Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Burundi — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Burundi is

2017: 238,0001
2009: 100,0002 3 4

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Burundi is

2017: 2.01
2007: 1.25 4

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Burundi ranked at No. 1166

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Burundi ranked at No. 1454

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

The number of licensed gun owners in Burundi is reported to be 4,1392 3

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Burundi is 0.055

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Burundi there are estimated to be

2007: 100,0007 8 9 10

Estimated Rate of Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Burundi the rate of illicit firearms per 100 people is estimated to be 1.25

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Burundi are reported to have 75,96011 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Burundi are reported to have 24,27812 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Burundi, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2008: 1,00013

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Burundi, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 10.945

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Burundi, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 48114
2014: 43615
2013: 416
2012: 451
2011: 34916
2010: 347
2009: 376
2008: 1,726

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Burundi, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 4.485
2014: 4.0315
2013: 3.97
2012: 4.45
2011: 3.56
2010: 3.67
2009: 4.6
2008: 21.7
2006: 2.9017
2005: 1.20
2004: 35.40
2002: 18.00
1998: 9.68

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

In Burundi, annual male homicides by any means total

2010: 24418

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

In Burundi, annual female homicides by any means total

2010: 10318

Gun Homicides

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Burundi, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2013: 41%19

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Burundi, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2008: 1,00013

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Burundi, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 10.945

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

In Burundi, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is

2008: 1,20013

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

In Burundi, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury per 100,000 population is

2008: 13.135

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Burundi, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence, but is not conducted in practice20 21

Home-made Guns

In Burundi, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be high22 23 24

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Burundi, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Burundi is reported by Customs to be US$033 (2011)

Firearm Imports

In Burundi, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law25 34 26 27 28 35 36 29 30 31 32

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Burundi is reported by Customs to be US$262,81833 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Burundi is high22 37 38 39 40 41 42

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Burundi, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law43 29

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Burundi include27 29 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Burundi is categorised as restrictive44

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Burundi includes the Law No. 1/14 of 28 August 2009 Governing the System for Small Arms and Light Weapons45 29

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Burundi are regulated by the Ministry responsible for public security functions,29 46 25 47 the Ministry responsible for supervising arms imports to defence and security forces,29 34 the Police and the Armed Forces48 49

Right to Possess Firearms

In Burundi, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law50 51 52 53

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Burundi, civilians are not allowed to possess firearms other than hunting and repeat action rifles46

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Burundi, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited46 19

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Burundi, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited46

Regulation of Handguns

In Burundi, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited, with some exceptions for self-defence firearms46 54 19

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Burundi, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law46 19

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Burundi, only licensed gun owners52 46 55 53 56 19 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Burundi are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example for reasons of personal safety, practice of sports shooting and hunting.52 54 57 53

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Burundi is 25 years58

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Burundi must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, health and domestic violence58 53 19 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Burundi, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required59

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Burundi stipulates58 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Burundi, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required59 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Burundi, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years57

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Burundi are permitted to possess only one gun60

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Burundi are permitted to possess only 40 rounds of ammunition60

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Burundi, the law requires49 61 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Burundi, State agencies are required49 62 63 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Burundi, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited52 47

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Burundi, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful47 64 65

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Burundi, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined59

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Burundi, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated59 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Burundi do not include59 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Burundi do not include59 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Burundi include66 67 63 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Burundi do not include68 69 30 32 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Burundi, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law35 70 71 61 72

Firearm Tracing

In Burundi, state authorities carry out73 72 35 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Burundi, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit54 55 57 19

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Burundi, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit54 55 57 19

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Burundi, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm74 is 10 years in prison and a fine75

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Burundi are known to have76 67 77 78 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Burundi, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 5,40479 (2004), 5,72980 81 (2006), 10,00010 82 83 (2009)

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Burundi, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2013: 9384
2009/12: 22,20285

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Burundi, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2009: 7,00082 83
2006: 1,66086
2005: 311

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Burundi, it is state policy87 62 67 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Burundi adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200688 89

Regional Centre on Small Arms

In March 2000, as a member of the Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA), Burundi adopted the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, then on 21 April 2004 adopted the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States, a legally-binding multilateral protocol of which the RECSA is depository. The Nairobi Protocol has since been signed, and ratified90 91 by Burundi

United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa

In November 2010, as a member of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC), Burundi adopted the Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly, known as the ‘Kinshasa Convention. A legally binding multilateral treaty for which UNSAC is depository, the Kinshasa Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified92 93 94 by Burundi

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200795 by Burundi.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified96 by Burundi

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified97 by Burundi

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Burundi committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects98

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Burundi against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4099 100 101 102 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Burundi has submitted one or more national reports103 104 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Burundi, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated105 104

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Burundi, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated105 104

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Burundi submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent105 104

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated104 by Burundi to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided104 to Burundi by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Burundi has not declared106 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Burundi has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1962107

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list108 Burundi as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Burundi, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Burundi ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Savannah de Tessières.2009.‘Arms in Circulation in Burundi - Possession Figures.’ Insecurity is Also a War: An Assessment of Armed Violence in Burundi.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat / Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,,1 January. (Q5088)Full Citation

3.

Small Arms Survey.2007.‘Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and post-conflict Bujumbura.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5103)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

5.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Burundi.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,4 May. (Q5472)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

7.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Distribution of Arms - Distribution among Civilians by Province.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5078)Full Citation

8.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Distribution of Arms - Distribution among Civilians by Province.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5079)Full Citation

9.

Small Arms Survey.2007.‘Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and post-conflict Bujumbura.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5102)Full Citation

10.

Agence France Presse. 2009. ‘Burundi Disarmament Drive Nets Over 70,000 Weapons.’ 28 October. (N220) Full Citation

11.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

12.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

13.

Gonzales, Gustavo K, Danae Pauli and Martina Bacigalupo.2010.‘Small Arms Control.’ Burundi Report: 2008 Towards 2010.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),1 August. (Q5352)Full Citation

14.

Burundi Africa Generation. 2016. ‘Burundi: 481 Homicides Linked to Armed Violence in 2015 - CNAP.’ 28 April. (N573) Full Citation

15.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

16.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Burundi.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6424)Full Citation

17.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Sub-Saharan Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington, DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3812)Full Citation

18.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

19.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Burundi.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9713)Full Citation

20.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 35.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4096)Full Citation

21.

Burundi.2005.‘National Report 2005 - Exchange of Information (Échanges d'informations).’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,19 April. (Q3833)Full Citation

22.

Burundi.2003.‘Current Position on the Problem of Small Arms Trafficking in Burundi (Etat Actuel du problème de trafic des armes légères au Burundi).’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,25 June. (Q3834)Full Citation

23.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Production of Arms and Munitions - Craft Production.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5080)Full Citation

24.

Rackley, Edward B.2005.‘Artisan Rifles or 'Mugobore'.’ The Impact of Small Arms and Armed Violence on Women.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité / GRIP and United Nations Development Programme / UNDP,1 March. (Q5460)Full Citation

25.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 19.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4086)Full Citation

26.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 21.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4088)Full Citation

27.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 22.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4089)Full Citation

28.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 24.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4090)Full Citation

29.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Comparison of the Main Regulatory Aspects Examined - Burundi.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q4003)Full Citation

30.

Burundi.2005.‘Export, Import and Transit Authorisation (Autorisation d'exportation, d'importation et de transit).’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,19 April. (Q3832)Full Citation

31.

Burundi.2016.‘Record Keeping [Import and Export].’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12610)Full Citation

32.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Analysis of National Arms Transfer Control Systems - Outmoded and Incomplete Regulation.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5011)Full Citation

33.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

34.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 20.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4087)Full Citation

35.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 38.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4097)Full Citation

36.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 48.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4100)Full Citation

37.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Borders with the DRC, Rwanda, and Tanzania.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5081)Full Citation

38.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘The DRC - South Kivu and Eastern Provinces.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5082)Full Citation

39.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘The DRC - Arms from the DRC in Burundi.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5083)Full Citation

40.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Tanzania.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5084)Full Citation

41.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Other Sources of Arms.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5085)Full Citation

42.

Zeebroek, Xavier, Wolf‐Christian Paes and Georges Berghezan.2010.‘Synthesis of the Results of the Study (Synthèse des résultats de l'étude).’ Study on the Proliferation of Small Arms in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Étude sur la prolifération des armes légères en République démocratique du Congo).Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP) / Bonn International Center for Conversion and UNDP,1 June. (Q5094)Full Citation

43.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 28.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4091)Full Citation

44.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

45.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 1.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4076)Full Citation

46.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 6.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4080)Full Citation

47.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 30.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4092)Full Citation

48.

Burundi.2003.‘Programme Implemented by the Government (Programme mis en œuvre par le gouvernement).’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,25 June. (Q3835)Full Citation

49.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 43.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4099)Full Citation

50.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

51.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

52.

Burundi.2009.‘Articles 3 and 4.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4078)Full Citation

53.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 15.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4085)Full Citation

54.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 5.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4079)Full Citation

55.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 9.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4082)Full Citation

56.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 18.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4094)Full Citation

57.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 10.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4083)Full Citation

58.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 11.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4084)Full Citation

59.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 1.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4313)Full Citation

60.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 8.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4081)Full Citation

61.

Victor Karega. 2010. ‘Centre to Procure Software.’ Citizen (Dar es Salaam). 3 July. (N221) Full Citation

62.

Burundi.2009.‘Articles 54, 55, 56.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4103)Full Citation

63.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 52.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4102)Full Citation

64.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 31.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4093)Full Citation

65.

Burundi.2009.‘Article 32.’ Act No 1/14 of 28 August 2009 on Small Arms and Light Weapons (Loi No 1/14 du 28 Août 2009 portant Régime des Armes Légères et Petits Calibres).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,28 August. (Q4095)Full Citation

66.

Burundi.2014.‘Stockpile Management.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12613)Full Citation

67.

Burundi.2010.‘Lomé Initiative and Steps Already Taken by Burundi (De l'initiative de Lomé et de l'étape déjà franchie par le Burundi).’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3821)Full Citation

68.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Transactions and Activities Covered - Imports, Exports, Transit and Brokering.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5013)Full Citation

69.

Moreau, Virginie, Cédric Poitevin and Jihan Seniora.2010.‘Comparison of the Main Regulatory Aspects Examined - Burundi.’ Arms Transfer Controls: The Example of French-Speaking States in Sub-Saharan Africa.Brussels:Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur la Paix et la Sécurité (GRIP),1 May. (Q5093)Full Citation

70.

Burundi.2016.‘Marking.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12611)Full Citation

71.

Burundi.2010.‘Lomé Initiative and Steps Already Taken by Burundi (De l'initiative de Lomé et de l'étape déjà franchie par le Burundi).’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3822)Full Citation

72.

Burundi.2008.‘Marking and Tracing 2008.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,21 March. (Q3825)Full Citation

73.

Burundi.2016.‘International Tracing.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,29 March. (Q12612)Full Citation

74.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

75.

Burundi.2009.‘Endangering Public Safety with Weapons (Mise en Danger de la Sécurité Publique au Moyen d'Armes).’ Act No 1/05 of April 22, 2009, on the Amendment of the Criminal Code (Loi N°1/05 du 22 avril 2009 Portant Révision du Code Pénal).Bujumbura:Cabinet of the President of the Republic of Burundi,22 April. (Q5357)Full Citation

76.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Institutional Capacities and Disarmament Initiatives.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the civilian population in peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q5077)Full Citation

77.

Burundi.2010.‘Lomé Initiative and Steps Already Taken by Burundi (De l'initiative de Lomé et de l'étape déjà franchie par le Burundi).’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,1 January. (Q3824)Full Citation

78.

Gonzales, Gustavo K, Danae Pauli and Martina Bacigalupo.2010.‘Small Arms Control.’ Burundi Report: 2008 Towards 2010.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 August. (Q5097)Full Citation

79.

Karp, Aaron.2009.‘Summary of Disarmament Outcomes in 45 DDR Programmes.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,9 July. (Q2941)Full Citation

80.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Arms Collected.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5086)Full Citation

81.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Nicolas Florquin.2007.‘Disarmament of the Peace Guardians and the Militant Combatants.’ Small Arms in Burundi: Disarming the Civilian Population in Peacetime.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva / Ligue Iteka,1 August. (Q5087)Full Citation

82.

Pézard, Stéphanie and Savannah de Tessières.2009.‘Arms in Circulation in Burundi - Collection and Seizure Figures.’ Insecurity is Also a War: An Assessment of Armed Violence in Burundi.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat / Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,,1 January. (Q5089)Full Citation

83.

Gonzales, Gustavo K, Danae Pauli and Martina Bacigalupo.2010.‘Small Arms Control.’ Burundi Report: 2008 Towards 2010.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),1 August. (Q5353)Full Citation

84.

Burundi.2014.‘Collection.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12615)Full Citation

85.

Burundi.2012.‘Collection.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,28 March. (Q12616)Full Citation

86.

Burundi.2007.‘National Report 2007 - Collection and Disposal.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,30 May. (Q3826)Full Citation

87.

Burundi.2014.‘Surplus.’ National Report of Burundi on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12614)Full Citation

88.

African Union / UNODA.2005.‘Windhoek Common Position.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:African Union / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 December. (Q3216)Full Citation

89.

African Union.2015.‘Member States.’ African Union: A United and Strong Africa.Addis Ababa:African Union,10 August. (Q10548)Full Citation

90.

RECSA / UNODA.2004.‘Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Regional Centre on Small Arms / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 April. (Q3218)Full Citation

91.

RECSA.2010.‘Ratified and Deposited Instruments of the Nairobi Protocol.’ Regional Centre on Small Arms and Light Weapons Website - Ratifications.Nairobi:Regional Centre on Small Arms,19 November. (Q3263)Full Citation

92.

UNODA / UNREC.2010.‘Kinshasa Convention: Central Africa Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair and Assembly.’ United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC).Kinshasa:United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (UNSAC),22 November. (Q3320)Full Citation

93.

UNDPI.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa Adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ United Nations Press Release AFR/1974 DC/3237.New York, NY:UN Department of Public Information,12 May. (Q1940)Full Citation

94.

UNODA.2010.‘United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa adopts Convention on Small Arms Control.’ UNODA Update.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,3 July. (Q5095)Full Citation

95.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

96.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

97.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

98.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

99.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

100.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

101.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

102.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

103.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

104.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

105.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

106.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

107.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

108.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation