Citation(s) from the literature library

Aguirre, Katherine, Robert Muggah, Jorge A. Restrepo, and Michael Spagat. 2006 ‘Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business; Chapter 9, p 19. Geneva: Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva. 1 June

Relevant contents

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration

A series of DDR processes have been applied to various rebel groups over the past few decades. In fact, successive Colombian administrations have eagerly pursued DDR since the 1950s, after the relatively positive DDR experience during and after the period known as La Violencia.(51)

There have been nine separate 'collective' DDR programmes with distinct guerrilla groups since the 1970s. Since 1990, some 7,300 ex-guerrillas have been collectively disarmed…(52)

The DDR process in Colombia is exceedingly controversial. In December 2002 most paramilitary groups initiated a ceasefire with the government, albeit one they have not always adhered to on the ground. This led to a suspension of hostilities with the government and paved the way for politically volatile negotiations in 2003. As early as January 2003, the first surrendered weapons were trickling in, many of them of high-quality but with serial numbers erased. By March 2006, more than 22,097 ex-combatants had turned in more than 17,600 weapons (Alto Comisionado para la Paz, 2005)…(55)

[DDR = Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration]


51) La Violencia refers to a period marked by vicious fighting between liberal and conservative party supporters from 1948 to 1952, although lower-level violence continued for some years afterwards. A large disarmament and demobilization programme of the liberal guerrillas and conservative militias coincided with the start of the agreement that put an end to the infighting known as Frente Nacional (1958); the programme was also carried out during the previous military government (1953–57).

52) Guerrilla groups and their numbers are as follows: M-19 (900), PRT (200), EPL (2,000), Movimiento Armado Quintín Lame (157), Comandos Ernesto Rojas (25), CRS (433), Milicias de Medellín (650), Frente Francisco Garnica (150), COAR (200). See, for example, Guáqueta (2005).

55) Of the total number returned, there were 13,333 long-range weapons, 2,460 handguns, 1,161 machine guns and mortars, and 8,550 grenades. At least 2,000,000 rounds of ammunition were also surrendered.

Alto Comisionado para la Paz (High Commissioner for Peace). 2005. Demobilization web page:

ID: Q9980

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