Citation(s) from the GunPolicy.org literature library
Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual. 2015 ‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World; Chapter 4 (Table 4.1), p. 88. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva. 1 June
Table 4.1: Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012, with Transparency indicators (4)
Category (Top Exporters by value): Value (USD) - Exporters (listed in descending order of value exported).
Tier 1: ≥500 million - 2: United States, Italy.
Tier 2: 100 - 499 million - 11: Germany, Brazil, Austria, South Korea, Russian Federation, China, Belgium, Czech Republic, Turkey, Norway, Japan.
Category (Major Exporters by value): Value (USD) - Exporters (listed in descending order of value exported).
Tier 3: 50 - 99 million - 10: United Kingdom, Spain, Israel, Croatia, Finland, Canada, Switzerland, Mexico, France, Serbia.
Tier 4: 10 - 49 million - 15: Sweden, India, Philippines, Singapore, Portugal, Hungary, Bulgaria, Argentina, Taiwan (5), Cyprus, Romania, Australia, Ukraine, Denmark, Poland.
Transparency Indicators (followed by Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014 scores):
- Level 1 (18.75-25.00): Germany, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Serbia
- Level 2 (12.5-18.5): United States, Italy, Belgium, Czech Republic, Norway, France, Sweden, Portugal, Bulgaria, Denmark, Poland
- Level 3 (6.25-12.25): Brazil, Austria, South Korea, Russian Federation, China, Turkey, Japan, Israel, Canada, Mexico, India, Philipines, Singapore, Hungary, Argentina, Cyprus, Australia, Ukraine
- Level 4 (0.00-6.00): Taiwan
[Small arms = revolvers and self-loading pistols, rifles and carbines, sub-machine guns, assault rifles, and light machine guns; UN Comtrade = United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database; USD = US dollars]
(4) Customs (Comtrade) data used by the Barometer to evaluate exporter transparency is derived not only from exporter submissions, but also from 'mirror' data provided by importing states, weakening, at least in some cases, the tie between Barometer score and the amount of information provided by the state receiving that score. It is also important to note that the Barometer assesses the availability, quantity, and level of detail of exporter information, not its veracity. Finally, the Barometer assesses only countries that are known, or believed, to have exported at least USD 10 million worth of small arms in one or more years since 2001, thus omitting a portion of the global small arms trade.
(5) Although not a UN member, Taiwan can issue a national report on its international small arms transfers. The Small Arms Survey estimates Taiwan's small arms exports using UN Comtrade mirror data - reported imports by destination countries - as compiled by the Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers (NISAT).
Small Arms Survey. 2014. Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014. Sources: Unpublished background paper. Geneva: Small Arms Survey.