Citation(s) from the GunPolicy.org literature library
Karp, Aaron and Rajesh Rajagopalan. 2014 ‘Total Police Small Arms.’ India Armed Violence Assessment - Small Arms of the Indian State: A Century of Procurement and Production; Issue Brief No. 4, p. 8. Geneva: India Armed Violence Assessment (IAVA) and the Small Arms Survey. 1 January
Total Police Small Arms…
Traditionally, Indian police constables have patrolled unarmed. Even for normal riot control duties, police usually rely on the lathi, a long bamboo truncheon. But firearms usually are available to them. Since independence, police have been armed primarily with military Lee-Enfields, often subsequently converted to .410 muskets (shotguns), considered less lethal for riot control. Officers from the rank of sub-inspector and higher normally were issued a Webley revolver, and more recently a 9 mm Auto pistol. These were the traditional Indian police firearms.(3)
This traditional homogeneity declined with the accelerating modernization of police armament from the mid-1990s. Police arsenals received a wide variety of firearms from a range of producers. Glock handguns, considered ideal for personnel with limited firearms experience, were among the most common additions to state police inventories, but many other types were purchased as well (Swami, 2009)…
3) Author interviews with Indian security service personnel, New Delhi, September 2011.
Swami, Praveen. 2009. 'No Bang in Mumbai Police's New Guns.' The Hindu, 8 April.