Citation(s) from the GunPolicy.org literature library
Wepundi, Manasseh, Eliud Nthiga, Eliud Kabuu, Ryan Murray and Anna Alvazzi del Frate. 2012 ‘Historical and Regional Developments.’ Availability of Small Arms and Perceptions of Security in Kenya: An Assessment; Special Report No. 16, pp. 23-24. Geneva: Small Arms Survey, Kenya National Focal Point on Small Arms and Light Weapons and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. 1 June
Historical and regional developments…
Kenya has been vulnerable to illicit trafficking through the same channels used for legal arms shipments, with Mombasa's port being one of the entry points used by smugglers (HRW, 2002, p. 9). Arms destined for neighbouring countries are recorded to have been diverted, and some of them have been linked to facilitating drug trafficking (Sabala, 2002, p. 38).
Border town centres documented as points of dispersion of small arms to Nairobi include Mandera, Moyale, El Wak, Lokichoggio, and Isiolo, located in the north-eastern and upper eastern regions of Kenya (Sabala, 2002, p. 38; HRW, 2002, p. 11)…
Hence, in general terms, northern Kenya, confronted by the multiple challenges of underdevelopment, interethnic resource-based conflicts, and proximity to war-prone neighbouring countries, has had the highest prevalence of small arms, with the highest estimations put at over 100,000 in 2003 (Wairagu and Ndung'u, 2003, p. 3).
HRW (Human Rights Watch). 2002. Playing with Fire: Weapons Proliferation, Political Violence, and Human Rights in Kenya. New York: HRW.
Sabala, Kizito. 2002. 'The Proliferation, Circulation and Use of Illegal Firearms in Urban Centers: The Case of Nairobi, Kenya.' In Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC). Small Arms in the Horn of Africa: Challenges, Issues and Perspectives. Brief No. 23. Bonn: BICC, pp. 36–41.
Wairagu, Francis and James Ndung'u. 2003. 'The Problem of Small Arms and Initiatives for Combating Their Proliferation, Circulation and Trafficking.' In Intermediate Technology Development Group East Africa (ITDG EA). Peace Bulletin, No. 2. Nairobi: ITDG EA.