Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Australia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law



Federal firearm regulation is limited: each state has its own gun law.
For state and territory comparisons, choose from the 'Go To' menu.

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

ChartThe estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Australia is

2016: 3,150,0001 2 3 4
2012: 3,010,0005 4
2011: 2,960,0006 5 4
2010: 2,943,3637 4 8
2007: 2,750,000
2006: 2,918,454
2005: 3,050,0009
1997: 2,500,00010
1996: 3,200,000
1988: 3,500,00011
1975: 2,055,00012

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

ChartThe estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Australia is

2016: 13.7013 3
2012: 13.67
2011: 13.60
2010: 13.6813 14 8
2007: 13.25
2006: 14.24
2005: 15.09
1997: 13.5813
1996: 17.59
1988: 21.34
1975: 14.92

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

ChartIn Australia, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be

2010: 120,79015
2006: 172,42216
2005: 192,00017

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Australia ranked at No. 2518

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Australia ranked at No. 429

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Australia, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2005: 6.2%19
2003: 8.7%19
2000: 8%20
1994: 16.0%19
1992: 15.1%21
1989: 20.1%19 22
1988: 25%23
1979: 20%11

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Australia, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

1992: 12.5%21

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Australia, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

1992: 6.9%21

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Australia, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2005: 0.3%19
2003: 1.1%
1994: 1.6%19 21
1989: 1.6%19

Number of Licensed Firearm Owners

ChartThe number of licensed gun owners in Australia is reported to be

2016: 816,0001
2012: 730,0005 24
2011: 734,0001
2010: 873,62525
2007: 731,56717
2006: 478,32626 27
2001: 764,51828 29 17 27
1997: 1,200,00030
1989: 2,381,00022

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Australia is

2016: 3.5513
2012: 3.32
2011: 3.37
2010: 4.06
2007: 3.53
2006: 2.36
2001: 3.96
1997: 6.52
1989: 14.27

Number of Registered Firearms

ChartThe number of registered guns in Australia is reported to be

2017: 3,158,7953
2016: 2,890,0001 31
2012: 2,750,0005 24
2011: 2,700,0006 1 32 33
2010: 2,675,78525
2007: 2,500,00017
2006: 2,653,14026 27
2001: 2,165,17028 29 17 27
1997: 2,500,00030 10
1996: 3,200,00027
1989: 4,000,00022
1975: 1,354,700 34

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

ChartThe rate of registered guns per 100 people in Australia is

2016: 12.5713 1
2012: 12.49
2011: 12.401
2010: 12.44
2007: 12.05
2006: 12.95
2001: 11.22
1997: 13.58
1996: 17.59
1989: 23.98
1975: 9.84

Estimated Number of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,35 but in Australia there are estimated to be

2016: 260,0002 3
2012: 260,0005
2011: 260,0005 36
2010: 267,5797 35 8
2007: 250,000
2006: 265,314

Estimated Rate of Unregistered and Illicit Firearms per 100 Population

ChartUnregistered and unlawfully held guns cannot be counted,35 but in Australia the rate of such firearms per 100 people is estimated to be

2016: 1.1313
2012: 1.18
2011: 1.19
2010: 1.24
2007: 1.20
2006: 1.29

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Australia are reported to have 214,52037 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In Australia, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms38

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Australia are reported to have 69,00039 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2016: 23840
2015: 218
2014: 240
2013: 213
2012: 231
2011: 190
2010: 237
2009: 230
2008: 235
2007: 237
2006: 245
2005: 221
2004: 243
2003: 28940 41
2002: 292
2001: 326
2000: 32441
1999: 347
1998: 312
1997: 428
1996: 516
1995: 470
1994: 516
1993: 513
1992: 608
1991: 618
1990: 595
1989: 549
1988: 674
1987: 694
1986: 677
1985: 682
1984: 675
1983: 644
1982: 689
1981: 618
1980: 687
1979: 685

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2016: 1.0442
2015: 0.9643
2014: 1.07
2013: 0.96
2012: 1.05
2011: 0.87
2010: 1.10
2009: 1.08
2008: 1.12
2007: 1.14
2006: 1.20
2005: 1.09
2004: 1.22
2003: 1.46
2002: 1.49
2001: 1.69
2000: 1.70
1999: 1.84
1998: 1.68
1997: 2.32
1996: 2.84
1995: 2.61
1994: 2.90
1993: 2.91
1992: 3.49
1991: 3.59
1990: 3.51
1989: 3.29
1988: 4.11
1987: 4.30
1986: 4.26
1985: 4.35
1984: 4.35
1983: 4.20
1982: 4.54
1981: 4.14
1980: 4.70
1979: 3.29

Total Number of Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual male deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 20843
2014: 220
2013: 197
2012: 214
2011: 176
2010: 216
2009: 214
2008: 212
2007: 220

Rate of Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of male gun death per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.8243
2014: 1.95
2013: 1.77
2012: 1.94
2011: 1.61
2010: 2
2009: 2.01
2008: 2.01
2007: 2.12

Total Number of Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual female deaths resulting from firearms total

2015: 1043
2014: 2043
2013: 16
2012: 17
2011: 14
2010: 21
2009: 16
2008: 23
2007: 17

Rate of Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of female gun death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0943
2014: 0.18
2013: 0.14
2012: 0.15
2011: 0.13
2010: 0.20
2009: 0.15
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.16

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Australia, annual homicides by any means total

2016: 24444
2015: 265
2014: 248
2013: 248
2012: 28544 45 46
2011: 24344 47 45 46 48 49
2010: 244
2009: 272
2008: 25144 47 50 51 46 48
2007: 216
2006: 256
2005: 199
2004: 164
2003: 27847 50 51 46 48
2002: 291
2001: 30050 51 46 48
2000: 34051 46 48
1999: 34151 48
1998: 312
1997: 319
1996: 358
1995: 342
1994: 34251
1993: 360
1992: 331
1991: 351
1990: 331

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.9952
2015: 1.1643
2014: 1.10
2013: 1.11
2012: 1.29
2011: 1.12
2010: 1.13
2009: 1.28
2008: 1.19
2007: 1.04
2006: 1.25
2005: 0.98
2004: 0.82
2003: 1.41
2002: 1.49
2001: 1.55
2000: 1.78
1999: 1.8153 48
1998: 1.68
1997: 1.73
1996: 1.97
1995: 1.90
1994: 1.9253
1993: 2.04
1992: 1.90
1991: 2.04
1990: 1.95

Male Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Australia, annual male homicides by any means total

2016: 14754
2015: 17943
2014: 158
2013: 160
2012: 198
2011: 152
2010: 157
2009: 192
2008: 158
2007: 138

Rate of Male Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of male homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 1.2254
2015: 1.5743
2014: 1.40
2013: 1.43
2012: 1.79
2011: 1.39
2010: 1.46
2009: 1.80
2008: 1.50
2007: 1.33

Female Homicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Australia, annual female homicides by any means total

2016: 8054
2015: 8643
2014: 90
2013: 88
2012: 87
2011: 91
2010: 87
2009: 80
2008: 93
2007: 78

Rate of Female Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of female homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.6654
2015: 0.7643
2014: 0.80
2013: 0.79
2012: 0.79
2011: 0.84
2010: 0.81
2009: 0.75
2008: 0.89
2007: 0.75

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Australia, annual firearm homicides total

2016: 4244
2015: 27
2014: 34
2013: 39
2012: 4244 55 46
2011: 32
2010: 35
2009: 3744 47 50 56 46 48
2008: 2744 47 50 46 48
2007: 2644 47 50 46 48 57
2006: 4144 47 50 46 48
2005: 1944 47 50 46 48 58
2004: 1744 47 50 48
2003: 5447 50 59 41 48
2002: 4547 50 59 41 48
2001: 4750 59 41 48
2000: 5759 41 48
1999: 50
1998: 57
1997: 79
1996: 104
1995: 67
1994: 7659 41
1993: 64
1992: 96
1991: 84
1990: 79
1989: 80
1988: 123

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.1853
2015: 0.1243
2014: 0.15
2013: 0.18
2012: 0.19
2011: 0.15
2010: 0.16
2009: 0.17
2008: 0.13
2007: 0.13
2006: 0.20
2005: 0.09
2004: 0.09
2003: 0.2753 59 48
2002: 0.23
2001: 0.24
2000: 0.3059 48
1999: 0.26
1998: 0.30
1997: 0.43
1996: 0.57
1995: 0.37
1994: 0.4359
1993: 0.36
1992: 0.55
1991: 0.49
1990: 0.46
1989: 0.48
1988: 0.74

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Australia, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 16%60 46
2011: 12%60 46 49
2010: 12%60 46
2009: 13%60 46
2008: 12%
2007: 9%
2006: 14%
2005: 15%
2004: 17%60
2003: 15%
2002: 14%
2001: 21%60 46
2000: 20%60 48
1999: 18%
1998: 21%
1997: 22%
1996: 22%
1995: 25%
1994: 19%60
1993: 25%
1992: 20%
1991: 21%
1990: 25%

Male Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Australia, annual male firearm homicides total

2015: 2143
2014: 25
2013: 30
2012: 34
2011: 26
2010: 28
2009: 29
2008: 18
2007: 18

Rate of Male Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of male firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.1843
2014: 0.22
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.31
2011: 0.24
2010: 0.26
2009: 0.27
2008: 0.17
2007: 0.17

Female Gun Homicide Victims

ChartIn Australia, annual female firearm homicides total

2015: 643
2014: 9
2013: 9
2012: 8
2011: 6
2010: 7
2009: 8
2008: 9
2007: 8

Rate of Female Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of female firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0543
2014: 0.08
2013: 0.08
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.07
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.08

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Australia, annual handgun homicides total

2016: 544
2015: 1
2014: 4
2013: 3
2012: 4
2011: 644 47
2010: 644 47 50
2009: 9
2008: 7
2007: 1
2006: 14
2005: 444
2004: 2
2003: 647 50
2002: 12
2001: 1350

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0253
2015: 0.00
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.07
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.07

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Australia, annual long gun homicides total

2016: 2144
2015: 13
2014: 19
2013: 11
2012: 14
2011: 1744 47
2010: 2244 47 50
2009: 18
2008: 11
2007: 14
2006: 15
2005: 10
2004: 5
2003: 2447 50
2002: 20
2001: 1050

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0953
2015: 0.06
2014: 0.08
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.10
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.07
2005: 0.05
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.12
2002: 0.10
2001: 0.05

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Australia, annual gun homicides (other) total

2016: 1644
2015: 13
2014: 8
2013: 21
2012: 24
2011: 944 47
2010: 1144 47 50
2009: 1044 47 50
2008: 9
2007: 11
2006: 12
2005: 5
2004: 10
2003: 2447 50
2002: 13
2001: 2450

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0753
2015: 0.06
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.11
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.05
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.05
2003: 0.12
2002: 0.07
2001: 0.12

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Australia, annual suicides by any means total

2016: 2,86261
2015: 3,027
2014: 2,888
2013: 2,608
2012: 2,580
2011: 2,39261 62
2010: 2,418
2009: 2,335
2008: 2,340
2007: 2,227
2006: 2,118
2005: 2,101
2004: 2,098
2003: 2,21362 63 59
2002: 2,320
2001: 2,45463 59
2000: 2,36359
1999: 2,492
1998: 2,683
1997: 2,720
1996: 2,393
1995: 2,368
1994: 2,258
1993: 2,081
1992: 2,294
1991: 2,360
1990: 2,161
1989: 2,096
1988: 2,197

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2016: 12.4553
2015: 13.3043
2014: 12.83
2013: 11.71
2012: 11.72
2011: 10.99
2010: 11.24
2009: 10.98
2008: 11.14
2007: 10.73
2006: 10.34
2005: 10.38
2004: 10.49
2003: 11.2053 59
2002: 11.88
2001: 12.72
2000: 12.3459
1999: 13.17
1998: 14.34
1997: 14.69
1996: 13.07
1995: 13.10
1994: 12.65
1993: 11.78
1992: 13.11
1991: 13.65
1990: 12.66
1989: 12.47
1988: 13.29

Male Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Australia, annual male suicides by any means total

2015: 2,29243
2014: 2,179
2013: 1,944
2012: 1,930
2011: 1,811
2010: 1,865
2009: 1,783
2008: 1,832
2007: 1,698

Rate of Male Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of male suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 20.0943
2014: 19.31
2013: 17.42
2012: 17.49
2011: 16.60
2010: 17.30
2009: 16.74
2008: 17.41
2007: 16.34

Female Suicide Victims (any method)

ChartIn Australia, annual female suicides by any means total

2015: 73543
2014: 709
2013: 664
2012: 650
2011: 581
2010: 553
2009: 552
2008: 508
2007: 529

Rate of Female Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of female suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2015: 6.4843
2014: 6.32
2013: 5.98
2012: 5.92
2011: 5.35
2010: 5.15
2009: 5.20
2008: 4.84
2007: 5.11

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Australia, annual firearm suicides total

2016: 18361
2015: 177
2014: 177
2013: 168
2012: 177
2011: 14461 62
2010: 166
2009: 174
2008: 183
2007: 190
2006: 181
2005: 147
2004: 167
2003: 19362 63 59 41
2002: 217
2001: 26163 59 41
2000: 22259 41
1999: 269
1998: 235
1997: 329
1996: 382
1995: 388
1994: 420
1993: 431
1992: 488
1991: 505
1990: 486
1989: 450
1988: 521

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.8053
2015: 0.7843
2014: 0.79
2013: 0.75
2012: 0.80
2011: 0.66
2010: 0.77
2009: 0.82
2008: 0.87
2007: 0.92
2006: 0.88
2005: 0.73
2004: 0.84
2003: 0.9853 59
2002: 1.11
2001: 1.35
2000: 1.1659
1999: 1.42
1998: 1.26
1997: 1.78
1996: 2.09
1995: 2.15
1994: 2.35
1993: 2.44
1992: 2.79
1991: 2.92
1990: 2.85
1989: 2.68
1988: 3.15

Male Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Australia, annual male firearm suicides total

2015: 17443
2014: 171
2013: 161
2012: 169
2011: 137
2010: 154
2009: 166
2008: 171
2007: 182

Rate of Male Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of male firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 1.5343
2014: 1.52
2013: 1.44
2012: 1.53
2011: 1.26
2010: 1.43
2009: 1.56
2008: 1.63
2007: 1.75

Female Gun Suicide Victims

ChartIn Australia, annual female firearm suicides total

2015: 343
2014: 643
2013: 7
2012: 8
2011: 7
2010: 12
2009: 8
2008: 12
2007: 8

Rate of Female Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of female firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0343
2014: 0.05
2013: 0.06
2012: 0.07
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.11
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.11
2007: 0.08

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Australia, annual handgun suicides total

2016: 1861
2015: 17
2014: 17
2013: 23
2012: 12
2011: 1761 62
2010: 1861 62 63
2009: 17
2008: 25
2007: 15
2006: 15
2005: 14
2004: 13
2003: 2562 63
2002: 24
2001: 3463

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0853
2015: 0.07
2014: 0.08
2013: 0.10
2012: 0.05
2011: 0.08
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.12
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.07
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.07
2003: 0.13
2002: 0.12
2001: 0.18

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Australia, the number of long gun suicides is

2016: 15761
2015: 137
2014: 128
2013: 131
2012: 135
2011: 11661 62
2010: 14161 62 63
2009: 139
2008: 140
2007: 146
2006: 150
2005: 127
2004: 99
2003: 13362 63
2002: 165
2001: 17363

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.6853
2015: 0.60
2014: 0.57
2013: 0.59
2012: 0.61
2011: 0.53
2010: 0.66
2009: 0.65
2008: 0.67
2007: 0.70
2006: 0.73
2005: 0.63
2004: 0.50
2003: 0.67
2002: 0.84
2001: 0.90

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Australia, annual gun suicides (other) total

2016: 861
2015: 23
2014: 33
2013: 12
2012: 30
2011: 1161 62
2010: 1261 62 63
2009: 18
2008: 18
2007: 29
2006: 16
2005: 6
2004: 55
2003: 3562 63
2002: 28
2001: 5463

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0353
2015: 0.10
2014: 0.15
2013: 0.05
2012: 0.14
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.14
2006: 0.08
2005: 0.03
2004: 0.28
2003: 0.18
2002: 0.14
2001: 0.28

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2016: 564
2015: 3
2014: 3
2013: 3
2012: 3
2011: 764 65
2010: 1164 65 66
2009: 7
2008: 5
2007: 4
2006: 8
2005: 50
2004: 54
2003: 4065 66 59 41
2002: 30
2001: 18
2000: 4559 41
1999: 28
1998: 22
1997: 19
1996: 30
1995: 15
1994: 20
1993: 18
1992: 24
1991: 29
1990: 30
1989: 19
1988: 30

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0253
2015: 0.0143
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.05
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.02
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.25
2004: 0.27
2003: 0.2053 59
2002: 0.15
2001: 0.09
2000: 0.2359
1999: 0.15
1998: 0.12
1997: 0.10
1996: 0.16
1995: 0.08
1994: 0.11
1993: 0.10
1992: 0.14
1991: 0.17
1990: 0.18
1989: 0.11
1988: 0.18

Unintentional Male Gun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual unintentional male shooting deaths total

2015: 343
2014: 243
2013: 3
2012: 3
2011: 7
2010: 11
2009: 7
2008: 5
2007: 4

Rate of Unintentional Male Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unintentional male shooting death per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0343
2014: 0.02
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.10
2009: 0.07
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04

Unintentional Female Gun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual unintentional female shooting deaths total

2014: 143
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 0
2010: 0

Rate of Unintentional Female Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Australia, the annual rate of unintentional female shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0143

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2016: 064
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 064 65
2010: 164 65 66
2009: 0
2008: 1
2007: 0
2006: 1
2005: 064
2004: 2
2003: 365 66

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0053
2015: 0.00
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Australia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2016: 564
2015: 3
2014: 3
2013: 1
2012: 3
2011: 764 65
2010: 964 65 66
2009: 5
2008: 3
2007: 3
2006: 6
2005: 3
2004: 8
2003: 1165 66
2002: 10
2001: 666

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0253
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.01
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.04
2009: 0.02
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.04
2003: 0.06
2002: 0.05
2001: 0.03

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Australia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2016: 064
2015: 0
2014: 0
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 064 65
2010: 164 65 66
2009: 2
2008: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 47
2004: 44
2003: 2665 66
2002: 20
2001: 1266

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0053
2015: 0.00
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.23
2004: 0.22
2003: 0.13
2002: 0.10
2001: 0.06

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Australia, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2016: 267
2015: 4
2014: 17
2013: 1
2012: 4
2011: 567 68
2010: 19
2009: 8
2008: 16
2007: 11
2006: 12
2005: 467
2004: 3
2003: 259
2002: 0
1999: 269
1998: 859
1997: 3
1996: 5
1995: 3
1994: 6
1993: 6
1992: 7
1991: 5
1990: 15
1989: 13
1988: 17

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0153
2015: 0.0243
2014: 0.08
2013: 0
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.04
2008: 0.08
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.02
2004: 0.02
2003: 0.0159
2002: 0.00
1999: 0.0169
1998: 0.0459
1997: 0.02
1996: 0.03
1995: 0.02
1994: 0.03
1993: 0.03
1992: 0.04
1991: 0.03
1990: 0.09
1989: 0.08
1988: 0.10

Male Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Australia, annual male shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2015: 443
2014: 1343
2013: 1
2012: 3
2011: 4
2010: 17
2009: 8
2008: 14
2007: 10

Rate of Male Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unknown-cause male shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2015: 0.0443
2014: 0.12
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.04
2010: 0.16
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.13
2007: 0.10

Female Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Australia, annual female shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 443
2013: 0
2012: 1
2011: 1
2010: 2
2008: 2
2007: 1

Rate of Female Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unknown-cause female shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0443
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.02
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Australia, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2016: 167
2015: 0
2014: 1
2013: 0
2012: 0
2011: 067 68
2010: 267 68 70
2009: 0
2008: 1
2007: 0
2006: 1
2005: 267
2004: 0

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0053
2015: 0.00
2014: 0.00
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.00
2007: 0.00
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.00

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Australia, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2016: 067
2015: 2
2014: 7
2013: 1
2012: 0
2011: 467 68
2010: 267 68 70
2009: 1
2008: 4
2007: 3
2006: 2
2005: 267
2004: 2

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0053
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.03
2013: 0.00
2012: 0.00
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.00
2008: 0.02
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Australia, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2016: 167
2015: 2
2014: 10
2013: 3
2012: 4
2011: 167 68
2010: 767 68 70
2009: 7
2008: 11
2007: 8
2006: 9
2005: 067
2004: 1

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Australia, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2016: 0.0053
2015: 0.01
2014: 0.04
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.00
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.05
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.01

Legal Intervention Gun Homicides

ChartIn Australia, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2016: 671
2015: 7
2014: 9
2013: 2
2012: 5
2011: 2
2010: 6
2009: 4
2008: 4
2007: 6
2006: 3
2005: 1
2004: 2
2002: 1072
2001: 4
2000: 573
1999: 474
1998: 775
1997: 776

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Australia, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence77 78

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Australia was ranked 'small'79

Home-made Guns

In Australia, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low80 81 82 83

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Australia, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law84 85 86

Firearm Exports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from Australia is reported by manufacturers to be

2018: 5,20487
2017: 5,871
2016: 6,112
2015: 4,030
2011: 4,54088
2007: 1,160

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Australia is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 69,330,16389
2015: 87,543,642
2014: 38,488,325
2013: 76,893,241
2012: 28,498,30689 90
2011: 11,077,63091
2010: 12,000,00092

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Australia was categorized as 'major'93 94 95

Firearm Imports

In Australia, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law84 96 85 86

Firearm Imports (Number)

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to Australia is reported to be

2018: 106,06587
2017: 102,613
2016: 97,125
2015: 103,696
2014: 98,35197
2013: 88,185
2012: 90,006
2011: 72,586
2010: 73,701
2009: 57,522
2008: 58,111
2007: 47,820
2006: 39,389
2005: 38,78698 99 100 101 102
2004: 36,980
2003: 40,939
2002: 28,016
2001: 30,666
2000: 33,152
1999: 18,405
1998: 34,837
1997: 89,760
1996: 44,802
1995: 48,751100
1994: 32,928
1993: 35,881
1992: 45,305
1991: 71,675
1990: 57,222
1989: 51,502
1979: 104,149103
1978: 108,854
1977: 194,764
1976: 191,359
1975: 166,364

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

ChartThe annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Australia is reported by Customs to be US$

2016: 117,036,08989
2015: 115,669,478
2014: 164,400,240
2013: 124,383,473
2012: 122,098,69989 104 105 106 107
2011: 104,812,08091 108 109
2010: 132,000,000110
2001: 62,000,000104

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Australia is low111 80 112 113 81 114 115 116 101 83 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Australia, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law126

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Australia include127 128 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Australia scored

2018: 12.50129
2017: 12.00130
2016: 12.25131
2014: 11.25132
2013: 10.25133
2012: 10.00134
2011: 10.25135
2010: 10.25136
2009: 10.25137
2008: 11.25138
2007: 11.25139
2006: 10.00140
2005: 11.25141
2004: 11.25142

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Australia is categorised as restrictive143

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Australia includes the National Firearms Agreement (NFA) of 1996144 and 2017,145 the National Firearms Trafficking Policy Agreement (NFTPA) 2002,146 the National Handgun Agreement (NHA) 2002,147 and the Firearms Acts and Regulations of each State and Territory148

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Australia are regulated by the local State and Territory authorities149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156

Right to Possess Firearms

In Australia, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law157 158 159 160 161

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Australia, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic and semi-automatic firearms, self-loading and pump action shotguns, handguns with a calibre in excess of .38in with only narrow exemptions, semi-automatic handguns with a barrel length less than 120mm, and revolvers with a barrel length less than 100mm144 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Australia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited, with only narrow exceptions for permanently inoperable collector's, display, or museum guns144 162 164 165 166 167 172 173 170 171 49

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Australia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons and their lookalikes is prohibited in all but exceptional circumstances162 164 165 166 167 168 169 174

Regulation of Handguns

In Australia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is only permitted subject to stringent conditions162 175 163 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 49

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Australia, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law162 164 165 166 167 168 169 174 49

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Australia, only licensed gun owners184 185 186 187 152 188 189 190 191 49 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Australia are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example gun club membership, hunting, target shooting, firearm collection, pest control, and narrow occupational uses.192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200
In law, personal protection is not a genuine reason201 202 203

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Australia is 18 years, or as young as 11 years while under the immediate supervision of an appropriately licensed adult184 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Australia must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental health, physical, addiction, domestic violence, residential and other212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 49 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Australia, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are required for some licence categories in some jurisdictions221 222 223 224

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Australia stipulates212 225 226 215 227 217 228 219 229 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Australia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required230 231 232 233 234 218 235 236 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Australia, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every one to five years depending on the licence category184 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244

Licensing Records

In Australia, authorities maintain a record245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Australia are permitted to possess only the number and type of firearms specified on their licence or acquisition permit193 255 256 257 258 152 259 260 261 259 262

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Australia are permitted to possess ammunition only for those firearms for which the purchaser is licensed, with a limit on the quantity of ammunition that may be purchased in a given period263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 262

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Australia, the law requires271 272 245 253 248 247 250 252 251 254 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Australia, licensed firearm dealers are required273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 254 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Australia, licensed gun makers are required281 254 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Australia, State agencies are required282 283 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Australia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited unless conducted and registered by a licensed firearm dealer, or in remote locations by police263 284 285 286 287 288 289 290

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Australia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful263 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Australia is obliged263 212 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in Australia is obliged263 212 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Australia, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to one firearm per acquisition permit, in accordance with the particular firearm licence category255 256 299 258 300 259 301 261 259 262

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in Australia is reported to be

1999: 1,581302
1998: 1,223303

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Australia, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 28 days for a first sale or transfer, with exemptions in some states and territories for subsequent acquisition of the same type of firearm for which the owner already holds a licence255 304 299 305 306 307 218 308 309

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Australia, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events in some jurisdictions, are regulated310 311 312 313 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Australia include314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Australia include323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Australia include283 282 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Australia include331 332 333 334 335 336 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Australia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law78

Firearm Tracing

In Australia, state authorities carry out337 338 339 340 341 342 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Australia, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not343 344 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Australia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited without genuine reason. In law, personal protection is not a genuine reason.201 202 345 346 347 348 349 203 49

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Australia, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited without genuine reason. In law, personal protection is not a genuine reason.201 202 345 346 347 348 349 203 49

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Australia, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm350 is 20 years in prison, depending on the jurisdiction and category of firearm351 186 187 352 353 189 190 191 354

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Australia are known to have355 356 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

ChartIn Australia, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be

2017: 57,324357
2015: 3,000358
2014: 3,000359
2012: 3,485360 361 362 363
2011: 5,922361 362 363
2010: 5,798361 362
2008/11: 4,000364 362
2006: 5,15717 362
2004: 68,727365 366
1987/2015: 1,121,577367 355 356 368

Small Arms Destroyed

ChartIn Australia, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be

2017: 20,174369
2015: 17,081370
2012: 3,485361
2011: 3,857
2010: 3,109
1987/2015: 1,121,577367 355 356 368

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Australia, it is not state policy371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Pacific Islands Forum

As a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, Australia adopted the March, 2000 Nadi Framework agreement, which aims to harmonise small arms-related legislation across Oceania. In August 2003, the Nadi Framework’s draft model Weapons Control Bill was unanimously accepted for consideration by all 16 member states of the Pacific Islands Forum379 380

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006381 by Australia.

Arms Trade Treaty

The Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified382 by Australia

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed, but not yet ratified383 by Australia

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Australia committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects384

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Australia against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 22385 386 387 388 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Australia has submitted one or more national reports389 390 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Australia, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated391 390

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Australia, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated391 390

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Australia submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent391 390 392

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 by Australia to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Australia has declared401 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Australia has been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945402

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists403 Australia as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Australia, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Australia ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Australia.2016.‘Firearm Registration and Licensing.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13163)Full Citation

2.

Australia.2016.‘Domestic Illicit Firearms Market.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13159)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Civilian Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13434)Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Number of Privately Owned Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G1) Full Citation

5.

Dawson, Chris.2014.‘Australian Firearm Market.’ Australian Crime Commission, Submission No. 75 to Senate Committee: Inquiry into the Ability of Australian Law Enforcement Authorities to Eliminate Gun-Related Violence in the Community.Canberra:Australian Crime Commission,22 August. (Q11588)Full Citation

6.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘Number of Registered Firearms in Australia, 2011.’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q11750)Full Citation

7.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms and of Privately Owned Firearms - Australia.’ Number of Registered Firearms, Australia.Sydney:GunPolicy.org,6 December. (Q13214)Full Citation

8.

UNODC.2010.‘Value of the Global Firearms Market (Licit and Illicit).’ The Globalization of Crime: A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment (TOCTA).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 June. (Q13189)Full Citation

9.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

10.

Reuter, Peter and Jenny Mouzos.2002.‘Australia: A Massive Buyback of Low-Risk Guns.’ In: Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence. Editors: Philip Cook and Jens Ludwig.Washington, DC:Brookings Institution Press,1 December. (Q11733)Full Citation

11.

Chappell, Duncan, Peter Grabosky, Paul Wilson and Satyanshu Mukherjee.1988.‘Firearms and Violence in Australia: Gun Ownership.’ Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology, citing Australian Bankers' Association figures,1 February. (Q11734)Full Citation

12.

Harding, Richard W.1981.‘How Many Guns? - Estimated Gun Ownership (other than airgun ownership) Australia 1975.’ Firearms and Violence in Australian Life: an Examination of Gun Ownership and Use in Australia.Nedlands, WA:University of Western Australia Press,1 December. (Q11921)Full Citation

13.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Australia (Possession Data).’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,19 December. (Q4201)Full Citation

14.

GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 12 December.
(G6) Full Citation

15.

SSAA National.2016.‘Handguns.’ A Journalist's Guide to Firearms and the Shooting Sports.Adelaide:Sporting Shooters' Association of Australia (SSAA National) Inc,1 April. (Q11748)Full Citation

16.

Bricknell, Samantha.2008.‘Criminal Use of Handguns in Australia: Legal ownership.’ Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,14 October. (Q947)Full Citation

17.

Phillips, Janet, Malcolm Park and Catherine Lorimer.2007.‘How many legal firearms are there in Australia?.’ Firearms in Australia: A Guide to Electronic Resources.Canberra:Parliamentary Library, Federal Parliament of Australia,9 August. (Q13181)Full Citation

18.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

19.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11790)Full Citation

20.

Leigh, Andrew and Christine Neill.2010.‘Do Gun Buybacks Save Lives? Evidence from Panel Data - Introduction.’ American Law and Economics Review.Oxford:Oxford Journals / Oxford University Press,20 August. (Q11674)Full Citation

21.

Killias, Martin.1993.‘Gun Ownership, Suicide and Homicide: An International Perspective.’ Understanding Crime, Experiences of Crime and Crime Control - Acts of the International Conference, Rome, 18-20 Nov 1992.Rome:United Nations International Crime & Justice Research Institute (UNICRI),1 August. (Q1187)Full Citation

22.

Dann, Susan and Paul Wilson.1993.‘Gun Ownership & Violence in Australia: Strategies for Reduction.’ Current Issues in Criminal Justice.Brisbane:Sydney Institute of Criminology, The University of Sydney,1 July. (Q11751)Full Citation

23.

Chappell, Duncan, Peter Grabosky, Paul Wilson and Satyanshu Mukherjee.1988.‘Firearms and Violence in Australia.’ Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 February. (Q11782)Full Citation

24.

Australia.2012.‘Assessment of the Illegal Firearms Market.’ Final Report of the National Investigation into the Illegal Firearms Market.Canberra:Parliament of Australia,29 June. (Q11823)Full Citation

25.

Maning, Jo.2010.‘Total number of registered civilian firearms in Australia.’ Collated National Figures - Personal correspondence from the Assistant Director.Canberra:Drugs and Firearms Section, Border Management and Crime Prevention Branch, Criminal Justice Division, Australian Federal Attorney-General's Department,28 October. (Q3057)Full Citation

26.

Mouzos, Jenny.2006.‘An Overview of Firearms Theft in Australia.’ Presentation to the International Firearms Safety Seminar.Christchurch:National Firearms Theft Monitoring Program / NFTMP, Australian Institute of Criminology,23 February. (Q11657)Full Citation

27.

Petrie, Andrea.2006.‘A Disarming Cause: Have tighter gun laws made us safer?.’ The Age.Melbourne:28 April. (Q11658)Full Citation

28.

Mouzos, Jenny.2002.‘Firearms Theft in Australia.’ Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.Canberra:National Firearms Theft Monitoring Program / NFTMP, Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q7231)Full Citation

29.

Mouzos, Jenny.2002.‘Number of licence holders and registered firearms by jurisdiction, 1 July 2001.’ Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice: Firearms Theft in Australia.Canberra:National Firearms Theft Monitoring Program / NFTMP, Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q4073)Full Citation

30.

Browne, Roland; Tidswell, Keith.1997.‘Upset by Lone Gunman's Killing Spree, Australians Turn in Weapons.’ Associated Press.Sydney:Associated Press,30 September. (Q11743)Full Citation

31.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Registered Firearms, Australia 2016.’ Freedom of Information Responses from Australian State and Territory Firearm Registries.Sydney:Australian State and Territory Firearm Registries,24 November. (Q13193)Full Citation

32.

Christopher Knaus. 2011. ‘ACT Black Market Fed by Theft of Legal Guns.’ Canberra Times (Australia). 8 August. (N495) Full Citation

33.

Townsend, Ian.2011.‘Guns are Back - Buyback Guns Replaced with Imports.’ ABC Radio National - Background Briefing.Brisbane:Australian Broadcasting Corporation,13 November. (Q11664)Full Citation

34.

Waterman, Snr Sgt S W.1987.‘Firearms - Is it a Police Responsibility?.’ Research Lecture Paper, Victoria Police College Inspector's Course No. 51, 1986.Melbourne:Victoria Police College,26 February. (Q11749)Full Citation

35.

GunPolicy.org. 2019. ‘Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 24 January.
(G14) Full Citation

36.

McPhedran, Samara.2011.‘Firearms Registration in Australia.’ WiSH Fact Sheet - Background.Sydney:International Coalition for Women in Shooting and Hunting / WiSH,22 August. (Q5683)Full Citation

37.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Military Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Military-Owned Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13436)Full Citation

38.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Stockpiles and Trafficking in the Pacific: Police Inventories.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,31 March. (Q145)Full Citation

39.

Karp, Aaron.2018.‘Law Enforcement Firearms Holdings, 2017.’ Estimating Global Law Enforcement Firearms Numbers.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,18 June. (Q13435)Full Citation

40.

GunPolicy.org.2018.‘Calculated Numbers of Gun Deaths - Australia.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2016.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,7 March. (Q6478)Full Citation

41.

Kreisfeld, Renate.2006.‘Australia Revised Firearm Deaths 1979-2003.’ National Injury Surveillance Unit / NISU.Adelaide:Research Centre for Injury Studies, Flinders University of South Australia,1 March. (Q954)Full Citation

42.

GunPolicy.org.2018.‘Calculated Rates - Australia (Total Gun Deaths).’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.New York, NY:US Census Bureau Population Division,7 March. (Q6472)Full Citation

43.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Causes of Death.’ WHO Mortality Data Base.Geneva:World Health Organisation,1 December. (Q13354)Full Citation

44.

Australia.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Year of Occurrence, Australia, 2007-2016 - Assault.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2016.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,27 September. (Q9177)Full Citation

45.

Bryant, Willow and Tracy Cussen.2015.‘Homicide Victims by Year and Jurisdiction, 1989–90 to 2010–12.’ Homicide in Australia: 2010–11 to 2011–12: National Homicide Monitoring Program report.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 February. (Q12091)Full Citation

46.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Australia.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q8901)Full Citation

47.

Australia.2013.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2002-2011 - Assault.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2011.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,15 March. (Q7379)Full Citation

48.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Australia.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6225)Full Citation

49.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Australia.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9635)Full Citation

50.

Australia.2012.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2001-2010 - Assault.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2010.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,20 March. (Q6476)Full Citation

51.

Chan, Andy and Jason Payne.2013.‘Table B2: Homicide Victims by Year and Jurisdiction, 1989/90 to 2009/10.’ Homicide in Australia: 2008-09 to 2009-10 National Homicide Monitoring Program Annual Report.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,20 February. (Q8365)Full Citation

52.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 May. (Q13355)Full Citation

53.

GunPolicy.org.2018.‘Calculated Rates - Australia (Gun Death and Injury).’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,7 March. (Q6477)Full Citation

54.

UNODC.2017.‘Intentional Homicide Victims by Sex.’ Crime and Drugs Data.Vienna:UNODC,19 May. (Q13356)Full Citation

55.

Bryant, Willow and Tracy Cussen.2015.‘Primary Cause of Death of Homicide Victims by Sex and Jurisdiction, 2010–12.’ Homicide in Australia: 2010–11 to 2011–12: National Homicide Monitoring Program report.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 February. (Q12092)Full Citation

56.

Chan, Andy and Jason Payne.2013.‘Table B8: Primary Cause of Death of Homicide Victims by Sex and Jurisdiction, 2008/09.’ Homicide in Australia: 2008-09 to 2009-10 National Homicide Monitoring Program Annual Report.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,20 February. (Q12093)Full Citation

57.

Dearden, Jack and Warwick Jones.2008.‘Victims by Cause of Death, 2006-2007 - Gun Shot Wound.’ Homicide in Australia: 2006-07 National Homicide Monitoring Program Annual Report.Canberra:National Homicide Monitoring Program / Australian Institute of Criminology,5 December. (Q3723)Full Citation

58.

Mouzos, Jenny and Tina Houliaras.2006.‘Table: Victims by Cause of Death, 2004-05 - Gun Shot Wound.’ Homicide in Australia: 2004-05 National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) Annual Report.Canberra:National Homicide Monitoring Program / Australian Institute of Criminology,1 January. (Q3713)Full Citation

59.

Chapman, Simon, Philip Alpers, Kingsley Agho and Mike Jones.2006.‘Gun-Related Deaths, Australia, 1979–2003.’ Australia's 1996 Gun Law Reforms: Faster falls in firearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without mass shootings.Sydney:Injury Prevention,6 November. (Q1987)Full Citation

60.

Bryant, Willow and Tracy Cussen.2015.‘Weapon Use in Homicide Incidents by Year, 1989–90 to 2011–12.’ Homicide in Australia: 2010–11 to 2011–12: National Homicide Monitoring Program report.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 February. (Q12095)Full Citation

61.

Australia.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2007-2016 - Intentional Self-harm.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2016.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,27 September. (Q9178)Full Citation

62.

Australia.2013.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2002-2011 - Intentional Self-harm.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2011.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,15 March. (Q7380)Full Citation

63.

Australia.2012.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2001-2010 - Intentional Self-harm.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2010.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,20 March. (Q6475)Full Citation

64.

Australia.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2004-2015 - Accidental Injury.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2016.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,27 September. (Q9179)Full Citation

65.

Australia.2013.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2002-2011 - Accidental Injury.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2011.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,15 March. (Q7381)Full Citation

66.

Australia.2012.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2001-2010 - Accidental Injury.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2010.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,20 March. (Q6474)Full Citation

67.

Australia.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2007-2016 - Event of Undetermined Intent.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2016.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,27 September. (Q9180)Full Citation

68.

Australia.2013.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2002-2011 - Event of Undetermined Intent.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2011.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,15 March. (Q7382)Full Citation

69.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

70.

Australia.2012.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2001-2010 - Event of Undetermined Intent.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2010.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,20 March. (Q6473)Full Citation

71.

Australia.2017.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2007-2016 - Justifiable Gun Homicides.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2016.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,27 September. (Q8359)Full Citation

72.

Australia.2012.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2001-2010 - Justifiable Gun Homicides.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2010.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,20 March. (Q8360)Full Citation

73.

Australia.2011.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 2000-2009 - Justifiable Gun Homicides.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2009.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,3 May. (Q8362)Full Citation

74.

Australia.2010.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 1999-2008 - Justifiable Gun Homicides.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2008.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,31 March. (Q8363)Full Citation

75.

Australia.2009.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 1998-2007 - Justifiable Gun Homicides.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2007.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,18 March. (Q8364)Full Citation

76.

Australia.2008.‘Underlying Cause of Death, All Causes, Australia, 1997-2006 - Justifiable Gun Homicides.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2006.Canberra:Australian Bureau of Statistics,14 March. (Q8361)Full Citation

77.

Australia.2012.‘Manufacture.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,23 March. (Q6494)Full Citation

78.

Australia.2016.‘Marking at Manufacture.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12066)Full Citation

79.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

80.

Australia.2016.‘Contemporary Diversion Methods.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13169)Full Citation

81.

Australia.2016.‘Contemporary Diversion Methods - Illicit Manufacture.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13160)Full Citation

82.

Kerlatec, John.2007.‘Illegal Firearm Trafficking: A NSW Perspective.’ Australian Police Journal.Sydney:NSW Police Firearms & Regulated Industries Crime Squad,1 December. (Q2579)Full Citation

83.

Dawson, Chris.2014.‘New Supply Challenges.’ Australian Crime Commission, Submission No. 75 to Senate Committee: Inquiry into the Ability of Australian Law Enforcement Authorities to Eliminate Gun-Related Violence in the Community.Canberra:Australian Crime Commission,22 August. (Q11591)Full Citation

84.

Australia.2016.‘International Transfers.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12059)Full Citation

85.

Australia.2016.‘Record Keeping [Imports-Exports].’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12057)Full Citation

86.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘Commonwealth Amendments.’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q8898)Full Citation

87.

Arms Trade Treaty Secretariat.2017.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports.’ Arms Trade Treaty Annual Report.Geneva:Arms Trade Treaty Secretariat,1 January. (Q13951)Full Citation

88.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘Illegal Importation.’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q8899)Full Citation

89.

United Nations.2018.‘National Customs Data on Small Arms Exports and Imports - Australia.’ UN Comtrade International Trade Statistics Database.New York NY:United Nations Statistics Division,1 January. (Q13405)Full Citation

90.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

91.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

92.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

93.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

94.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

95.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

96.

Australia.2016.‘Marking at Import.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12061)Full Citation

97.

UN Register of Conventional Arms.2018.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports and Imports.’ UNROCA - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q13952)Full Citation

98.

Alpers, Philip.2016.‘Firearm Imports, Australia: Non-air modern firearms for civilian possession, 1995 to 2015 (Customs).’ Australian Customs and Border Protection - Compilation.Canberra:GunPolicy.org. Sydney School of Public Health,22 April. (Q11799)Full Citation

99.

Australia.2016.‘Commercial Firearm Importations - All Firearms.’ Freedom of Information Act Decision.Canberra:Department of Immigration and Border Protection,18 March. (Q11732)Full Citation

100.

Alpers, Philip.2016.‘Firearm Imports, Australia: Non-air modern firearms for civilian possession, 1988 to 2015 (ABS).’ Australian Bureau of Statistics - Compilation of Customs data.Canberra:GunPolicy.org. Sydney School of Public Health,20 April. (Q11780)Full Citation

101.

Alpers, Philip.2013.‘The Big Melt: How One Democracy Changed after Scrapping a Third of Its Firearms - Importation and Smuggling of Firearms.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6570)Full Citation

102.

Australia.2016.‘Legal Importation of Firearms.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13172)Full Citation

103.

Harding, Richard W.1981.‘Australian Gun Imports, 1974-79.’ Firearms and Violence in Australian Life: an Examination of Gun Ownership and Use in Australia.Nedlands, WA:University of Western Australia Press,1 December. (Q11925)Full Citation

104.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

105.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11068)Full Citation

106.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

107.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

108.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

109.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

110.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

111.

Alpers, Philip.2016.‘Where Do Australian Criminals Get the Majority of Their Illegal Firearms?.’ The Origin of Australian Crime Guns.Sydney:GunPolicy.org / Sydney School of Public Health,14 November. (Q6062)Full Citation

112.

Australia.2016.‘Firearm Diversion - Historical Diversion Methods.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13167)Full Citation

113.

Australia.2016.‘Contemporary Diversion Methods - Theft.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13166)Full Citation

114.

Australia.2016.‘Contemporary Diversion Methods - Illegal Importation.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13161)Full Citation

115.

Australia.2016.‘Illicit Firearms at the Australian Border.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13183)Full Citation

116.

Australia.2016.‘Contemporary Diversion Methods - Failure to Reconcile Transfers.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13170)Full Citation

117.

Dawson, Chris.2014.‘How Firearms Enter the Illicit Market.’ Australian Crime Commission, Submission No. 75 to Senate Committee: Inquiry into the Ability of Australian Law Enforcement Authorities to Eliminate Gun-Related Violence in the Community.Canberra:Australian Crime Commission,22 August. (Q11589)Full Citation

118.

ACC.2015.‘Firearm Trafficking.’ Organised Crime in Australia 2015.Canberra:Australian Crime Commission,1 May. (Q11621)Full Citation

119.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Stockpiles and Trafficking in the Pacific.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,31 March. (Q2078)Full Citation

120.

Australia.2003.‘Customs and Handguns - Frequently Asked Questions.’ Australian Customs Service; Website.Canberra:Australian Customs Service,11 January. (Q2554)Full Citation

121.

Bricknell, Samantha.2008.‘Criminal Use of Handguns in Australia: Conclusion.’ Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,14 October. (Q2555)Full Citation

122.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Stockpiles and Trafficking in the Pacific.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,31 March. (Q2556)Full Citation

123.

Alpers, Philip and Conor Twyford.2003.‘Small Arms in the Pacific: Summary.’ Small Arms in the Pacific.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,31 March. (Q2557)Full Citation

124.

ABC News (Australia). 2003. ‘Minister Blames Theft for Gun Crime Rise.’ 29 December. (N198) Full Citation

125.

Paul Toohey. 2002. ‘States Won't Pay Gun Buyback Bill.’ Australian (Sydney). 6 November. (N199) Full Citation

126.

Australia.2016.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12062)Full Citation

127.

Australia.2016.‘End-user Certificate.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12060)Full Citation

128.

Australia.2003.‘National Small Arms Report.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,5 May. (Q3225)Full Citation

129.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2018.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.’ The 2018 Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 August. (Q13505)Full Citation

130.

Holtom, Paul and Irene Pavesi.2017.‘Australia.’ Trade Update 2017: Out of the Shadows.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 September. (Q13277)Full Citation

131.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

132.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

133.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

134.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

135.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

136.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

137.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

138.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

139.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

140.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

141.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

142.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

143.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

144.

Australia.1996.‘Bans on Specific Types of Firearms.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q982)Full Citation

145.

Australia.2017.‘Opening Statement.’ National Firearms Agreement 2017.Canberra:Council of Australian Governments,1 February. (Q13508)Full Citation

146.

Ellison, Christopher.2002.‘National Firearms Trafficking Policy Agreement.’ National Firearms Trafficking Policy Agreement.Canberra:Parliament of Australia,17 April. (Q13283)Full Citation

147.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘National Handgun Control Agreement (2002).’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q13282)Full Citation

148.

Buchanan, Kelly.2015.‘Relevant Legislation.’ Firearms-Control Legislation and Policy: Australia.Washington DC:Law Library of Congress,30 July. (Q13284)Full Citation

149.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Regulation - Making Power.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2573)Full Citation

150.

New South Wales.1996.‘General Power to Issue Permits.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2497)Full Citation

151.

Tasmania.1996.‘Delegation.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2996)Full Citation

152.

Victoria.1998.‘Issue of Longarm Licences.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2611)Full Citation

153.

Queensland.1990.‘Regulation-making Power.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2698)Full Citation

154.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Delegation.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q3049)Full Citation

155.

South Australia.1977.‘The Registrar.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2882)Full Citation

156.

Western Australia.1973.‘Delegation of Commissioner's Power to Give Licences, Permits and Approvals.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2744)Full Citation

157.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

158.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

159.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Principles and Objects of Act.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2512)Full Citation

160.

New South Wales.1996.‘Principles and Objects of Act.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2510)Full Citation

161.

Queensland.1999.‘Carnes v Essenberg and Ors.’ QCA 339 (1999) and appeals.Brisbane:Queensland Court of Appeal,23 August. (Q4058)Full Citation

162.

Australia.1996.‘Basic Licence Requirements - Licence Categories.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q2582)Full Citation

163.

Australia.2008.‘Small Arms and Light Weapons UN Report.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 July. (Q1735)Full Citation

164.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Prohibited Firearms.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2574)Full Citation

165.

New South Wales.1996.‘Prohibited Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2509)Full Citation

166.

Tasmania.1996.‘Prohibited Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2997)Full Citation

167.

Victoria.1998.‘Longarm Licences for Category A or B Longarms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2649)Full Citation

168.

Queensland.1990.‘How Object is to be Achieved for Firearms.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2672)Full Citation

169.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Prohibited Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2787)Full Citation

170.

South Australia.2008.‘Prescribed Firearms.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2906)Full Citation

171.

Western Australia.1974.‘Prohibited Firearms and Ammunition.’ Firearms Regulations 1974 (Version 07-d0-01, as at 22 July 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,1 July. (Q2835)Full Citation

172.

Queensland.1990.‘Collector's Licence (Weapons).’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2695)Full Citation

173.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Silencers and Machine-guns.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2785)Full Citation

174.

Western Australia.1974.‘Category D Firearms.’ Firearms Regulations 1974 (Version 07-d0-01, as at 22 July 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,1 July. (Q2842)Full Citation

175.

Bricknell, Samantha.2008.‘Criminal Use of Handguns in Australia: Handgun ownership in Australia.’ Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,14 October. (Q1982)Full Citation

176.

Australian Capital Territory.2008.‘Prohibited Pistols, Sport or Target Shooting.’ Firearms Regulation 2008 (SL2008-55, Republication No 13, effective 1 December 2015).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,22 December. (Q2623)Full Citation

177.

New South Wales.1996.‘Licence Categories and Authority Conferred by Licence - Category H.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2484)Full Citation

178.

Tasmania.1996.‘Category H Firearms Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2951)Full Citation

179.

Victoria.1998.‘Issue of Handgun Licences for General Category Handguns.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2616)Full Citation

180.

Queensland.1997.‘Category H Weapon Classes.’ Weapons Categories Regulation 1997 (As in force 19 December 2014).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,14 November. (Q2708)Full Citation

181.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Prescribed Category H Firearms.’ Firearms Regulations 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2822)Full Citation

182.

South Australia.2008.‘Acquisition of Class H Firearms.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2920)Full Citation

183.

Western Australia.1974.‘Restrictions for Category H.’ Firearms Regulations 1974 (Version 07-d0-01, as at 22 July 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,1 July. (Q2847)Full Citation

184.

Australia.1996.‘Basic Licence Requirements.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q976)Full Citation

185.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Licence Categories and Authority Conferred.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2575)Full Citation

186.

New South Wales.1996.‘Offence of Unauthorised Possession or Use of Pistols or Prohibited Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2479)Full Citation

187.

Tasmania.1996.‘Possession or Use of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2943)Full Citation

188.

Queensland.1990.‘Licences.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2677)Full Citation

189.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Possession or Use of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2782)Full Citation

190.

South Australia.1977.‘Possession and Use of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2885)Full Citation

191.

Western Australia.1973.‘Licensing Offences.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2754)Full Citation

192.

Australia.1996.‘Genuine Reason for Owning, Possessing or Using a Firearm.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q969)Full Citation

193.

Australia.1996.‘Genuine Reason for Owning, Possessing or Using a Firearm.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q2581)Full Citation

194.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Adult Firearms Licences - Genuine Reasons to Possess or Use Firearms.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2521)Full Citation

195.

New South Wales.1996.‘Genuine Reasons for Having a Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2489)Full Citation

196.

Tasmania.1996.‘Genuine Reasons.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2960)Full Citation

197.

Victoria.2008.‘Prescribed Purposes for Applying for Longarm and General Category Handgun Licences.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (S.R. No. 22/2008).Melbourne:Department of Justice,8 April. (Q2671)Full Citation

198.

Queensland.1990.‘Genuine Reasons for Possession of a Weapon.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2676)Full Citation

199.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Genuine Reason for Licence.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2764)Full Citation

200.

South Australia.2008.‘Purposes for Which Firearms May be Used.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2908)Full Citation

201.

Australia.1996.‘Genuine Reason for Owning, Possessing or Using a Firearm.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q970)Full Citation

202.

King, Brooke.2009.‘Firearms Controls in Australia.’ Challenges, Constraints and Opportunities in National PoA Implementation by States of the Pacific.Sydney:Firearms Unit, Australian Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department,22 June. (Q1985)Full Citation

203.

Warner, Kate and Simon Sherwood.2006.‘Firearms Legislation in Australia a Decade After the Nationwide Agreement: Summary and comments.’ National Coalition for Gun Control.Hobart:National Coalition for Gun Control,1 July. (Q973)Full Citation

204.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Children Prohibited from Owning Firearms.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2545)Full Citation

205.

New South Wales.1996.‘Minor's Firearms Permits.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2499)Full Citation

206.

Tasmania.1996.‘Application for Minor's Permit.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2971)Full Citation

207.

Victoria.1998.‘Issue of Junior Licences.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2619)Full Citation

208.

Queensland.1990.‘Limitations on Issue of Licence.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2673)Full Citation

209.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Application for Licence.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2761)Full Citation

210.

South Australia.2008.‘Exemption From Requirement to be Licensed.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2917)Full Citation

211.

Western Australia.1973.‘Minimum Age of Licensee or Permit Holder.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2746)Full Citation

212.

Australia.1996.‘Grounds for Licence Refusal or Cancellation and Seizure of Firearms.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q2584)Full Citation

213.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Assessing Suitability of Individuals - Discretionary Criteria.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2514)Full Citation

214.

New South Wales.1996.‘General Restrictions on Issue of Licences.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2487)Full Citation

215.

Tasmania.1996.‘General Restrictions on Granting Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2955)Full Citation

216.

Victoria.1998.‘Definitions.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2608)Full Citation

217.

Queensland.1990.‘Fit and Proper Person - Licensees.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2675)Full Citation

218.

Northern Territory.1997.‘General Restrictions on Grant of Licence.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2762)Full Citation

219.

South Australia.1977.‘Interpretation.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2881)Full Citation

220.

Western Australia.1973.‘Exercise of Commissioner's Discretion.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2748)Full Citation

221.

Australian Capital Territory.2008.‘Shooting Clubs, Conditions of Approval.’ Firearms Regulation 2008 (SL2008-55, Republication No 13, effective 1 December 2015).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,22 December. (Q2664)Full Citation

222.

Victoria.1998.‘Approved Firearms Collectors Clubs - Requirements as to Members and Former Members.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2668)Full Citation

223.

Queensland.1996.‘Category H Weapons - Club Letter Certifying Need for Weapon.’ Weapons Regulation 1996 (As in force on 1 July 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 December. (Q2734)Full Citation

224.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Restriction on Grant of Category H Sports Shooter's Licence.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2763)Full Citation

225.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Adult Firearms Licences - Mandatory Suspension.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2543)Full Citation

226.

New South Wales.1996.‘Suspension of Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2576)Full Citation

227.

Victoria.1998.‘Surrender of Firearms and Licence Document.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2667)Full Citation

228.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Suspension on Making of Interim Domestic Violence Order.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2779)Full Citation

229.

Western Australia.1973.‘Disqualification by Court Imposing Violence Restraining Order.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q3052)Full Citation

230.

Australia.1996.‘Training as a Prerequisite for Licensing.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q2585)Full Citation

231.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Adult Firearms Licences - Refusal.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2518)Full Citation

232.

Tasmania.1996.‘Safety Courses.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2998)Full Citation

233.

Victoria.1998.‘General Discretion of Chief Commissioner to Refuse a Longarm or Handgun Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2618)Full Citation

234.

Queensland.1990.‘Adequate Knowledge of Weapon.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2674)Full Citation

235.

South Australia.2008.‘Training and Examinations.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2913)Full Citation

236.

Western Australia.1973.‘Training Courses.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2747)Full Citation

237.

Australian Capital Territory.2008.‘Adult Licences, Period.’ Firearms Regulation 2008 (SL2008-55, Republication No 13, effective 1 December 2015).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,22 December. (Q2625)Full Citation

238.

New South Wales.2006.‘Term of Licence.’ Firearms Regulation 2006 (2006-512, as at 1 January 2014).Sydney:New South Wales Government,1 September. (Q2587)Full Citation

239.

Tasmania.2006.‘Period of Licences.’ Firearms Regulations 2006 (Regulations as of 4 November 2015).Hobart:Governor of the State of Tasmania,16 October. (Q3002)Full Citation

240.

Victoria.1998.‘Duration of Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2622)Full Citation

241.

Queensland.1990.‘Term of Licence.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2679)Full Citation

242.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Period of Licence.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2766)Full Citation

243.

South Australia.1977.‘Term and Renewal of Licence.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2894)Full Citation

244.

Western Australia.1973.‘Duration and Renewal of Licences.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2745)Full Citation

245.

New South Wales.1996.‘Register of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2500)Full Citation

246.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Contents of Register.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2563)Full Citation

247.

Queensland.1990.‘Commissioner to Maintain Firearms Register.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2684)Full Citation

248.

Victoria.1998.‘Keeping of Register.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2641)Full Citation

249.

Victoria.1998.‘Certificate of Registration.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2642)Full Citation

250.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Register.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2760)Full Citation

251.

Western Australia.1974.‘Register.’ Firearms Regulations 1974 (Version 07-d0-01, as at 22 July 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,1 July. (Q2834)Full Citation

252.

South Australia.1977.‘Registers.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2883)Full Citation

253.

Tasmania.1996.‘Register of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2976)Full Citation

254.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5380)Full Citation

255.

Australia.1996.‘Permit to Acquire.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q2583)Full Citation

256.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Permits to Acquire - Applications.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2560)Full Citation

257.

New South Wales.1996.‘Licence Categories and Authority Conferred by Licence - Category C.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2482)Full Citation

258.

Tasmania.1996.‘Application for Permit to Acquire Firearm.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2968)Full Citation

259.

South Australia.1977.‘Reasons for Refusal of Permit.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q3056)Full Citation

260.

Queensland.1990.‘Limitation on Number of Concealable Firearms Particular Licensees May Acquire.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2699)Full Citation

261.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Firearms Dealer Licence.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2770)Full Citation

262.

Western Australia.1973.‘Genuine Reason Required in All Cases.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2749)Full Citation

263.

Australia.1996.‘Recording of Sales.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q985)Full Citation

264.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Offence - Sale of Ammunition by Licensed Firearms Dealers.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2665)Full Citation

265.

New South Wales.1996.‘Supply, Acquisition and Possession of Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2548)Full Citation

266.

Tasmania.2006.‘Amount of Ammunition.’ Firearms Regulations 2006 (Regulations as of 4 November 2015).Hobart:Governor of the State of Tasmania,16 October. (Q3001)Full Citation

267.

Victoria.1998.‘Possession of Cartridge Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q3055)Full Citation

268.

Queensland.1996.‘Prohibition on Possession of Particular Magazines - Category H Weapons.’ Weapons Regulation 1996 (As in force on 1 July 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 December. (Q2741)Full Citation

269.

Northern Territory.1997.‘General Conditions of Licence.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2765)Full Citation

270.

South Australia.2008.‘Limit on Quantity of Ammunition.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2922)Full Citation

271.

Australia.1996.‘Effective Nationwide Registration of All Firearms.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q995)Full Citation

272.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Register of Firearms.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2562)Full Citation

273.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Offence - Inspection of Records.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2568)Full Citation

274.

New South Wales.1996.‘Recording of Transactions.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2550)Full Citation

275.

Tasmania.1996.‘Record of Dealings.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2988)Full Citation

276.

Victoria.1998.‘Requirement to Keep Register of Transactions.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2640)Full Citation

277.

Queensland.1990.‘Licensed Dealers and Armourers to Keep Register.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2693)Full Citation

278.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Records and Returns to be Kept by Dealers.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2772)Full Citation

279.

South Australia.1977.‘Records.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2893)Full Citation

280.

Western Australia.1973.‘Records.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2756)Full Citation

281.

Australia.2012.‘Record-keeping by Manufacturers.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,23 March. (Q6496)Full Citation

282.

Australia.2008.‘Accounting for Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 July. (Q1739)Full Citation

283.

Australia.2008.‘Accounting for Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 July. (Q1738)Full Citation

284.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Offence - Unlawful Acquisition of Firearms.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2569)Full Citation

285.

New South Wales.1996.‘Restrictions on Supply of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2546)Full Citation

286.

Tasmania.1996.‘Sale and Possession of Ammunition.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2990)Full Citation

287.

Victoria.1998.‘Prohibition on Acquisition of Firearm Except from Licensed Firearms Dealer.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2663)Full Citation

288.

Queensland.1990.‘Acquisition of Weapons.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2680)Full Citation

289.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Sale of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2781)Full Citation

290.

South Australia.1977.‘Obligations of Prescribed Person.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2890)Full Citation

291.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Offence - Firearms Dealers to be Licensed.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2567)Full Citation

292.

New South Wales.1996.‘Licence Categories and Authority Conferred by Licence - Firearms Dealer Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2485)Full Citation

293.

Tasmania.1996.‘Dealing in Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2945)Full Citation

294.

Victoria.1998.‘Issue of Dealers Licences.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2638)Full Citation

295.

Queensland.1990.‘Dealers to be Licensed.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2692)Full Citation

296.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Restrictions on Granting Firearms Dealer Licences.’ Firearms Regulations 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2809)Full Citation

297.

South Australia.1977.‘Requirement for Dealer's Licence.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2891)Full Citation

298.

Western Australia.1973.‘Licences.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2752)Full Citation

299.

New South Wales.1996.‘Permits to Acquire Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2498)Full Citation

300.

Victoria.1998.‘Issue of Permit to Acquire.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2661)Full Citation

301.

Queensland.1996.‘Firearms Licence - Category C Rifle and Category C Shotgun for Occupational Rural Purpose on Rural Land.’ Weapons Regulation 1996 (As in force on 1 July 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 December. (Q2717)Full Citation

302.

Mouzos, Jenny.1999.‘International Traffic in Small Arms: An Australian Perspective.’ Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 February. (Q13194)Full Citation

303.

Mouzos, Jenny.1998.‘Small Arms Dealers.’ CSCAP Working Group on Transnational Crime Small Arms Project: An Australian Perspective.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 October. (Q13195)Full Citation

304.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘When Permits to Acquire May be Issued.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2561)Full Citation

305.

Tasmania.1996.‘Granting Permit.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2972)Full Citation

306.

Victoria.1998.‘Offence to Acquire a Firearm Without a Permit.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2660)Full Citation

307.

Queensland.1996.‘Waiting Period for Decision on Application for Permit to Acquire.’ Weapons Regulation 1996 (As in force on 1 July 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 December. (Q2739)Full Citation

308.

South Australia.1977.‘Application for Permit.’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2888)Full Citation

309.

Western Australia.1973.‘Licensing Procedure.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2753)Full Citation

310.

Australian Capital Territory.2008.‘Arms Fairs, Permits to Conduct.’ Firearms Regulation 2008 (SL2008-55, Republication No 13, effective 1 December 2015).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,22 December. (Q2636)Full Citation

311.

New South Wales.2006.‘Arms Fair Permits.’ Firearms Regulation 2006 (2006-512, as at 1 January 2014).Sydney:New South Wales Government,1 September. (Q2596)Full Citation

312.

Queensland.1990.‘Approval of Arms Fair.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2696)Full Citation

313.

South Australia.2008.‘Exemption for Certain Exhibitors.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2907)Full Citation

314.

Australia.1996.‘Uniform Standard for the Security and Storage of Firearms.’ Special Firearms Meeting - the 'Nationwide Agreement on Firearms'.Canberra:Australasian Police Ministers' Council,10 May. (Q988)Full Citation

315.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Offence - Failing to Comply with Storage Requirements.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2564)Full Citation

316.

New South Wales.1996.‘Safe Keeping of Firearms - General Requirement.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2501)Full Citation

317.

Tasmania.1996.‘General Requirements.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2977)Full Citation

318.

Victoria.1998.‘Storage of Firearms Under Longarm and Handgun Licences.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2644)Full Citation

319.

Queensland.1990.‘Secure Storage of Weapons.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2689)Full Citation

320.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Storage and Safe Keeping Requirements.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2780)Full Citation

321.

South Australia.2008.‘Security of Firearms.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2921)Full Citation

322.

Western Australia.1974.‘Storage Security Requirements.’ Firearms Regulations 1974 (Version 07-d0-01, as at 22 July 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,1 July. (Q2831)Full Citation

323.

Australian Capital Territory.2008.‘Dealer Licences, Restrictions on Issue.’ Firearms Regulation 2008 (SL2008-55, Republication No 13, effective 1 December 2015).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,22 December. (Q2629)Full Citation

324.

New South Wales.1996.‘Conditions of Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2494)Full Citation

325.

Tasmania.1996.‘Firearms Dealer and Museum Licences Requirement.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2987)Full Citation

326.

Victoria.1998.‘Storage of Firearms Under Dealers Licences.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2645)Full Citation

327.

Queensland.1996.‘Storage Measures for Armourers, Dealers, and Theatrical Ordnance Suppliers - Vaults and Safes.’ Weapons Regulation 1996 (As in force on 1 July 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 December. (Q2731)Full Citation

328.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Security Measures Required by Dealer.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2771)Full Citation

329.

South Australia.2008.‘Possession of Firearms by Dealers.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2923)Full Citation

330.

Western Australia.1973.‘Safe Keeping by Traders.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2757)Full Citation

331.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Transport of Firearms and Ammunition.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2570)Full Citation

332.

New South Wales.2006.‘Non-commercial Transportation of Prohibited Firearms and Pistols - Prescribed Safety Requirements.’ Firearms Regulation 2006 (2006-512, as at 1 January 2014).Sydney:New South Wales Government,1 September. (Q2602)Full Citation

333.

Tasmania.2006.‘Safety Requirements for Conveying Other Firearms.’ Firearms Regulations 2006 (Regulations as of 4 November 2015).Hobart:Governor of the State of Tasmania,16 October. (Q3004)Full Citation

334.

Queensland.1996.‘Firearms to be Kept Unloaded Other Than When Being Used to Shoot.’ Weapons Regulation 1996 (As in force on 1 July 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 December. (Q2735)Full Citation

335.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Transporting Firearms.’ Firearms Regulations 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2821)Full Citation

336.

South Australia.2008.‘Transporting of Firearms - Exclusion from Section 35A of Act.’ Firearms Regulations 2008 (Version: 1.7.2015).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,1 September. (Q2927)Full Citation

337.

Dawson, Chris.2014.‘Firearms Tracing.’ Australian Crime Commission, Submission No. 75 to Senate Committee: Inquiry into the Ability of Australian Law Enforcement Authorities to Eliminate Gun-Related Violence in the Community.Canberra:Australian Crime Commission,22 August. (Q11590)Full Citation

338.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘Analysis of the Australian Crime Commission's National Firearm Trace Database.’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q8897)Full Citation

339.

Australia.2016.‘Tracing.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12058)Full Citation

340.

Australia.2016.‘Australian Firearms Information Network.’ CrimTrac Annual Report 2015–2016.Canberra:CrimTrac,27 September. (Q13158)Full Citation

341.

Australia.2016.‘Analysis of Firearms Trace Data.’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13162)Full Citation

342.

Australia.2016.‘The Australian Ballistics Information Network (ABIN).’ Illicit Firearms in Australia.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,21 October. (Q13171)Full Citation

343.

Australia.2017.‘Australian Ballistic Information Network.’ Our Services.Canberra:Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission,31 May. (Q13278)Full Citation

344.

Australia.2014.‘Australian Ballistics Information Network.’ Attorney-General's Department Annual Report 2013-14.Canberra:Attorney-General's Department,20 August. (Q13279)Full Citation

345.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Carriage or Use of Firearm - Improper Manner.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2666)Full Citation

346.

Queensland.1990.‘Particular Conduct Involving a Weapon in a Public Place Prohibited.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2688)Full Citation

347.

Victoria.1998.‘Offences About the Carriage and the Use of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2646)Full Citation

348.

Tasmania.1996.‘Possession of Loaded Firearm in Public Place.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2992)Full Citation

349.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Carrying Firearms in Public Places.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2786)Full Citation

350.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 22 January.
(G93) Full Citation

351.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Offence - Unauthorised Possession or Use of Prohibited Firearms.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2516)Full Citation

352.

Victoria.1998.‘Offence for Non-Prohibited Person to Possess, Carry or Use a Longarm Without a Licence.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2609)Full Citation

353.

Queensland.1990.‘Possession of Weapons.’ Weapons Act 1990 (As in force on 20 November 2015).Brisbane:Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel,19 September. (Q2686)Full Citation

354.

Davies, Megan and Jenny Mouzos.2008.‘Court Outcomes for Firearm Offences in Australia.’ AIC Reports: Technical and Background Paper 31.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,3 December. (Q1983)Full Citation

355.

Alpers, Philip.2013.‘The Big Melt: How One Democracy Changed after Scrapping a Third of Its Firearms - Destruction of Firearms.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6568)Full Citation

356.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘Restricted Firearms.’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q8900)Full Citation

357.

Australia.2017.‘Outcomes - Total Number of Firearms by Category.’ National Firearms Amnesty Report 2017.Canberra:Australian Government,1 December. (Q13280)Full Citation

358.

Australia.2016.‘Collection.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12064)Full Citation

359.

Australia.2014.‘Collection.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q11755)Full Citation

360.

Australia.2012.‘Collection.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,23 March. (Q11754)Full Citation

361.

Australia.2012.‘Confiscation and Seizure.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,28 March. (Q11756)Full Citation

362.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘General Firearm Characteristics.’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q11767)Full Citation

363.

Bricknell, Samantha.2012.‘Firearm type seized from SOCG and non-SOCG.’ Firearm Trafficking and Serious and Organised Crime Gangs.Canberra:Australian Institute of Criminology,1 June. (Q11766)Full Citation

364.

Thomas Chamberlin. 2012. ‘Illegal Firearms a Booming Trade Through International Mail Order Services.’ Courier-Mail (Brisbane). 27 May. (N526) Full Citation

365.

Ellison, Senator Chris; Hudson, Phillip.2004.‘Victoria Leads Way in Gun Buyback.’ The Age.Melbourne, VIC:8 August. (Q11740)Full Citation

366.

Nick Butterly. 2004. ‘Gun Owners Cache In Big.’ Courier-Mail (Brisbane). 9 November. (N534) Full Citation

367.

Alpers, Philip and Amélie Rossetti.2016.‘Australian Firearm Amnesty, Buyback and Destruction Totals.’ Official tallies and media-reported numbers, 1987-2015.Sydney:GunPolicy.org, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney,3 May. (Q11781)Full Citation

368.

Reuter, Peter and Jenny Mouzos, in: Cook, Philip and Jens Ludwig (Eds).2002.‘Australia: A Massive Buyback of Low-Risk Guns.’ In: Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence.Washington, DC:Brookings Institution Press,1 December. (Q3050)Full Citation

369.

Australia.2017.‘Outcomes - Total Number of Firearms by Reason.’ National Firearms Amnesty Report 2017.Canberra:Australian Government,1 December. (Q13281)Full Citation

370.

Australia.2016.‘Destruction.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12063)Full Citation

371.

Australia.2008.‘Destruction of Surplus Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 July. (Q1719)Full Citation

372.

Australian Capital Territory.1996.‘Disposal of Surrendered or Seized Firearms.’ Australian Capital Territory Firearms Act 1996 (A1996-74 - Republication No.45, effective 27 April 2016).Canberra:ACT Parliamentary Counsel,1 January. (Q2572)Full Citation

373.

New South Wales.1996.‘Disposal of Surrendered or Seized Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No 46 (Act Current to 24 November 2015).Sydney:New South Wales Government,28 June. (Q2508)Full Citation

374.

Tasmania.1996.‘Disposal of Surrendered or Seized Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 (Act as at 4 November 2015).Hobart:Legislative Council and House of Assembly,30 August. (Q2995)Full Citation

375.

Victoria.1998.‘Disposal of Forfeited Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1996 No. 66 of 1996 (Version No. 080, as of 1 December 2015).Melbourne:Department of Justice, Victoria,31 January. (Q2647)Full Citation

376.

Northern Territory.1997.‘Storage of Certain Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1997 (Reprint, as in force at 1 May 2016).Darwin:Northern Territory Government,13 March. (Q2825)Full Citation

377.

South Australia.1977.‘Disposal of Forfeited or Surrendered Firearms, etc..’ Firearms Act 1977 (Version: 7.2.2014).Adelaide:Parliament of South Australia,12 May. (Q2901)Full Citation

378.

Western Australia.1973.‘Disposal of Firearms.’ Firearms Act 1973 (Version 05-00-00, reprinted under the Reprints Act 1984 as at 13 February 2015).Perth:State Law Publisher,18 October. (Q2829)Full Citation

379.

SPCPC/OCO.2000.‘Towards a Common Approach to Weapons Control: The 'Nadi Framework'.’ South Pacific Chiefs of Police Conference (SPCPC) and Oceania Customs Organisation (OCO).Nadi, Fiji:Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) Secretariat,10 March. (Q576)Full Citation

380.

Baker, Jean.2000.‘Weapons Control Bill: Explanatory Notes.’ Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.Suva, Fiji:Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat,10 March. (Q577)Full Citation

381.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

382.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

383.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

384.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

385.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

386.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

387.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

388.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

389.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

390.

UNODA.2018.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,23 July. (Q1309)Full Citation

391.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

392.

Australia.2010.‘Small Arms Light Weapons and other Related Programmes - Regional Activities.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1629)Full Citation

393.

Australia.2016.‘Assistance Provided.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,27 April. (Q12065)Full Citation

394.

Australia.2012.‘Assistance Provided.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,23 March. (Q6502)Full Citation

395.

Australia.2010.‘Small Arms Light Weapons and other Related Programmes - Papua New Guinea.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1623)Full Citation

396.

Australia.2010.‘Small Arms Light Weapons and other Related Programmes - Samoa.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1624)Full Citation

397.

Australia.2010.‘Small Arms Light Weapons and other Related Programmes - Solomon Islands.’ National Report of Australia on its Implementation of the United Nations Progr