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Yemen — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Yemen is 8,000,0001 2 to 11,500,0003

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Yemen is 54.83 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Yemen ranked at No. 104

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Yemen ranked at No. 23

Proportion of Households with Firearms

In Yemen, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be 2008: 612

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Yemen are reported to have 283,1955 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Yemen are reported to have 210,0006 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Yemen, annual homicides by any means total

2009: 9907
2008: 874
2007: 897
2006: 895
2005: 945
2004: 646
2003: 704
2000: 6978
1999: 1,024
1998: 615

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Yemen, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2009: 4.27
2008: 3.97 9
2007: 4.1
2006: 4.2
2005: 4.6
2004: 3.2
2003: 3.6
2000: 3.988
1999: 6.02
1998: 3.70

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Yemen, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law10

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Yemen is reported by Customs to be US$4,93911 (2011)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Yemen, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law12 13 1 14

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Yemen is reported by Customs to be US$5,010 to 655,61611 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Yemen is moderate15 16

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Yemen is categorised as permissive17

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Yemen includes the Law Regulating Carrying Firearms, Ammunitions & their Trade 199218 14 and the Executive Regulation of Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions & their Trade19

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Yemen are regulated by the Prime Minister and his Ministers20

Right to Possess Firearms

In Yemen, the right to private gun ownership is guaranteed by law21 22

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Yemen, private possession of fully automatic weapons is permitted under licence23 24 25

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Yemen, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence23 24 25

Regulation of Handguns

In Yemen, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence23 24 25

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Yemen, unlicensed, non-prohibited persons of minimum age22 26 27 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Yemen are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, employment requirements, personal protection26 21

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Yemen is 18 years28

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Yemen must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental and addiction28 29 30 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Yemen, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required23 24

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Yemen does not stipulate23 24 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Yemen, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is not required23 24 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Yemen gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every three years31

Licensing Records

In Yemen, authorities maintain a record25 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Yemen are permitted to possess 1 firearm32

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Yemen are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition23 24

Firearm Registration

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Yemen, licensed firearm dealers are required33 34 25 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Yemen, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted35

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Yemen, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful36 37 38

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Yemen, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined23 24

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Yemen, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated23 24 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Yemen do not include23 24 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Yemen include39 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Yemen do not include23 24 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Yemen do not include23 24 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Yemen, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit40

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Yemen, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit40

Gun Free Zones

In Yemen, private guns are prohibited in secret balloting, referendums, demonstrations, parades, official celebrations, sports and youth festivals and within official departments41

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Yemen, the maximum penalty for illicit firearm possession is 1 year prison and/or a fine42

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Yemen are known to have43 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Yemen, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be US$30 million worth of arms (since 2001)43 and 293,00044 (2007)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Yemen, it is state policy43 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

League of Arab States

As a member of the League of Arab States, Yemen adopted the Arab Model Law on Weapons, Ammunitions, Explosives and Hazardous Material in January 200245

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed46 by Yemen.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed47 by Yemen

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed48 by Yemen

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Yemen committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects49

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Yemen has submitted one or more national reports50 10 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Yemen, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has not been designated10

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Yemen submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent10

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated10 by Yemen to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Yemen has not declared51 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Yemen has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194752

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list53 Yemen as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Yemen, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Yemen ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Yemen.2010.‘Measures Taken by the Government.’ National Report of Yemen on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Yemen to the United Nations,20 January. (Q2461)Full Citation

2.

Hales, Gavin, Robert Muggah and Emile LeBrun.2010.‘Civilian Access to Arms.’ Fault Lines - Tracking Armed Violence in Yemen.Geneva:Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva),1 May. (Q8445)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 1 - Estimated Law Enforcement Firearms in 20 Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6544)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Yemen.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6287)Full Citation

8.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

9.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Middle East and North Africa, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3813)Full Citation

10.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

11.

Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

12.

Yemen.1992.‘Trade in Arms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2352)Full Citation

13.

Yemen.1994.‘Trade in Arms.’ Republican Decree No (1) of 1994 of the Executive Regulation of Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions & Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,29 January. (Q2363)Full Citation

14.

Yemen.2006.‘National Report – 2006.’ National Report of Yemen on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Yemen to the United Nations,1 January. (Q2465)Full Citation

15.

Yemen.2010.‘Measures Taken by the Government.’ National Report of Yemen on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Yemen to the United Nations,20 January. (Q2463)Full Citation

16.

Yemen.2006.‘National Report – 2006.’ National Report of Yemen on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Yemen to the United Nations,1 January. (Q2464)Full Citation

17.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

18.

Yemen.1992.‘Names, Definitions and General Provisions.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2359)Full Citation

19.

Yemen.1994.‘Names and Definitions.’ Republican Decree No (1) of 1994 of the Executive Regulation of Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions & their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,29 January. (Q2360)Full Citation

20.

Yemen.1992.‘Final Provisions.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2358)Full Citation

21.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2344)Full Citation

22.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5387)Full Citation

23.

Yemen.1992.‘Names, Definitions and General Provisions.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q4169)Full Citation

24.

Yemen.1994.‘Names and Definitions.’ Republican Decree No (1) of 1994 of the Executive Regulation of Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms and Ammunitions and their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,29 January. (Q4170)Full Citation

25.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5379)Full Citation

26.

Yemen.1994.‘Regulating Carrying Firearms.’ Republican Decree No (1) of 1994 of the Executive Regulation of Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions & Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,29 January. (Q2362)Full Citation

27.

Yemen.1994.‘Regulating Carrying Firearms.’ Republican Decree No (1) of 1994 of the Executive Regulation of Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions & Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,29 January. (Q2361)Full Citation

28.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2350)Full Citation

29.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5383)Full Citation

30.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5384)Full Citation

31.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2349)Full Citation

32.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2347)Full Citation

33.

Yemen.1992.‘Trade in Arms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2354)Full Citation

34.

Yemen.1992.‘Trade in Arms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2355)Full Citation

35.

Yemen.1992.‘Trade in Arms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2353)Full Citation

36.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms and Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2365)Full Citation

37.

Yemen.1994.‘Trade in Arms.’ Republican Decree No (1) of 1994 of the Executive Regulation of Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms and Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,29 January. (Q2364)Full Citation

38.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2346)Full Citation

39.

Yemen.1992.‘Trade in Arms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2356)Full Citation

40.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2345)Full Citation

41.

Yemen.1992.‘Holding, Carrying and Trading in Firearms.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2351)Full Citation

42.

Yemen.1992.‘Penalties.’ Law No (40) of 1992 on Regulating Carrying Firearms & Ammunitions and Their Trade.Sana'a:Ministry of Interior, General Department of Legal Affairs. Translation commissioned by the Yemen Armed Violence Assessment / YAVA,30 May. (Q2357)Full Citation

43.

Yemen.2010.‘Measures Taken by the Government.’ National Report of Yemen on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Yemen to the United Nations,20 January. (Q2462)Full Citation

44.

United Press International. 2009. ‘Gun Ban in Yemen Ineffective.’ 5 August. (N204) Full Citation

45.

League of Arab States / UNODA.2002.‘Arab Model Law on Weapons, Ammunitions, Explosives and Hazardous Material.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York:Council of the League of Arab States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,1 January. (Q3215)Full Citation

46.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

47.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

48.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

49.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

50.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

51.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

52.

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53.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation