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.006
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2011: 627
2010: 6
2009: 5
2008: 8
2007: 7
2006: 8
2005: 4
2004: 5
2003: 6
2002: 6
2001: 3
2000: 1

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.026
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.02
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.00

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Canada, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2011: 1027
2010: 5
2009: 4
2008: 9
2007: 9
2006: 9
2005: 12
2004: 18
2003: 20
2002: 25
2001: 24
2000: 18

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.036
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.08
2001: 0.08
2000: 0.06

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 825
2011: 627 44
2010: 827
2009: 12
2008: 8
2007: 5
2006: 5
2005: 6
2004: 3
2003: 7
2002: 11
2001: 10
2000: 9

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.026
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.03
1992: 0.0747

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 725
2011: 6
2010: 8

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 125
2011: 0
2010: 0

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 027
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 0
2007: 1
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 0
2001: 0
2000: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.006
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.00
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 127
2010: 0
2009: 1
2008: 3
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 4
2004: 0
2003: 1
2002: 2
2001: 1
2000: 1

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.006
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Canada, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2011: 527
2010: 7
2009: 10
2008: 5
2007: 3
2006: 4
2005: 2
2004: 3
2003: 5
2002: 9
2001: 9
2000: 7

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Canada, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.016
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.03
2000: 0.02

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Canada, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Canada was ranked 'small'62

Home-made Guns

In Canada, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate63

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Canada, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Canada is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 231,819,98772
2015: 177,032,418
2014: 153,708,623
2013: 172,621,977
2012: 165,880,13072 73 74
2011: 91,375,68575
2010: 84,000,00076
2001: 64,000,00073 77 78

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Canada was categorized as 'major'79 80 78 81

Firearm Imports

In Canada, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law64 65 66 82 83 69 70 71 84 85

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Canada is reported by Customs to be US$

2012: 296,000,00086 87 88 89
2011: 274,795,49375 90 91
2010: 172,000,00092
2001: 69,000,00086 93

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Canada is moderate94 95

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Canada, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law96 97 98 99 100

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Canada include65 101 83 102 103 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Canada scored

2018: 13.50104
2016: 11.25105
2014: 10.25106
2013: 11.75107
2012: 12.25108
2011: 11.75109
2010: 12.25110
2009: 12.25111
2008: 12.00112
2007: 11.25113
2006: 10.25114
2005: 11.50115
2004: 11.50116

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Canada is categorised as restrictive117

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Canada includes the Firearms Act,118 Authorizations to Transport Restricted and Prohibited Firearms Regulations,119 Firearms Licences Regulations,120 Conditions of Transferring Firearms Regulations,121 Firearms Marking Regulations,122 Firearms Records Regulations,123 124 125 Criminal Code,126 127 Export and Import Permits Act,128 the Defence Production Act,129 130 and United Nations Act131

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Canada are regulated by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Justice,118 the Department of Public Works and Government Services,132 Chief Firearms Officers48 133 134 and the Firearms Registrar66

Right to Possess Firearms

In Canada, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law135 136 134

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Canada, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms except those registered before 1978,137 138 handguns with a barrel of 105mm or less in length, specifically modified handguns, rifles or shotguns,138 139 52 and certain types of ammunition140

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Canada, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, except those registered before 1978137 138 40

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Canada, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence138 141

Regulation of Handguns

In Canada, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence137 138 142 143 40

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Canada, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law138 40

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Canada, only licensed gun owners134 144 145 40 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Canada are not required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm except when the licence concerns prohibited137 and restricted firearms146 142 138

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Canada is 18 years or 12 years, with limitations147 148

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Canada must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, addiction and domestic violence134 149 40 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Canada, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required150 149

Partner to be Advised or Interviewed

In Canada, licensing authorities are required150 149 151 to conduct interviews with, or to advise an applicant's spouse, partner, or next of kin before issuing a gun licence

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Canada stipulates134 150 152 153 151 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Canada, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required141 154 155 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Canada, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years156 157

Licensing Records

In Canada, authorities maintain a record66 158 159 155 160 161 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Canada are permitted to possess any number of firearms98 99 100 162

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Canada are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition98 99 100 162

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Canada, the law requires (for prohibited and restricted firearms only138)163 125 164 165 166 66 158 159 167 168 169 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Canada, licensed firearm dealers are required170 66 171 172 173 61 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Canada, licensed gun makers are required66 172 61 174 175 161 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Canada, State agencies are required176 155 160 51 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Canada, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted for non-restricted firearms and prohibited, without authorisation from the chief firearms officer, for restricted or prohibited firearms170 171 173 172

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Canada, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful48 170 171 172 173

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Canada is not obliged170 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Canada is not obliged170 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Canada, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 28 days on first application for a licence, but none for subsequent acquisitions177 170

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Canada, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated178 179 180 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Canada include181 182 183 184 185 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Canada include186 187 188 189 185 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Canada include190 185 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Canada include180 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Canada, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law199 200 201 202 60 203

Firearm Tracing

In Canada, state authorities carry out204 174 175 205 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Canada, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not206 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Canada, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit.146 142 143 40 Such permits are rarely granted

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Canada, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm207 is five to 10 years in prison208 209 210 152 211 212 213 49 214 215 216 217 218

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Canada are known to have219 220 221 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn Canada, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2015: 15,119222
2014: 14,865

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Canada, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2016: 25,123223
2015: 26,528224
2014: 36,842
2013: 30,877225
2012: 32,063226
2011: 48,904221 227
2010: 45,550221 228

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Canada, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2015: 29,685222 229
2014: 21,558
2011: 32,267230 221
2010: 35,592
2009: 20,557231 232

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Canada, it is state policy233 234 230 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), Canada adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified235 236 237 by Canada

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists238 Canada as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006239 by Canada.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed240 by Canada

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified241 by Canada

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Canada committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects242 235

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Canada against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 20243 244 245 246 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Canada has submitted one or more national reports247 248 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Canada, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated249 248

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Canada, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated249

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Canada submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent249 248

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated248 by Canada to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Canada has declared250 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Canada has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945251

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists252 235 Canada as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Canada, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Canada ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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