Citation(s) from the GunPolicy.org literature library
Sudan Human Security Baseline Assessment. 2012 ‘Changing Rules: State-to-State Transfers [EU Embargo].’ Reaching for the Gun: Arms Flows and Holdings in South Sudan; Sudan Issue Brief No. 19 (Box 1), p. 2. Geneva: Small Arms Survey. 1 April
Box 1 - Changing Rules: State-to-State Transfers
In March 1994, the EU established an embargo prohibiting EU nationals from supplying to Sudan 'weapons designed to kill and their ammunition, weapon platforms, non-weapon platforms and ancillary equipment'. The embargo, strengthened in 2004, also applies to spare parts, repair, maintenance, and transfer of military technology.
Unlike the United Nations embargo, passed in 2004, the EU embargo did not specify what areas or parties of Sudan were off limits to exporters - it thus covered transfers to both state- and non-state actors in all areas of the country, including the South.
The EU arms embargo remains the only legal prohibition on arms sales to South Sudan. Southern secession did not lead the EU to revise export restrictions. In fact, within two weeks of South Sudan's independence, the EU revised the embargo to explicitly include the new country. The list of prohibited articles was also expanded: the new Article 4, in addition to a ban on arms and ammunition sales, prohibits the supply of 'military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment and spare parts'. The supply of nonlethal military equipment is exempt from the ban…
 CEU (1994). In 2004 the embargo was expanded to include brokering, financial, technical, transport, and other military related assistance (CEU 2004a; 2004b); in 2005, it was revised again to implement the UN sanctions on Sudan related to the conflict in Darfur (CEU, 2005)
 UNSC 1591 (2005)
 CEU (2011)