Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Belgium — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Belgium is

2017: 1,451,0001
2015: 776,8662 3 4
2010: 888,533
2006: 2,000,0005 6 7 8
2005: 1,800,0009

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Belgium is

2017: 12.701
2015: 6.8610 11 4
2010: 8.18
2006: 18.9810
2005: 17.29

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Belgium ranked at No. 3912

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Belgium ranked at No. 349

Proportion of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

In Belgium, the percentage of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2015: 3%13

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Belgium, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2010: 5.1%14
2005: 11.4%15 14
1999/2003: 11.4%15 14
1992: 16.5%16
1992/94: 15.6%15 14
1989: 16.5%15 14

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Belgium, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 5.0%16

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Belgium, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 7.7%16

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Belgium, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 5.2%15
1999/2003: 4.3%
1992/94: 6.7%15 16
1989: 6.4%15

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Belgium is reported to be

2010: 409,06217
2006: 393,704
1999: 458,16218

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Belgium is

2010: 3.7610
2006: 3.74
1999: 4.48

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Belgium is reported to be

2017: 426,9391
2015: 647,38819
2010: 740,44420
2006: 787,85820 19
2005: 641,7816 9

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Belgium is

2015: 5.7210
2010: 6.81
2006: 7.48
2005: 6.13

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,21 but in Belgium there are estimated to be

2017: 1,024,0611
2015: 129,4782 21 4
2010: 148,089
2006: 630,000 to 1,100,0008

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,21 but in Belgium the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2015: 1.1410
2010: 1.36
2006: 5.98

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Belgium are reported to have 80,88022 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Belgium are reported to have 78,00023 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 15924
2014: 165
2013: 13825 26 27 28
2012: 20225 26 28
2011: 20325 26 27 28
2010: 19729 25 26 27 28 30
2009: 190
2008: 231
2007: 210
2006: 25629 31
2005: 31529 25 26 27 28
2004: 30929 25 26 28
2003: 33029
1999: 33725 26 27 28
1998: 371
1997: 39025 26 27
1996: 370
1995: 37925 26 27 32
1994: 38725 26 27
1993: 392

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.4024
2014: 1.47
2013: 1.24
2012: 1.83
2011: 1.85
2010: 1.81
2009: 1.76
2008: 2.16
2007: 1.98
2006: 2.4310 31
2005: 3.0110
2004: 2.97
2003: 3.18
1999: 3.29
1998: 3.63
1997: 3.82
1996: 3.63
1995: 3.73
1994: 3.82
1993: 3.89

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 13824
2014: 150
2013: 12424
2012: 183
2011: 184
2010: 180
2009: 170
2008: 211
2007: 178

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.4824
2014: 2.72
2013: 2.26
2012: 3.37
2011: 3.42
2010: 3.38
2009: 3.22
2008: 4.03
2007: 3.42

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 2124
2014: 15
2013: 1424
2012: 19
2011: 19
2010: 17
2009: 20
2008: 20
2007: 32

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.3624
2014: 0.26
2013: 0.25
2012: 0.34
2011: 0.34
2010: 0.31
2009: 0.36
2008: 0.37
2007: 0.59

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual homicides by any means total

2015: 22033
2014: 208
2013: 205
2012: 205
2011: 214
2010: 189
2009: 189
2008: 203
2007: 211
2006: 14634
2005: 163
2004: 178
2003: 144
2002: 31935 36
2001: 282
2000: 212
1999: 17237
1998: 218
1997: 14537 36
1996: 118
1995: 142

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.9433
2014: 1.85
2013: 1.84
2012: 1.85
2011: 1.95
2010: 1.74
2009: 1.75
2008: 1.90
2007: 1.99
2006: 1.39
2005: 1.56
2004: 1.71
2003: 1.39
2002: 3.135 36
2001: 2.7
2000: 2.1
1999: 1.6810 36
1998: 2.13
1997: 1.42
1996: 1.16
1995: 1.436 38
1990: 1.4139

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual male homicides by any means total

2015: 6524
2014: 12740
2013: 106
2012: 127
2011: 121
2010: 119
2009: 112
2008: 131
2007: 123

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.1724
2014: 2.3240
2013: 1.94
2012: 2.35
2011: 2.25
2010: 2.23
2009: 2.12
2008: 2.49
2007: 2.35

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual female homicides by any means total

2015: 5424
2014: 8040
2013: 99
2012: 77
2011: 92
2010: 69
2009: 76
2008: 71
2007: 87

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.9424
2014: 1.4140
2013: 1.74
2012: 1.37
2011: 1.65
2010: 1.25
2009: 1.38
2008: 1.30
2007: 1.60

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual firearm homicides total

2015: 2824
2014: 29
2013: 1625
2012: 25
2011: 34
2010: 3629 25 30
2009: 3329 25
2008: 29
2007: 35
2006: 31
2005: 46
2004: 5929 25 36
2003: 5329
1999: 7025
1998: 73
1997: 78
1996: 75
1995: 5925 36
1994: 7625
1993: 95

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.2524
2014: 0.26
2013: 0.14
2012: 0.23
2011: 0.31
2010: 0.33
2009: 0.31
2008: 0.27
2007: 0.33
2006: 0.29
2005: 0.44
2004: 0.5710 25 36
2003: 0.5110
1999: 0.6825
1998: 0.72
1997: 0.77
1996: 0.74
1995: 0.5825 36
1994: 0.7525
1993: 0.94
1990: 0.6041

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Belgium, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 10%42
2004: 39.5%36
1995: 37.3%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Belgium, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 1824
2014: 23
2013: 1024
2012: 15
2011: 27
2010: 27
2009: 24
2008: 23
2007: 21

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.3224
2014: 0.42
2013: 0.18
2012: 0.28
2011: 0.50
2010: 0.51
2009: 0.45
2008: 0.44
2007: 0.40

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Belgium, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 1024
2014: 6
2013: 624
2012: 10
2011: 7
2010: 9
2009: 9
2008: 6
2007: 14

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.1724
2014: 0.11
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.18
2011: 0.13
2010: 0.16
2009: 0.16
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.26

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 325
2012: 1
2011: 1
2009: 2
2005: 2
2004: 2
1999: 6
1998: 11

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0325
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2009: 0.02
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.11

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual long gun homicides total

2013: 125
2012: 2
2011: 2
2010: 2
2009: 1
2008: 1
2007: 1
2005: 3
2004: 4
1999: 6
1998: 6

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0125
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.04
1999: 0.06
1998: 0.06

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Belgium, annual gun homicides (other) total

2013: 1225
2012: 22
2011: 31
2010: 34
2009: 30
2008: 28
2007: 34
2006: 31
2005: 41
2004: 53
1999: 58
1998: 56

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.1125
2012: 0.20
2011: 0.28
2010: 0.31
2009: 0.28
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.32
2006: 0.29
2005: 0.39
2004: 0.51
1999: 0.57
1998: 0.55

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual suicides by any means total

2015: 1,86624
2014: 1,898
2013: 1,89524
2012: 2,023
2011: 2,086
2010: 2,01129
2009: 2,013
2008: 2,000
2007: 1,856
2006: 1,934
2005: 2,02843 29
2004: 1,986
2003: 2,09129
1999: 2,00543
1998: 2,022
1995: 2,15532

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 16.4824
2014: 16.89
2013: 17
2012: 18.29
2011: 19.03
2010: 18.51
2009: 18.68
2008: 18.70
2007: 17.49
2006: 18.36
2005: 19.37
2004: 19.07
2003: 20.17
1999: 19.59
1998: 19.79
1995: 20.8932
1990: 19.0444

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual male suicides by any means total

2015: 1,31424
2014: 1,338
2013: 1,36324
2012: 1,484
2011: 1,487
2010: 1,449
2009: 1,459
2008: 1,453
2007: 1,319

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 23.5924
2014: 24.22
2013: 24.88
2012: 27.33
2011: 27.64
2010: 27.19
2009: 27.61
2008: 27.72
2007: 25.37

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, annual female suicides by any means total

2015: 55224
2014: 560
2013: 53224
2012: 539
2011: 599
2010: 562
2009: 554
2008: 547
2007: 537

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 9.5924
2014: 9.80
2013: 9.38
2012: 9.58
2011: 10.73
2010: 10.15
2009: 10.09
2008: 10.03
2007: 9.92

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual firearm suicides total

2015: 12324
2014: 115
2013: 11526
2012: 159
2011: 161
2010: 14429 26 30
2009: 15329 26
2008: 189
2007: 165
2006: 207
2005: 240
2004: 234
2003: 26129
1999: 24526
1998: 280
1997: 310
1996: 288
1995: 289
1994: 307
1993: 293

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.0924
2014: 1.02
2013: 1.03
2012: 1.44
2011: 1.47
2010: 1.33
2009: 1.42
2008: 1.77
2007: 1.56
2006: 1.96
2005: 2.29
2004: 2.25
2003: 2.5210
1999: 2.4026
1998: 2.74
1997: 3.05
1996: 2.84
1995: 2.85
1994: 3.03
1993: 2.91
1990: 2.5645

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Belgium, annual male firearm suicides total

2015: 11424
2014: 110
2013: 10824
2012: 154
2011: 150
2010: 140
2009: 142
2008: 177
2007: 148

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 2.0524
2014: 1.99
2013: 1.97
2012: 2.84
2011: 2.79
2010: 2.63
2009: 2.69
2008: 3.38
2007: 2.85

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Belgium, annual female firearm suicides total

2015: 924
2014: 5
2013: 724
2012: 5
2011: 11
2010: 4
2009: 11
2008: 12
2007: 17

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.1624
2014: 0.09
2013: 0.12
2012: 0.09
2011: 0.20
2010: 0.07
2009: 0.20
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.31

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Belgium, annual handgun suicides total

2013: 1526
2012: 16
2011: 8
2010: 4
2009: 13
2008: 9
2007: 9
2006: 13
2005: 13
2004: 18
1999: 45
1998: 25

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.1326
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.12
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.12
2005: 0.12
2004: 0.17
1999: 0.44
1998: 0.25

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Belgium, the number of long gun suicides is

2013: 1126
2012: 16
2011: 27
2010: 15
2009: 15
2008: 21
2007: 27
2006: 26
2005: 35
2004: 31
1999: 35
1998: 49

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.1026
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.25
2010: 0.14
2009: 0.14
2008: 0.20
2007: 0.25
2006: 0.25
2005: 0.33
2004: 0.30
1999: 0.34
1998: 0.48

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Belgium, annual gun suicides (other) total

2013: 8926
2012: 127
2011: 126
2010: 125
2009: 125
2008: 159
2007: 129
2006: 168
2005: 192
2004: 185
1999: 165
1998: 206

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.8026
2012: 1.14
2011: 1.15
2010: 1.15
2009: 1.16
2008: 1.48
2007: 1.21
2006: 1.59
2005: 1.83
2004: 1.78
1999: 1.61
1998: 2.02

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2015: 524
2014: 2
2013: 127
2012: 0
2011: 3
2010: 227 30
2009: 127
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 7
1999: 5
1998: 2
1997: 2
1996: 7
1995: 2
1994: 4
1993: 4

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0424
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.07
1999: 0.05
1998: 0.02
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.07
1995: 0.02
1994: 0.04
1993: 0.04
1990: 0.0646

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2015: 424
2014: 2
2013: 124
2012: 0
2011: 3
2010: 2
2009: 1
2007: 1

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0724
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.02
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.02
2007: 0.02

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2015: 124
2013: 024
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0
2008: 1

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0224
2008: 0.02

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Belgium, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2011: 227
1999: 2

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0227
1999: 0.02

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Belgium, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2013: 127
2011: 1
2010: 2
2009: 1
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 7
1999: 3
1998: 2

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0127
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.07
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.02

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 324
2014: 19
2013: 628
2012: 18
2011: 5
2010: 1528 30
2009: 228
2008: 12
2007: 9
2006: 17
2005: 22
2004: 16
1999: 17
1998: 16
1995: 2932

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0324
2014: 0.17
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.14
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.16
2005: 0.21
2004: 0.15
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.16
1995: 0.2832
1990: 0.2647
:

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 224
2014: 15
2013: 524
2012: 14
2011: 4
2010: 11
2009: 2
2008: 11
2007: 8

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0424
2014: 0.27
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.26
2011: 0.07
2010: 0.21
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.21
2007: 0.15

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 124
2014: 4
2013: 124
2012: 4
2011: 1
2010: 4
2008: 1
2007: 1

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0224
2014: 0.07
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.07
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2008: 128
2006: 1
2005: 1
1999: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2008: 0.0128
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
1999: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2012: 228
2008: 1
2006: 2
1999: 2

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.0228
2008: 0.09
2006: 0.02
1999: 0.02

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Belgium, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 628
2012: 16
2011: 5
2010: 15
2009: 2
2008: 10
2007: 9
2006: 14
2005: 21
2004: 16
1999: 14
1998: 16

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Belgium, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0528
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.14
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.08
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.20
2004: 0.15
1999: 0.14
1998: 0.16

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

In Belgium, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2009: 124

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Belgium, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence48 49 18

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Belgium was ranked 'medium'50

Home-made Guns

In Belgium, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low51

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Belgium, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

Firearm Exports (Number)

The annual number of firearms exported from Belgium is reported by manufacturers to be

2018: 1,21061

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Belgium is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 128,135,89762
2015: 155,508,880
2014: 149,5247,64
2013: 160,616,754
2012: 141,458,63762 63 64
2011: 73,464,90665
2010: 128,000,00066
2001: 271,000,00063 67 68

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Belgium was categorized as 'major'69 70 71 72 68 73

Firearm Imports

In Belgium, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law53 54 55 49 56 57 58 59

Firearm Imports (Number)

The annual number of firearms imported to Belgium is reported to be

2018: 14,10861

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Belgium is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 40,890,94562
2015: 49,794,883
2014: 56,679,513
2013: 58,633,332
2012: 55,910,17362 74 75
2011: 49,436,95865 76
2010: 63,000,00077

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Belgium is moderate78 79 80 81 82 83

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Belgium, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law84 85 86 87 88

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Belgium include55 89 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Belgium scored

2018: 17.7590
2016: 16.7591
2014: 16.0092
2013: 16.0093
2012: 17.0094
2011: 17.7595
2010: 14.7596
2009: 14.5097
2008: 14.2598
2007: 14.5099
2006: 14.00100
2005: 9.00101
2004: 10.25102

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Belgium is categorised as restrictive103

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Belgium includes the Act regulating economic and individual activities related to firearms (also referred to as the 'Firearms Act') of June 8, 2006,49 104 the Royal Decree of May 2013,105 the Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons as amended by Directive 2008/51/EC,106 107 108 the European Union Firearms Regulation of 2012, the Common Position on the Control of Arms Brokering of 2003109 and the Convention of 1 July 1969 on Reciprocal Recognition of Proofmarks on Small Arms110

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Belgium are regulated by the Federal Service for Weapons,111 the National Police18 and the European Commission107

Right to Possess Firearms

In Belgium, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law112 113

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Belgium, civilians are not allowed to possess military weapons, automatic firearms, and their ammunition, concealable firearms, silencers, laser sights, and high capacity cartridges114 115 116

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Belgium, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited114 115 116 42

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Belgium, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted only with special authorisation117 118 116

Regulation of Handguns

In Belgium, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted only with special authorisation115 117 118 116 42

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Belgium, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law42

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Belgium, only licensed gun owners119 120 121 122 123 115 117 42 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Belgium are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security124 120 125 126

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Belgium is 18 years127 120 126

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Belgium must pass a background check which considers criminal and various other120 125 126 42 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Belgium, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required18

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Belgium does not stipulate18 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Belgium, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required120 18 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Belgium, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years for permits to carry weapons. General licences for firearm possession are issued for an undetermined period.128 125

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Belgium are permitted to possess 1 firearm per authorisation120

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Belgium are permitted to possess a limited quantity of ammunition129 130

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Belgium, the law requires131 132 49 133 134 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Belgium, licensed firearm dealers are required135 49 136 134 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Belgium, licensed gun makers are required137 135 48 49 136 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Belgium, State agencies are required138 131 139 133 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Belgium, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited127

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Belgium, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful84 127 121 122 140 118

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in Belgium is reported to be

2014: 534141
2006: 600

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Belgium, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated127 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Belgium include129 142 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Belgium include142 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Belgium include143 142 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Belgium include144 18 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Belgium, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law in some cases145 146 136 147 108 148

Firearm Tracing

In Belgium, state authorities carry out136 149 49 148 134 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Belgium, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not150 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Belgium, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law42

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Belgium, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit18

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Belgium, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm151 is five years in prison and/or a fine of 25,000 Euros152 153

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Belgium are known to have154 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

ChartIn Belgium, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be

2008: 56,572155
2007: 79,892
2006: 61,999

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Belgium, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 6,693156
2016: 6,630
2015/16: 6,928157
2008: 56,572155
2007: 79,892
2006: 200,000158 155

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Belgium, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2015/16: 67,766159
2006/16: 125,00019
2006: 200,000158 154

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Belgium, it is state policy160 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

European Union

As a member of the European Union, Belgium is bound by the provisions of the ‘EU Firearms Directive’ – the 2007 Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons of the European Parliament161 162

European Union Export Reporting

Under the European Union Common Position on Arms Exports, Belgium is bound to declare its transfers of military technology and equipment. Independent monitoring provides detailed comparisons of arms export reporting compliance across EU member states, and records that Belgium has submitted one or more national reports163 on its arms transfers

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2011164 by Belgium.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified165 by Belgium

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified166 by Belgium

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Belgium committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects167

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Belgium against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 72168 169 170 171 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Belgium has submitted one or more national reports172 173 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Belgium, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated174 173

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Belgium, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated174

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Belgium submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent173

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated173 by Belgium to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Belgium has declared175 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Belgium has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945176

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists177 Belgium as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Belgium, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Belgium ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

2.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms and of Privately Owned Firearms - Belgium.’ Number of Registered Firearms, Belgium.Sydney:GunPolicy.org,21 December. (Q13246)Full Citation

3.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Number of Privately Owned Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G1) Full Citation

4.

UNODC.2010.‘Value of the Global Firearms Market (Licit and Illicit).’ The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (TOCTA).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 June. (Q13189)Full Citation

5.

Poitevin, Cédric.2006.‘Note d'Information.’ New Arms Legislation in Belgium.Brussels:Groupe de recherche et d'information sur la paix et la sécurité (GRIP),21 June. (Q4982)Full Citation

6.

Expatica (Brussels). 2005. ‘Tough New Gun Law Promised.’ 3 February. (N230) Full Citation

7.

Buchanan, Cate, Mireille Widmer et al.2007.‘National Regulation of Small Arms.’ Missing Pieces: A Guide for Reducing Gun Violence Through Parliamentary Action.Geneva:Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and the Inter-Parliamentary Union,1 January. (Q4984)Full Citation

8.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2016.‘Size of the Illicit Gun Market in Belgium.’ Guns for Sale: The Belgian Illicit Gun Market in a European Perspective.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,21 March. (Q11826)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

10.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Belgium.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,22 December. (Q4208)Full Citation

11.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G6) Full Citation

12.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

13.

Directorate-General for Home Affairs.2015.‘Firearms Ownership - Firearms in the EU.’ Flash Eurobarometer 383: Firearms in the European Union.Brussels:European Commission,19 January. (Q13506)Full Citation

14.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2012.‘Estimated Gun Ownership Based on Surveys.’ Gun Ownership in Belgium.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,19 September. (Q8896)Full Citation

15.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11792)Full Citation

16.

Killias, Martin.1993.‘Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective.’ Understanding Crime, Experiences of Crime and Crime Control - Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 Nov 1992.Rome:United Nations International Crime & Justice Research Institute (UNICRI),1 August. (Q1187)Full Citation

17.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2012.‘Registered Gun Owners.’ Gun Ownership in Belgium.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,19 September. (Q8892)Full Citation

18.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

19.

RTBF (Belgium). 2016. ‘Still 117,000 Unregistered Firearms in Belgium.’ 7 March. (N465) Full Citation

20.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2012.‘Registered Guns.’ Gun Ownership in Belgium.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,19 September. (Q8894)Full Citation

21.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

22.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

23.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

24.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

25.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,28 June. (Q6088)Full Citation

26.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,28 June. (Q6135)Full Citation

27.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,28 June. (Q6175)Full Citation

28.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Belgium.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,28 June. (Q6435)Full Citation

29.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Firearms-Related Deaths in Belgium, 2003-2010.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q11935)Full Citation

30.

Waiselfiz, Julio Jacobo.2015.‘Number and Rate of Gun Deaths in 90 Countries (Número e taxas de mortalidade por AF segundo causa básica em 90 países do mundo).’ Violence Map: Deaths by Firearms (Mapa da Violência: Mortes Matadas por Armas de Fogo).Brasilia:Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales / Latin American Social Sciences Institute,1 January. (Q11896)Full Citation

31.

WHO.2011.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Total Firearm Death.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,15 September. (Q5684)Full Citation

32.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

33.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

34.

South Korea.1961.‘Storage of Guns.’ Act on the Safety Management of Guns, Swords, Explosives, etc..Seoul:National Police Agency,13 December. (Q13554)Full Citation

35.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides in Belgium.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10339)Full Citation

36.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Belgium.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6215)Full Citation

37.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

38.

Hemenway, David, Tomoko Shinoda-Tagawa and Matthew Miller.2002.‘Female Homicide and Suicide Rates.’ Firearm Availability and Female Homicide Victimization Rates Among 25 Populous High-Income Countries.Boston:Journal of the American Medical Women's Association (JAMWA), Spring 2002 / Harvard Injury Control Research Centre, Harvard School of Public Health,1 March. (Q4980)Full Citation

39.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

40.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

41.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

42.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Belgium.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9703)Full Citation

43.

Belgium.2010.‘Evolution of the Major Initial Causes of Death 1998, 1999, 2004, 2005 (Evolution des Principales Causes Initiales de Décès 1998, 1999, 2004, 2005).’ Causes of Death 1998, 1999, 2004 and 2005 (Causes de décès 1998, 1999, 2004 et 2005).Brussels:Direction Générale Statistique et Information Economique,8 September. (Q4959)Full Citation

44.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

45.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

46.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

47.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

48.

Belgium.2018.‘Manufacture (Fabrication).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13522)Full Citation

49.

Belgium.2010.‘Registration (Enregistrement).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4595)Full Citation

50.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

51.

Belgium.2018.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13529)Full Citation

52.

Belgium.1991.‘Article 4.’ Law of 5 August 1991 on Import, Export, Transfer and the Fight against Trafficking of Weapons, Ammunition and Material Intended Specifically for Military Use or Law Enforcement and Corresponding Technology.Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,5 August. (Q4935)Full Citation

53.

Belgium.1991.‘Article 9.’ Law of 5 August 1991 on Import, Export, Transfer and the Fight against Trafficking of Weapons, Ammunition and Material Intended Specifically for Military Use or Law Enforcement and Corresponding Technology.Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,5 August. (Q4936)Full Citation

54.

Belgium.2014.‘Export, Import, Transit, Re-export (Exportation, Importation, Transit, Réexpédition).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12419)Full Citation

55.

Belgium.2018.‘International Transfers - Licensing and Authorisation.’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13523)Full Citation

56.

European Council.1991.‘Article 11.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2414)Full Citation

57.

European Council.1991.‘Article 12.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2415)Full Citation

58.

European Council.1991.‘Article 13.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2416)Full Citation

59.

European Council.1991.‘Article 14.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2417)Full Citation

60.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8320)Full Citation

61.

Arms Trade Treaty Secretariat.2017.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports.’ Arms Trade Treaty Annual Report.Geneva:Arms Trade Treaty Secretariat,1 January. (Q13951)Full Citation

62.

United Nations.2018.‘National Customs Data on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Belgium.’ UN Comtrade International Trade Statistics Database.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,1 January. (Q13408)Full Citation

63.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

64.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

65.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

66.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

67.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

68.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

69.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11068)Full Citation

70.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

71.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

72.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

73.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

74.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

75.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

76.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

77.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

78.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2016.‘Cross-Border Trafficking.’ Guns for Sale: The Belgian Illicit Gun Market in a European Perspective.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,21 March. (Q11828)Full Citation

79.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2016.‘The Illegal Production and Alteration of Firearms.’ Guns for Sale: The Belgian Illicit Gun Market in a European Perspective.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,21 March. (Q11830)Full Citation

80.

Belgium.2018.‘International Transfers (Transferts internationaux).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13524)Full Citation

81.

Reuters. 1998. ‘Belgian Police Smash Arms Smuggling Ring.’ 17 March. (N217) Full Citation

82.

Gilbert Dupont. 2005. ‘Brussels Police Trafficking in Guns.’ La Derniere Heure (Brussels). 2 November. (N218) Full Citation

83.

Expatica (Brussels). 2004. ‘Report: 15,000 Guns Smuggled Annually.’ 22 July. (N183) Full Citation

84.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 5.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4854)Full Citation

85.

Belgium.2014.‘Brokering (Courtage).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12420)Full Citation

86.

Belgium.2018.‘Brokering (Courtage).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13525)Full Citation

87.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4b.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2408)Full Citation

88.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8319)Full Citation

89.

Belgium.2010.‘Authorisation for Export (Autorisation d'Exportation).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4937)Full Citation

90.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

91.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

92.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

93.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

94.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

95.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

96.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

97.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

98.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

99.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

100.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

101.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

102.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

103.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

104.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Weapons Law of 2006 [Current to 2008].’ Gun Control in Belgium: A Review of the Effects of the 2006 Weapons Law.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,3 March. (Q12106)Full Citation

105.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2016.‘Royal Decree, 2013.’ Guns for Sale: The Belgian Illicit Gun Market in a European Perspective.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,21 March. (Q11829)Full Citation

106.

European Council.1991.‘European Weapons Directive.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2403)Full Citation

107.

European Council.1991.‘Article 18.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2418)Full Citation

108.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Directive 2008/51/EC of the European Parliament and the Council.’ Gun Control in Belgium: A Review of the Effects of the 2006 Weapons Law.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,3 March. (Q12107)Full Citation

109.

European Commission.2013.‘The Need for Action at EU Level - EU Firearms Laws.’ Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament.Brussels:Europa.eu,21 October. (Q8315)Full Citation

110.

UNGA.1969.‘Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks.’ Convention for the Reciprocal Recognition of Proof Marks on Small Arms of July 1, 1969.Brussels:United Nations General Assembly,1 July. (Q5999)Full Citation

111.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 36.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4866)Full Citation

112.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

113.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

114.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 3.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4852)Full Citation

115.

European Council.1991.‘Article 6.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2410)Full Citation

116.

European Council.1991.‘Annex 1.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2419)Full Citation

117.

European Council.1991.‘Article 7.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2411)Full Citation

118.

European Council.1991.‘Article 8.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2412)Full Citation

119.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 10.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4856)Full Citation

120.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 11.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4857)Full Citation

121.

Belgium.2013.‘Articles 1, 2, 3 and 4.’ Royal Decree Amending the Royal Decree of 20 September 1991 on Firearms of Historic, Folkloristic, or Decorative Interest and Firearms Rendered Unfit to Fire.Brussels:King of the Belgians,8 May. (Q6842)Full Citation

122.

Belgium.2013.‘The List of Firearms for Which No Licence Was Required (HFD List) Is Abolished (La Liste des Armes à Feu en Vente Libre (Liste HFD) Est Supprimée).’ Belgium Federal Public Service, Justice - News.Brussels:Belgium Federal Public Service, Justice,10 June. (Q6843)Full Citation

123.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4a.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2407)Full Citation

124.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 9.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4855)Full Citation

125.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 14.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4859)Full Citation

126.

European Council.1991.‘Article 5.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2409)Full Citation

127.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 19.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4863)Full Citation

128.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 32.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4868)Full Citation

129.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 16.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4861)Full Citation

130.

European Council.1991.‘Article 10.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2413)Full Citation

131.

Belgium.2011.‘Record Keeping - Registration - Situation in Belgium (Conservation des informations - Enregistrement - Situation en Belgique).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4944)Full Citation

132.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 4.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4853)Full Citation

133.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Central Weapons Registry (CWR).’ Gun Control in Belgium: A Review of the Effects of the 2006 Weapons Law.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,3 March. (Q12105)Full Citation

134.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2406)Full Citation

135.

Belgium.2011.‘Record Keeping - Registration - Situation in Belgium (Conservation des informations - Enregistrement - Situation en Belgique).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4941)Full Citation

136.

Belgium.2011.‘Record Keeping - Registration - Situation in Belgium (Conservation des informations - Enregistrement - Situation en Belgique).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4942)Full Citation

137.

Belgium.2011.‘Individual Marking (Numbering) - (Marquage Individuelle (Numérotage)).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4940)Full Citation

138.

Belgium.2002.‘Article 3.’ Royal Decree on the Possession and Carrying of Weapons by the Services of the Authority or Law Enforcement 2002-06-26/32 (Arrêté Royal Relatif à la Détention et au Port d'armes par les Services de l'Autorité ou de la Force Publique 2002-06-26/32).Brussels:King of the Belgians,26 June. (Q4869)Full Citation

139.

Belgium.2010.‘The Police (La Police).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4596)Full Citation

140.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2405)Full Citation

141.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Number of Licensed Gun Dealers.’ Gun Control in Belgium: A Review of the Effects of the 2006 Weapons Law.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,3 March. (Q12104)Full Citation

142.

Belgium.2014.‘Stockpile Management (Gestion et sécurisation des stocks).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q12418)Full Citation

143.

Belgium.2018.‘Stockpile Management (Gestion des stocks).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13526)Full Citation

144.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 21.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4864)Full Citation

145.

Belgium.1888.‘Article 1.’ Law Regulating the Situation of the Proof House of Firearms Based in Liège 1888-05-24/30 (Loi Portant Réglementation de la Situation du Banc d'Epreuves des Armes à Feu Etabli à Liège 1888-05-24/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,24 May. (Q4870)Full Citation

146.

Belgium.1888.‘Article 10.’ Law Regulating the Situation of the Proof House of Firearms Based in Liège 1888-05-24/30 (Loi Portant Réglementation de la Situation du Banc d'Epreuves des Armes à Feu Etabli à Liège 1888-05-24/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,24 May. (Q4871)Full Citation

147.

Belgium.2010.‘Marking (Marquage).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4594)Full Citation

148.

European Council.1991.‘Article 4.’ Council Directive of 18 June 1991 on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (91/477/EEC) [current to 2008 amendments].Brussels:Council of the European Communities,18 June. (Q2404)Full Citation

149.

Belgium.2011.‘Tracing performed by the services of the Integrated Police Structured at 2 Levels (Traçage Effectué par les Services de la Police Intégrée Structurée à 2 Niveaux).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4943)Full Citation

150.

Belgium.2010.‘Marking (Marquage).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q9161)Full Citation

151.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

152.

Belgium.2006.‘Article 23.’ Law Regulating Economic and Individual Activities with Weapons 2006-06-08/30 (Loi Réglant les Activités Economiques et Individuelles avec des Armes 2006-06-08/30).Brussels:Chamber of Representatives of the Kingdom of Belgium,8 June. (Q4920)Full Citation

153.

European Commission.2014.‘Sanctions.’ Study to Support an Impact Assessment on Options for Combatting Illicit Firearms Trafficking in the European Union.Luxembourg:Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services,1 July. (Q12307)Full Citation

154.

Expatica (Brussels). 2007. ‘New Gun Law is a Flop.’ 10 May. (N219) Full Citation

155.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2012.‘Collected Guns.’ Gun Ownership in Belgium.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,19 September. (Q8895)Full Citation

156.

UNODC.2020.‘Arms Seized, Found, and Surrendered, by Type.’ Illicit Arms Flows Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,7 January. (Q14056)Full Citation

157.

Belgium.2018.‘Collection.’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13528)Full Citation

158.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Number of Firearms Collected and Destroyed in Belgium.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q11934)Full Citation

159.

Belgium.2018.‘Destruction.’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q13527)Full Citation

160.

Belgium.2010.‘Collection and Disposal: Concerning Weapons of the Armed Forces (Collecte et Elimination: En ce qui Concerne les Armes des Forces Armées).’ National Report of Belgium on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Belgium to the United Nations,1 January. (Q4939)Full Citation

161.

European Parliament.2007.‘Roll-call Vote: EU Firearms Directive.’ Legislative Resolution on Control of the Acquisition and Possession of Weapons.Brussels:VoteWatch.eu,29 November. (Q1346)Full Citation

162.

EU Parliament.2007.‘Draft Legislative Resolution on the EU Parliament Firearms Directive 2007.’ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.Brussels:European Parliament,12 July. (Q1970)Full Citation

163.

Saferworld.2010.‘EU Arms Transfer Reporting Database.’ Saferworld European Union Arms Transfer Reporting Database.London:Saferworld,9 December. (Q3364)Full Citation

164.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

165.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

166.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

167.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

168.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

169.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

170.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

171.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

172.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

173.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

174.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

175.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

176.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

177.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation