Citation(s) from the GunPolicy.org literature library
Czech Republic. 2020 ‘Marking and Record-keeping.’ National Report of Czech Republic on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA); Section 7, p. 16. New York NY: Permanent Mission of Czech Republic to the United Nations. 1 January
7.1 Does your country take measures to ensure that all SALW in the possession of government armed and security forces for their own use are duly marked? YES
7.1.1. Describe the markings that are applied to government-held stocks.
All the government-held stocks of SALW are duly marked. Weapons bought on the commercial market are marked in conformity with the Protocol in the same way as other weapons introduced to civilian market. These identification data are also used to register weapons stocked by the government. SALW produced for armed forces in the past are marked in conformity with corresponding standards. They always bear a unique marking and a marking of the branch of the government owning these weapons as part of its armaments.
On top of that, other technical approaches to mark SALW can be used for the management of stocks.
7.1.2. When government stocks are transferred to civilians or private companies in your territory, are such stocks marked to indicate that your government transferred the stocks? YES
7.3. In its marking practice, does your country take into account developments in SALW manufacturing, technology and design (e.g. modular weapons, the use of new materials and 3D printing)? YES
These issues are dealt with by the Directive (EU) 2017/853 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2017 amending Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons. Czechia takes active part in the in-depth discussions of the EU on this matter. All adopted measures pertaining to marking are conceived to be applicable to all the weapons, no matter of what is the quality of the weapon and the type of production technology used.
Priority is given to solutions allowing finding out the marking of a weapon during its visual inspection without necessity to make use of special instruments (which would limit the capabilities of the enforcement authorities). Based on the non uniformity in marking of small arms, the European Commission issued the Implementing Directive (EU) 2019/68 of 16 January 2019 establishing technical specifications for the marking of firearms and their essential components under Council Directive 91/477/EEC on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons.
This directive takes account inter alia of the development of modern technologies (namely with respect to the plastic parts of weapons) and actual rules of the International Permanent Commission for testing of firearms (C.I.P.) These rules are in conformity with long established practice in Czechia to mark firearms using identification data. Therefore, although Czechia has not transposed the Commission Implementing Directive into its national law yet, it has been implementing it over a long period.
Here is an example of such a procedure for new materials and technologies used to produce small arms and light weapons (e.g. plastic parts, 3D printing, and so on):
For frames or receivers made from a non-metallic material of a kind specified by the Member State, the marking is applied to a metal plate that is permanently embedded in the material of the frame or receiver in such a way that: (a) the plate cannot be easily or readily removed; and (b) removing the plate would destroy a portion of the frame or receiver.
Member States may also permit the use of other techniques for marking such frames or receivers, provided that those techniques ensure an equivalent level of clarity and permanence for the marking. In determining which non-metallic materials to specify for the purposes of this specification, Member States shall have regard to the extent to which the material may compromise the clarity and permanence of the marking.
7.4. Pursuant to paragraph 31 of the International Tracing Instrument, States will provide the following information, updating it when necessary: a) National marking practices related to markings used to indicate country of manufacture and/or country of import as applicable.
The Czech Republic is a member state of C.I.P. and the applicable marking standards thereof are codified in the national legislative acts: Firearms Act No. 119/2002 Coll., Act No. 156/2000 Coll., on the proof of firearms and ammunition, Decree No. 335/2004 Coll., on implementation of particular provisions of the Act on the proof of firearms and ammunition.
[SALW = Small Arms and Light Weapons]