Find Gun Policy Facts

Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

United States — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

Federal firearm legislation is limited (below). Many municipalities and all states regulate gun use with their own local law (Go To).

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in the United States is 270,000,0001 to 310,000,0002 3

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in the United States is 101.052 4 1 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In the United States, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 110,000,0002

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In the United States, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 86,000,0002

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 114,000,0002 handguns in civilian possession in the United States

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, the United States ranked at No. 15

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, the United States ranked at No. 11

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2014: 31.0%6
2013: 37%7
2012: 33.1%6 7 8 9
2010: 31.1%
2008: 34.0%
2006: 33.1%
2004: 34.7%
2002: 33.5%
2000: 32.4%
1998: 34.8%
1996: 40.1%
1994: 40.6%
1993: 42.0%
1991: 39.6%
1990: 42.2%
1989: 46.0%
1988: 39.8%
1987: 46.0%
1985: 44.2%
1984: 44.9%
1982: 45.3%
1980: 47.3%
1977: 50.4%
1976: 46.5%
1974: 46.1%
1973: 47.0%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

2012: 20.5%10
2010: 19.4%
2008: 25.2%
2006: 20.4%
2004: 21.0%
2002: 22.2%
2000: 21.6%
1998: 22.5%
1996: 25.8%
1994: 27.3%
1993: 25.7%
1991: 27.8%
1990: 27.8%
1989: 29.6%
1988: 27.3%
1987: 30.0%
1985: 31.4%
1984: 29.6%
1982: 32.5%
1980: 31.2%
1977: 33.5%
1976: 30.5%
1974: 28.4%
1973: 30.8%

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

2012: 21.4%11
2010: 19.7%
2008: 25.4%
2006: 20.3%
2004: 20.0%
2002: 23.2%
2000: 20.0%
1998: 22.1%
1996: 27.2%
1994: 27.1%
1993: 29.7%
1991: 29.0%
1990: 28.6%
1989: 30.6%
1988: 26.4%
1987: 30.9%
1985: 30.3%
1984: 28.7%
1982: 32.7%
1980: 33.0%
1977: 34.8%
1976: 30.5%
1974: 29.0%
1973: 29.0%

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2012: 21.9%12
2010: 19.6%
2008: 26.2%
2006: 20.0%
2004: 20.7%
2002: 21.0%
2000: 20.5%
1998: 20.5%
1996: 23.7%
1994: 26.2%
1993: 26.1%
1991: 22.1%
1990: 24.9%
1989: 26.8%
1988: 24.4%
1987: 26.1%
1985: 24.1%
1984: 21.4%
1982: 22.9%
1980: 24.9%
1977: 21.3%
1976: 22.2%
1974: 20.3%
1973: 20.3%

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of the United States are reported to have 2,700,00013 14 firearms

Routine Arming of Police

In the United States, police officers on routine patrol carry one or more firearms15 16 17 18

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in the United States are reported to have 1,150,00019 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2014: 33,59920
2013: 33,636
2012: 33,563
2011: 32,35120 21
2010: 31,67220
2009: 31,347
2008: 31,593
2007: 31,224
2006: 30,896
2005: 30,694
2004: 29,569
2003: 30,136
2002: 30,242
2001: 29,573
2000: 28,663
1999: 28,874

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 10.5420
2013: 10.63
2012: 10.69
2011: 10.3820 21
2010: 10.2620
2009: 10.22
2008: 10.39
2007: 10.37
2006: 10.35
2005: 10.39
2004: 10.10
2003: 10.39
2002: 10.51
2001: 10.38
2000: 10.19
1999: 10.35

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual homicides by any means total

2014: 15,80920
2013: 16,121
2012: 16,68820 22
2011: 16,23820 21 22 23 24
2010: 16,25920 25 26 22 23
2009: 16,799
2008: 17,826
2007: 18,361
2006: 18,573
2005: 18,124
2004: 17,357
2003: 17,732
2002: 17,638
2001: 20,308
2000: 16,765
1999: 16,88920 27 23
1998: 14,27627 23
1997: 18,20828 23
1996: 19,645
1995: 21,606

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 4.9620
2013: 5.09
2012: 5.3120 22
2011: 5.2120 21 22 23 24
2010: 5.2720 25 22 23
2009: 5.4820 25 26 22 23
2008: 5.86
2007: 6.10
2006: 6.22
2005: 6.13
2004: 5.93
2003: 6.11
2002: 6.13
2001: 7.13
2000: 5.96
1999: 6.0520 27 23
1998: 5.1927 23
1997: 6.723
1996: 7.3
1995: 8.1
1993: 9.9329

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, annual firearm homicides total

2014: 10,94520
2013: 11,208
2012: 11,62220 22
2011: 11,06820 21 30 22
2010: 11,07820 30 22 23 31
2009: 11,493
2008: 12,179
2007: 12,632
2006: 12,79120 23 31
2005: 12,35220 22 23 31
2004: 11,62420 23 31
2003: 11,920
2002: 11,82920 32 31
2001: 11,348
2000: 10,80120
1999: 10,82820 27
1998: 9,25727

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 3.4320
2013: 3.54
2012: 3.7020 4
2011: 3.5520 21
2010: 3.5920 23 31
2009: 3.7520 26 23 31
2008: 4.01
2007: 4.19
2006: 4.29
2005: 4.18
2004: 3.97
2003: 4.11
2002: 4.1120 32 31
2001: 3.98
2000: 3.8420
1999: 3.8820 27
1998: 3.3727
1993: 7.0733

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn the United States, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 60%22
2011: 69.6%34 22 24 35
2010: 68.1%34 22
2009: 68.4%
2008: 68.3%
2007: 68.8%
2006: 68.9%
2005: 68.2%
2004: 67.0%34
2003: 67.2%
2002: 67.1%
2001: 55.9%
2000: 64.4%
1999: 64.1%
1998: 65.9%
1997: 68.0%
1996: 68.0%
1995: 69.0%
1994: 71.4%
1993: 71.2%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, according to figures36 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), annual handgun homicides total

2014: 5,56230 37
2013: 5,782
2012: 6,404
2011: 6,251
2010: 6,115
2009: 6,501
2008: 6,800
2007: 7,398
2006: 7,836
2005: 7,565
2004: 7,286
2003: 7,745
2002: 7,294
2001: 6,931
2000: 6,778
1999: 6,658

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, according to figures38 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.744 37
2013: 1.83
2012: 2.04
2011: 2.01
2010: 1.98
2009: 2.12
2008: 2.24
2007: 2.46
2006: 2.63
2005: 2.56
2004: 2.49
2003: 2.67
2002: 2.54
2001: 2.43
2000: 2.40
1999: 2.39

Handgun Homicides (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),36 annual handgun homicides total

2014: 78539 37
2013: 853
2012: 872
2011: 843
2010: 899
2009: 1,013
2008: 961
2007: 976
2006: 997
2005: 1,074
2004: 1,011
2003: 1,011
2002: 1,024
2001: 1,014
2000: 1,068
1999: 1,082

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),38 the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.2539 37
2013: 0.27
2012: 0.28
2011: 0.27
2010: 0.29
2009: 0.33
2008: 0.32
2007: 0.32
2006: 0.33
2005: 0.36
2004: 0.35
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.36
2001: 0.36
2000: 0.38
1999: 0.39

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, according to figures40 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), annual long gun homicides total

2014: 51030 37
2013: 593
2012: 608
2011: 694
2010: 733
2009: 774
2008: 822
2007: 910
2006: 928
2005: 967
2004: 910
2003: 846
2002: 974
2001: 897
2000: 896
1999: 931

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, according to figures41 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.164 37
2013: 0.19
2012: 0.19
2011: 0.22
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.25
2008: 0.27
2007: 0.30
2006: 0.31
2005: 0.33
2004: 0.31
2003: 0.29
2002: 0.34
2001: 0.31
2000: 0.32
1999: 0.33

Long Gun Homicides (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures40 from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),40 annual long gun homicides total

2014: 45442 37
2013: 495
2012: 489
2011: 543
2010: 576
2009: 640
2008: 664
2007: 682
2006: 768
2005: 765
2004: 714
2003: 687
2002: 744
2001: 758
2000: 694
1999: 693

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),41 the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1442 37
2013: 0.16
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.17
2010: 0.19
2009: 0.21
2008: 0.22
2007: 0.23
2006: 0.26
2005: 0.26
2004: 0.24
2003: 0.24
2002: 0.26
2001: 0.27
2000: 0.25
1999: 0.25

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures43 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), annual firearm homicides (other) total

2014: 2,05230 37
2013: 2,079
2012: 1,885
2011: 1,708
2010: 2,026
2009: 1,924
2008: 1,906
2007: 1,821
2006: 1,461
2005: 1,626
2004: 1,189
2003: 1,068
2002: 1,260
2001: 1,062
2000: 987
1999: 891

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, according to figures44 from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the annual rate of firearm homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.644 37
2013: 0.66
2012: 0.60
2011: 0.55
2010: 0.65
2009: 0.63
2008: 0.63
2007: 0.60
2006: 0.49
2005: 0.55
2004: 0.41
2003: 0.37
2002: 0.44
2001: 0.37
2000: 0.35
1999: 0.32

Gun Homicides (Other) (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures43 from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), annual firearm homicides (other) total

2014: 9,70645 37
2013: 9,859
2012: 10,261
2011: 9,682
2010: 9,603
2009: 9,840
2008: 10,554
2007: 10,974
2006: 11,026
2005: 10,513
2004: 9,899
2003: 10,222
2002: 10,061
2001: 9,576
2000: 9,039
1999: 9,053

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the United States, according to figures44 from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the annual rate of firearm homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 3.0445 37
2013: 3.12
2012: 3.27
2011: 3.11
2010: 3.11
2009: 3.21
2008: 3.47
2007: 3.64
2006: 3.70
2005: 3.56
2004: 3.38
2003: 3.52
2002: 3.50
2001: 3.36
2000: 3.21
1999: 3.24

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the United States, annual suicides by any means total

2014: 42,77320
2013: 41,149
2012: 40,600
2011: 39,51820 21
2010: 38,36420
2009: 36,909
2008: 36,03520 46
2007: 34,598
2006: 33,300
2005: 32,63720 47 46
2004: 32,43920 46
2003: 31,484
2002: 31,655
2001: 30,62220 48 46
2000: 29,35020 46
1999: 29,19920

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2014: 13.4120
2013: 13.00
2012: 12.93
2011: 12.6820 21
2010: 12.4320
2009: 12.03
2008: 11.8520 47 46
2007: 11.4920 46
2006: 11.16
2005: 11.0420 47 46
2004: 11.0820 46
2003: 10.8520 49 46
2002: 11.0120 46
2001: 10.7520 48 46
2000: 10.4320 46
1999: 10.4620
1993: 12.0650

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the United States, annual firearm suicides total

2014: 21,33420
2013: 21,175
2012: 20,666
2011: 19,99020 21
2010: 19,39220
2009: 18,735
2008: 18,223
2007: 17,352
2006: 16,883
2005: 17,00220 51
2004: 16,75020
2003: 16,907
2002: 17,108
2001: 16,86920 48
2000: 16,58620
1999: 16,599

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 6.6920
2013: 6.69
2012: 6.58
2011: 6.4220 21
2010: 6.2820
2009: 6.11
2008: 5.99
2007: 5.76
2006: 5.66
2005: 5.7520 4
2004: 5.7220
2003: 5.83
2002: 5.95
2001: 5.9220 48
2000: 5.8920
1999: 5.95
1993: 7.3552

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn the United States, annual handgun suicides total

2014: 5,38553
2013: 5,388
2012: 5,079
2011: 4,806
2010: 4,603
2009: 4,474
2008: 4,119
2007: 3,801
2006: 3,655
2005: 3,654
2004: 3,609
2003: 3,672
2002: 3,597
2001: 3,489
2000: 3,520
1999: 3,476

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 1.6953
2013: 1.70
2012: 1.62
2011: 1.54
2010: 1.49
2009: 1.46
2008: 1.35
2007: 1.26
2006: 1.22
2005: 1.24
2004: 1.23
2003: 1.27
2002: 1.25
2001: 1.22
2000: 1.25
1999: 1.25

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn the United States, the number of long gun suicides is

2014: 3,03454
2013: 3,025
2012: 3,012
2011: 2,961
2010: 2,957
2009: 2,924
2008: 2,952
2007: 2,758
2006: 2,758
2005: 2,915
2004: 2,798
2003: 2,668
2002: 2,908
2001: 2,814
2000: 2,684
1999: 2,776

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.9554
2013: 0.96
2012: 0.96
2011: 0.95
2010: 0.96
2009: 0.95
2008: 0.97
2007: 0.92
2006: 0.92
2005: 0.99
2004: 0.96
2003: 0.92
2002: 1.01
2001: 0.99
2000: 0.95
1999: 0.99

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn the United States, annual gun suicides (other) total

2014: 12,91555
2013: 12,762
2012: 12,575
2011: 12,223
2010: 11,832
2009: 11,337
2008: 11,152
2007: 10,793
2006: 10,470
2005: 10,433
2004: 10,343
2003: 10,567
2002: 10,603
2001: 10,566
2000: 10,382
1999: 10,347

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 4.0555
2013: 4.04
2012: 4.01
2011: 3.92
2010: 3.83
2009: 3.73
2008: 3.67
2007: 3.58
2006: 3.51
2005: 3.53
2004: 3.53
2003: 3.64
2002: 3.69
2001: 3.71
2000: 3.69
1999: 3.71

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2014: 58620
2013: 505
2012: 548
2011: 59120 21
2010: 60620
2009: 554
2008: 592
2007: 613
2006: 642
2005: 78920 51
2004: 64920
2003: 730
2002: 762
2001: 80220 48
2000: 77620
1999: 824

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1820
2013: 0.16
2012: 0.17
2011: 0.1920 21
2010: 0.2020
2009: 0.18
2008: 0.19
2007: 0.20
2006: 0.22
2005: 0.2720 4
2004: 0.2220
2003: 0.25
2002: 0.26
2001: 0.2820 48
2000: 0.2820
1999: 0.30
1993: 0.5956

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2014: 9657
2013: 79
2012: 69
2011: 68
2010: 91
2009: 81
2008: 89
2007: 90
2006: 107
2005: 107
2004: 93
2003: 83
2002: 108
2001: 108
2000: 120
1999: 130

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0357
2013: 0.02
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.02
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.04
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.03
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.04
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.05

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2014: 6558
2013: 81
2012: 67
2011: 98
2010: 83
2009: 98
2008: 101
2007: 92
2006: 73
2005: 104
2004: 95
2003: 105
2002: 119
2001: 148
2000: 131
1999: 112

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0258
2013: 0.03
2012: 0.02
2011: 0.03
2010: 0.03
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.03
2006: 0.02
2005: 0.04
2004: 0.03
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.04
2001: 0.05
2000: 0.05
1999: 0.04

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the United States, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2014: 42559
2013: 345
2012: 412
2011: 425
2010: 432
2009: 375
2008: 402
2007: 431
2006: 462
2005: 578
2004: 461
2003: 542
2002: 535
2001: 546
2000: 525
1999: 582

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.1359
2013: 0.11
2012: 0.13
2011: 0.14
2010: 0.14
2009: 0.12
2008: 0.13
2007: 0.14
2006: 0.15
2005: 0.20
2004: 0.16
2003: 0.19
2002: 0.19
2001: 0.19
2000: 0.19
1999: 0.21

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 27020
2013: 281
2012: 256
2011: 24820 21
2010: 25220
2009: 232
2008: 273
2007: 276
2006: 220
2005: 221
2004: 235
2003: 232
2002: 243
2001: 23120 48
2000: 23020
1999: 324

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0820
2013: 0.09
2012: 0.08
2011: 0.0820 21
2010: 0.0820
2009: 0.08
2008: 0.09
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.07
2005: 0.07
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.0820 49
2002: 0.0820
2001: 0.0820 48
2000: 0.0820
1999: 0.12
1993: 0.2260

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 3961
2013: 33
2012: 32
2011: 33
2010: 37
2009: 29
2008: 32
2007: 39
2006: 26
2005: 27
2004: 31
2003: 47
2002: 33
2001: 36
2000: 40
1999: 70

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0161
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.02
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 2262
2013: 31
2012: 23
2011: 25
2010: 23
2009: 24
2008: 31
2007: 24
2006: 23
2005: 31
2004: 21
2003: 26
2002: 27
2001: 21
2000: 24
1999: 33

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0162
2013: 0.01
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.01
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the United States, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2014: 20963
2013: 217
2012: 201
2011: 190
2010: 192
2009: 179
2008: 210
2007: 213
2006: 171
2005: 163
2004: 183
2003: 159
2002: 183
2001: 174
2000: 166
1999: 221

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2014: 0.0763
2013: 0.07
2012: 0.06
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.06
2009: 0.06
2008: 0.07
2007: 0.07
2006: 0.06
2005: 0.06
2004: 0.06
2003: 0.05
2002: 0.06
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.06
1999: 0.08

Justifiable Gun Homicides

ChartIn the United States, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2013: 68164 65
2012: 686
2011: 610
2010: 632
2009: 629
2008: 592
2007: 597
2006: 578
2005: 53566
2004: 587
2003: 616
2002: 574
2001: 599
2000: 473
1999: 500
1998: 563
1997: 646
1996: 617
1995: 657

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

ChartIn the United States, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries67 is

2013: 84,25868
2012: 81,396
2011: 73,88368 69
2010: 73,50568 70 69
2009: 66,76968 71 69
2008: 78,62268 69
2007: 69,863
2006: 71,417
2005: 69,825
2004: 64,389
2003: 65,834
2002: 58,841
2001: 63,012

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

ChartIn the United States, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury67 per 100,000 population is

2013: 26.6568
2012: 25.93
2011: 23.7168
2010: 23.8168 4
2009: 21.76
2008: 25.8568
2007: 23.19
2006: 23.93
2005: 23.63
2004: 21.99
2003: 22.69
2002: 20.46
2001: 22.11

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In the United States, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence72 73 74 75 76

Number of Small Arms Manufactured

ChartThe reported annual number of small arms manufactured in the United States is

2010: 5,459,24077 78
2009: 5,555,81877 79 78
2008: 4,498,94477 78
2007: 3,922,61377 79 78
2006: 3,653,32477 78
2005: 3,241,494
2004: 3,099,025
2003: 3,308,404
2002: 3,366,895
2001: 2,932,65577 79 78
2000: 3,793,54177 78
1999: 4,047,747
1998: 3,713,590
1997: 3,593,504
1996: 3,854,439
1995: 4,316,342
1994: 5,173,217
1993: 5,055,637
1992: 4,175,836
1991: 3,563,106
1990: 3,959,968
1989: 4,418,393
1988: 3,963,877
1987: 3,559,663
1986: 3,040,934

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, the United States was ranked 'major'80 81

Home-made Guns

In the United States, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be low82

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In the United States, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law83 84

Firearm Exports (Number) - Manufacturers

ChartThe annual number of firearms exported from the United States is reported by manufacturers to be

2010: 241,97785
2009: 194,744
2008: 228,488
2007: 204,782
2006: 367,521
2005: 194,682
2004: 139,920
2003: 141,912
2002: 150,756
2001: 172,611
2000: 172,627
1999: 220,318
1998: 203,344
1997: 275,081
1996: 331,997
1995: 424,221
1994: 404,473
1993: 431,204
1992: 403,791
1991: 401,165
1990: 361,625
1989: 261,282
1988: 257,182
1987: 288,045
1986: 217,448

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from the United States is reported by Customs to be US$844,462,43586 (2011)87 88 89 90 91

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, the United States was categorized as 'major'92 93 94 95 91 96

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In the United States, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law83 84 74 73 97 98

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to the United States is reported by Customs to be US$1,390,792,76186 (2011)99 92 100 101 94 102 103 104

Firearm Imports (Number) - Customs

ChartThe annual number of firearms imported to the United States is reported to be

2011: 3,252,404105
2010: 2,839,947
2009: 3,607,106105 79
2008: 2,606,386105
2007: 2,743,993105 79
2006: 2,432,522105
2005: 2,106,675
2004: 1,910,859
2003: 1,466,502
2002: 1,629,237
2001: 1,366,896105 79
2000: 1,096,782105
1999: 891,799
1998: 999,810
1997: 939,415
1996: 881,578
1995: 1,103,404
1994: 1,880,902
1993: 3,043,321
1992: 2,846,710
1991: 720,657
1990: 843,809
1989: 1,007,781
1988: 1,276,268
1987: 1,063,513
1986: 701,000

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in the United States is low106 107 108 109

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In the United States, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law110 84

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in the United States include111 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, the United States scored

2014: 15.75112
2013: 15.00113
2012: 15.00114
2011: 16.25115
2010: 16.25116
2009: 16.25117
2008: 16.50118
2007: 16.50119
2006: 16.75120
2005: 16.25121
2004: 16.50122

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the United States is categorised as permissive123

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the United States includes the National Firearms Act of 1934,124 the Gun Control Act 1968125 as amended124 and the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act 1993.75 124 This is Federal legislation only, each US state and territory enacts its own gun law

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the United States are regulated by the federal, state, and local authorities125

Right to Possess Firearms

In the United States, the right to private gun ownership is conditionally guaranteed by the US Constitution,126 as limited by federal law.127 128 For similar local rights, see each state.

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the United States, civilians are not allowed to possess machine-guns, sawn-off shotguns and rifles, silencers, and armour-piercing ammunition without appropriate registration129 130 131

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the United States, private possession of fully automatic weapons is permitted subject to federal licensing and registration130 131 24

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the United States, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted without a licence in almost all jurisdictions132

Regulation of Handguns

In the United States, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted without a licence in almost all jurisdictions130 75 24

Law Regulates Long Guns

In the United States, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law130 24

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the United States, non-prohibited persons of minimum age133 134 24 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the United States is regulated by state or local authorities according to weapon type, but is 18 years to purchase shotguns and rifles, or 21 years to purchase all other firearms, according to Federal law135 136 137

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the United States stipulates138 139 134 that firearm possession should be denied or guns seized

Licensing Records

In the United States, authorities do not maintain a record140 of individual civilians permitted to acquire, possess, carry, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the United States, the law does not require141 140 97 142 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the United States, licensed firearm dealers are required143 144 97 142 145 84 146 73 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In the United States, licensed gun makers are required143 97 142 84 146 73 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In the United States, State agencies are required147 148 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the United States, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted149 72 134

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the United States, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful72 73 134

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in the United States is not obliged149 133 150 151 134 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks for Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in the United States is obliged152 153 154 155 156 157 73 134 158 75 76 159 160 161 24 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

ChartThe number of licensed firearm dealers in the United States is reported to be

2011: 123,587162
2010: 118,487
2009: 115,395
2008: 112,943
2007: 108,933
2006: 107,316
2005: 106,432
2004: 106,214
2003: 104,105
2002: 103,411
2001: 102,913
2000: 103,157
1999: 103,942
1998: 105,536
1997: 107,554
1996: 135,794
1995: 191,495
1994: 250,833
1993: 283,925
1992: 284,117
1991: 276,116
1990: 269,079
1989: 264,063
1988: 272,953
1987: 262,022
1986: 267,166
1985: 248,794
1984: 222,443
1983: 230,613
1982: 211,918
1981: 190,296
1980: 174,619
1979: 171,216
1978: 169,052
1977: 173,484
1976: 165,697
1975: 161,927

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In the United States, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined152 76

Regulation of Gun Shows

In the United States, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are regulated163 164 151 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in the United States include165 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by non-disqualified individuals

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in the United States include148 166 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the United States include167 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the United States, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law74 146 147 168

Firearm Tracing

In the United States, state authorities carry out146 147 169 107 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the United States, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed with or without a permit depending on the jurisdiction, and prohibited in others125 24

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the United States, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed with or without a permit depending on the jurisdiction, and prohibited in others125 24

Exempting Hidden Handgun Permit Holders from Background Checks

Although under US federal law, gun owners with a valid permit to carry a hidden handgun are exempt from background checks when buying from a licensed gun dealer,170 171 many state laws are more restrictive

Gun Free Zones

In the United States, private guns are prohibited in federal facilities,172 schools173 and National Parks (unless otherwise specifically permitted)174

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In the United States, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm175 is 10 years prison176

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in the United States are known to have177 98 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In the United States, the total number of firearms destroyed following recent amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 830,000177 (1993-1996)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In the United States, it is state policy178 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

Organization of American States

On 14 November 1997, as a member of the Organisation of American States (OAS), the United States adopted the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), a legally binding multilateral treaty of which the OAS is depository. The CIFTA Convention has since been signed, but not yet ratified179 180 by the United States

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists181 the United States as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed182 by the United States.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified183 by the United States

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed184 by the United States

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, the United States committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects185

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored the United States against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 28186 187 188 189 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, the United States have submitted one or more national reports190 191 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In the United States, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated192 191

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In the United States, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated191

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of the United States submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent191

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated191 by the United States to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, the United States have not declared193 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, the United States have been a Member State of the United Nations since 1945194

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists195 the United States as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in the United States, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where the United States ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘How Many Guns Are in the United States? - Number.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6676)Full Citation

3.

Christopher Ingraham. 2015. ‘There Are Now More Guns than People in the United States.’ Washington Post. 5 October. (N395) Full Citation

4.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - United States.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,7 January. (Q4337)Full Citation

5.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

6.

Smith, Tom W. and Son Jaesok.2015.‘Question: Do You Happen to Have in Your Home (or Garage) Any Guns or Revolvers?.’ General Social Survey: Trends in Gun Ownership in the United States, 1972-2014.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,1 March. (Q8323)Full Citation

7.

Pew Research Center.2013.‘Section 3: Gun Ownership Trends and Demographics.’ Why Own A Gun? Protection Is Now Top Reason.Washington DC:Pew Research Center (U.S. Politics & Policy),12 March. (Q11359)Full Citation

8.

Siegel, Michael, Craig S. Ross and Charles King III.2013.‘Table A1: Average Gun Ownership Levels (Measured by Percentage of Suicides Committed Using Firearms) by State and Decade.’ The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010.Washington, DC:American Journal of Public Health,1 November. (Q8324)Full Citation

9.

Sabrina Tavernise and Robert Gebeloff. 2013. ‘Share of Homes with Guns Shows 4-Decade Decline.’ New York Times. 9 March. (N315) Full Citation

10.

General Social Survey.2013.‘Question 237a: If Yes: Is It a Pistol, Shotgun, Rifle, or What? - Rifle.’ General Social Survey Cumulative Datafile 1972-2012.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,16 December. (Q8354)Full Citation

11.

General Social Survey.2013.‘Question 237a: If Yes: Is It a Pistol, Shotgun, Rifle, or What? - Shotgun.’ General Social Survey Cumulative Datafile 1972-2012.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,16 December. (Q8355)Full Citation

12.

General Social Survey.2013.‘Question 237a: If Yes: Is It a Pistol, Shotgun, Rifle, or What? - Pistol.’ General Social Survey Cumulative Datafile 1972-2012.Chicago, IL:National Opinion Research Center / NORC at the University of Chicago,16 December. (Q8353)Full Citation

13.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Table 4: Twenty Largest Military Small Arms Inventories.’ Armed Actors - Data Sources and the Estimation of Military-Owned Small Arms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 September. (Q8186)Full Citation

14.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

15.

USA.2004.‘Exemption of Qualified Law Enforcement Officers from State Laws Prohibiting the Carrying of Concealed Firearms.’ Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act of 2004, Public Law 108–277, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,22 July. (Q6771)Full Citation

16.

Reaves, Brian A..2012.‘Methodology.’ Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,1 June. (Q6768)Full Citation

17.

FBI.2013.‘What Kinds of Guns Do FBI Agents Use?.’ Frequently Asked Questions.Washington, DC:Federal Bureau of Investigation,16 May. (Q6770)Full Citation

18.

US Customs and Border Protection Information Center.2011.‘What Are the Qualifications to Becoming a CBP Officer?.’ Find an Answer: Career as a CBP Officer.Washington, DC:US Customs and Border Protection,31 May. (Q6769)Full Citation

19.

Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 1 - Estimated Law Enforcement Firearms in 20 Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 December. (Q6544)Full Citation

20.

CDC.2015.‘Injury Mortality Reports 1999 and Onwards (USA).’ Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System / CDC WISQARS.Atlanta:National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC,22 January. (Q1377)Full Citation

21.

Hoyert, Donna L. and Jiaquan Xu.2012.‘Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2011 - Selected Causes.’ National Vital Statistics Reports (NVSS).Hyattsville, MD:US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control Prevention, Division of Vital Statistics,10 October. (Q6492)Full Citation

22.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in the United States.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q8902)Full Citation

23.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - United States.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6340)Full Citation

24.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: United States of America.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9476)Full Citation

25.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide 2000-2011.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9209)Full Citation

26.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Intentional Homicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5678)Full Citation

27.

UNODC.2004.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1998-2000).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,19 March. (Q91)Full Citation

28.

Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares and Arsalaan Siddique.2001.‘Crimes Recorded by Police: Homicide.’ International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999.London:UK Home Office,1 May. (Q2143)Full Citation

29.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

30.

FBI.2015.‘Crime in the United States / CIUS.’ Uniform Crime Reports / UCR.Washington, DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation,1 September. (Q1978)Full Citation

31.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Intentional Homicide Committed by Firearms 2000-2010.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9210)Full Citation

32.

UNODC.2005.‘Recorded Homicide and Firearm Homicide in 53 Countries, Completed or Attempted.’ Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,15 April. (Q1077)Full Citation

33.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

34.

Schroeder, Matt.2014.‘Percentage of Violence Involving a Firearm in the United States, by Type of Crime, 1993 - 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10995)Full Citation

35.

Schroeder, Matt.2014.‘Armed Violence in the United States.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11040)Full Citation

36.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Number of Handgun Homicides.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G142) Full Citation

37.

Rokaw, William M., James A. Mercy and Jack C. Smith.1990.‘Comparing Death Certificate Data with FBI Crime Reporting Statistics on US Homicides.’ Public Health Reports.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),1 September. (Q6535)Full Citation

38.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G155) Full Citation

39.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Assault by Handgun Discharge.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q8366)Full Citation

40.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Number of Long Gun Homicides.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G143) Full Citation

41.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G156) Full Citation

42.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Assault by Rifle, Shotgun and Larger Firearm Discharge.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q8367)Full Citation

43.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Number of Gun Homicides (Other).’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G144) Full Citation

44.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 15 April.
(G157) Full Citation

45.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Assault by Other and Unspecified Firearm Discharge.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q8368)Full Citation

46.

OAS Hemispheric Citizen Security Observatory.2012.‘Suicide 2000-2009.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2012.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States (OAS),1 July. (Q9206)Full Citation

47.

OAS Observatory on Citizen Security.2011.‘Suicide.’ Report on Citizen Security in the Americas 2011.Washington, DC:Organisation of American States,1 January. (Q5680)Full Citation

48.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

49.

Richardson, Erin G. and David Hemenway.2011.‘Table 1: Death Rates in the United States per 100,000 Population, Overall and by Gender, 2003.’ Homicide, Suicide, and Unintentional Firearm Fatality: Comparing the United States With Other High-Income Countries, 2003.Los Angeles, CA:The Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care,1 January. (Q4878)Full Citation

50.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

51.

Curfman, Gregory D, Stephen Morrissey and Jeffrey M Drazen.2008.‘Handgun Violence, Public Health, and the Law.’ New England Journal of Medicine.Massachusetts:Massachusetts Medical Society,3 April. (Q1975)Full Citation

52.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

53.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Intentional Self-harm by Handgun Discharge (ICD-10 Code: X72).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6483)Full Citation

54.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Intentional Self-harm by Rifle, Shotgun and Larger Firearm Discharge (ICD-10 Code: X73).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6484)Full Citation

55.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Intentional Self-harm by Other and Unspecified Firearm Discharge (ICD-10 Code: X74).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6485)Full Citation

56.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

57.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Handgun Discharge, Accidental Injury (ICD-10 Code: W32).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6480)Full Citation

58.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Rifle, Shotgun and Larger Firearm Discharge, Accidental Injury (ICD-10 Code: W33).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6481)Full Citation

59.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Discharge from Other and Unspecified Firearms, Accidental Injury (ICD-10 Code: W34).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6482)Full Citation

60.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

61.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Handgun Discharge, Undetermined Intent (ICD-10 Code: Y22).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6489)Full Citation

62.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Rifle, Shotgun and Larger Firearm Discharge, Undetermined Intent (ICD-10 Code: Y23).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6490)Full Citation

63.

CDC.2016.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results - Other and Unspecified Firearm Discharge, Undetermined Intent (ICD-10 Code: Y24).’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,7 January. (Q6491)Full Citation

64.

FBI.2015.‘Expanded Homicide Data Table 15: Justifiable Homicide by Weapon, Private Citizen, 2006–2013.’ Uniform Crime Reports / UCR.Washington, DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation,24 May. (Q6763)Full Citation

65.

FBI.2015.‘Expanded Homicide Data Table 14: Justifiable Homicide by Weapon, Law Enforcement, 2006–2013.’ Uniform Crime Reports / UCR.Washington, DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation,24 May. (Q6764)Full Citation

66.

Fox, James Alan and Marianne W. Zawitz.2010.‘Trends in Justifiable Homicide by Police and Citizens 1995-2005.’ Homicide Trends in the United States.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,25 January. (Q6808)Full Citation

67.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Airgun-related Mortality and Morbidity in the United States.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 16 January.
(G186) Full Citation

68.

CDC WISQARS.2013.‘Nonfatal Injury Reports, 2001 - 2013.’ Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System / CDC WISQARS.Atlanta, GA:National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC,28 March. (Q6766)Full Citation

69.

Planty, Michael and Jennifer L. Truman.2013.‘Nonfatal Firearm Injuries, 2001–2011.’ Firearm Violence, 1993-2011.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,1 May. (Q6767)Full Citation

70.

Webster, Daniel W and Jon S Vernick.2013.‘Introduction.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6733)Full Citation

71.

Wintemute, Garen J, and Anthony A Braga.2011.‘Opportunities for State-Level Action to Reduce Firearm Violence: Proceeding From the Evidence.’ American Journal of Public Health.Stanford, CA:American Public Health Association,1 September. (Q6734)Full Citation

72.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1390)Full Citation

73.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Licensed Dealers and Firearms Transfers.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6687)Full Citation

74.

USA.2012.‘Marking of All SALW at Time of Manufacture.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6784)Full Citation

75.

Cook, Philip J and Jens Ludwig.2013.‘The Limited Impact of the Brady Act - Introduction of the Brady Act.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6716)Full Citation

76.

Cook, Philip J and Jens Ludwig.2013.‘The Limited Impact of the Brady Act - No Evidence of Reduction in Deaths.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6717)Full Citation

77.

USA.2012.‘Firearms Manufactured (1986-2010).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States - Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6724)Full Citation

78.

Leshner, Alan I., Bruce M. Altevogt, Arlene F. Lee, Margaret A. McCoy, and Patrick W. Kelley.2013.‘Availability of Firearms.’ Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence.Washington, DC:National Academy of Sciences (NAS),1 June. (Q7164)Full Citation

79.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘How Many Guns Are in the United States? - Imports.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6677)Full Citation

80.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

81.

Cook, Philip J, Wendy Cukier and Keith Krause.2009.‘Firearms and Firearm Regulation in North America: United States.’ The Illicit Firearms Trade in North America.London:Criminology & Criminal Justice,1 August. (Q1980)Full Citation

82.

ATF.2013.‘Does the GCA Prohibit Anyone from Making a Handgun, Shotgun or Rifle?.’ General Questions.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 May. (Q6775)Full Citation

83.

USA.2012.‘Export and Import Licensing.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6782)Full Citation

84.

USA.2012.‘"Record Keeping" on Manufacture, Holding and Transfer.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6783)Full Citation

85.

USA.2012.‘Firearms Manufacturers' Exports (1986-2010).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6725)Full Citation

86.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

87.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

88.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

89.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

90.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

91.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

92.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11068)Full Citation

93.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

94.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

95.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

96.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

97.

USA.1976.‘Registration of Firearms.’ The National Firearm Act of 1934, Public Law 90-618, Title 26, Chapter 53, United States Code - Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and Certain Other Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,4 October. (Q6831)Full Citation

98.

Schroeder, Matt.2014.‘Illicit Weapons in The United States - Main Findings.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11039)Full Citation

99.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Imports per Top Importer and for All Importers, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11072)Full Citation

100.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

101.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

102.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

103.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

104.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Importing States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 November. (Q5997)Full Citation

105.

USA.2012.‘Firearms Imports (1986-2011).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6722)Full Citation

106.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Gun Trafficking and Straw Purchases.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6688)Full Citation

107.

Wintemute, G J.2009.‘Introduction.’ Disproportionate Sales of Crime Guns Among Licensed Handgun Retailers in the United States: A Case-Control Study.London:BMJ Journals: Injury Prevention,5 October. (Q1979)Full Citation

108.

Hoover, William.2008.‘Statement of William Hoover Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere.’ US House of Representatives.Washington, DC:7 February. (Q1989)Full Citation

109.

USA.2012.‘National Coordinating Agencies Responsible for Researching and Monitoring Illicit SALW Trade.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6786)Full Citation

110.

USA.2012.‘Regulation of Arms Brokers, Legal and Enforcement Tools.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6779)Full Citation

111.

USA.2012.‘End-user Certification; Legal and Enforcement Measures.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6781)Full Citation

112.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

113.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

114.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

115.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

116.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

117.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

118.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

119.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

120.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

121.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

122.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

123.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

124.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Federal Regulation of Firearms.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6678)Full Citation

125.

USA.1968.‘Gun Control Act: Purpose.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1379)Full Citation

126.

USA.1970.‘Second Amendment to the Constitution.’ Constitution of the United States, The Bill of Rights.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States of America,1 January. (Q1954)Full Citation

127.

Scalia, J.2008.‘District of Columbia et al. v. Heller.’ Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.Washington, DC:Supreme Court of the United States,26 June. (Q8502)Full Citation

128.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Overview of Legislative Action in the 111th Congress.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6744)Full Citation

129.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1391)Full Citation

130.

ATF.2010.‘National Firearms Act (NFA).’ Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives - National Firearms Act Branch.Martinsburg, VA:US Department of Justice,8 July. (Q2036)Full Citation

131.

USA.1926.‘Definitions.’ US Code, Title 26E, Chapter 53: Machine Guns, Destructive Devices, and Certain Other Firearms [Code as 2006].Washington, DC:Office of the Law Revision Counsel, United States House of Representatives,30 June. (Q3157)Full Citation

132.

LCAV.2009.‘Federal Law Summary: Assault Weapons.’ Legal Community Against Violence.San Francisco, CA:Legal Community Against Violence / LCAV,25 November. (Q1984)Full Citation

133.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearm.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1389)Full Citation

134.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Firearms Transfer and Possession Eligibility.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6685)Full Citation

135.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1902)Full Citation

136.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts -Transfer to a Juvenile.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6841)Full Citation

137.

Krouse, William J.2012.‘Age Eligibility.’ Gun Control Legislation.Washington, DC:United States Congressional Research Service,14 November. (Q6686)Full Citation

138.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - Domestic Violence.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6788)Full Citation

139.

USA.2006.‘Impediments to Record Checks.’ Survey of State Procedures Related to Firearm Sales, 2005.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics,1 November. (Q6801)Full Citation

140.

USA.2013.‘Retention and Destruction of Records in the System.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 28, Chapter I, Judicial Administration, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,11 June. (Q6832)Full Citation

141.

USA.1968.‘Rules and Regulations.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1392)Full Citation

142.

ATF.2013.‘The Types of Firearms that Must Be Registered in the National Firearm Registration and Transfer Record Are Defined in the NFA and 27 CFR, Part 479. What Are Some Examples?.’ FAQ: National Firearms Act (NFA) - Firearms.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),10 June. (Q6833)Full Citation

143.

USA.1968.‘Licensing.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1955)Full Citation

144.

USA.1968.‘Licensing - Multiple Sales.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6826)Full Citation

145.

ATF.2011.‘Report of Multiple Sale or Other Disposition of Certain Rifles.’ Agency Information Collection Activities - Proposed Collection Comments Requested.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF),29 April. (Q6827)Full Citation

146.

USA.2008.‘Implementing of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1588)Full Citation

147.

USA.2008.‘Implementing of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1590)Full Citation

148.

USA.2007.‘Management and Security of National Stockpiles.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,17 July. (Q1597)Full Citation

149.

USA.1968.‘Purpose.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q4168)Full Citation

150.

EFSGV.2002.‘Summary: The Benefits of Requiring a Criminal Background Check for Every Gun Sale.’ Closing Illegal Gun Markets: Extending Criminal Background Checks to All Gun Sales.Washington, DC:Educational Fund to Stop Gun Violence (EFSGV),1 May. (Q6822)Full Citation

151.

Cook, Philip J and Jens Ludwig.2013.‘The Limited Impact of the Brady Act - Discussion.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6718)Full Citation

152.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act: Background Check.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6790)Full Citation

153.

USA.2008.‘Sales or Deliveries of Firearms On and After November 30, 1998.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Chapter II, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,2 October. (Q6815)Full Citation

154.

FBI.2013.‘National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS).’ Federal Bureau of Investigation - Fact Sheet.Clarksburg:Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division,22 May. (Q6800)Full Citation

155.

Brand, Rachel L.2007.‘Authority to Obtain Relevant Records for the Databases Checked by the NICS.’ Lethal Loopholes: Deficiencies in State and Federal Gun Purchase Laws.Washington, DC:United States Department of Justice,10 May. (Q6824)Full Citation

156.

USA.2000.‘Allowing More Research Time for Background Checks.’ Gun Control: Implementation of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System.Washington, DC:United States General Accounting Office (GAO),1 February. (Q6821)Full Citation

157.

USA.2007.‘Identify Groups and Individuals Associated with Illicit SALW Activities.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,17 July. (Q1592)Full Citation

158.

Jamaica.1967.‘General Provisions as to Grant and Issue of Licences, Certificates and Permits.’ Firearms Act 1967 Regulation, Act 23 of 2010.Kingston:Parliament of Jamaica,16 March. (Q1398)Full Citation

159.

Swanson, Jeffrey W, Allison Gilbert Robertson, Linda K Frisman, Michael A Norko, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Marvin S Swartz and Philip J Cook.2013.‘Preventing Gun Violence Involving People with Serious Mental Illness.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6719)Full Citation

160.

Swanson, Jeffrey W, Allison Gilbert Robertson, Linda K Frisman, Michael A Norko, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Marvin S Swartz and Philip J Cook.2013.‘Psychiatrists Cannot Accurately Foresee Which Patients Will Be Violent.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6720)Full Citation

161.

Swanson, Jeffrey W, Allison Gilbert Robertson, Linda K Frisman, Michael A Norko, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Marvin S Swartz and Philip J Cook.2013.‘Preventing Gun Violence Involving People with Serious Mental Illness - Legacy of 1968 Law.’ Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis.Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press,25 January. (Q6721)Full Citation

162.

USA.2012.‘Federal Firearms Licensees Total (1975-2011).’ Firearms Commerce in the United States Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington, DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6726)Full Citation

163.

USA.1968.‘Licensing.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1393)Full Citation

164.

USA.1988.‘Conduct of Business Away from Licensed Premises.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Chapter II, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,31 March. (Q6835)Full Citation

165.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - Secure Gun Storage or Safety Device.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6802)Full Citation

166.

USA.2008.‘Gaps in Implementation of the UN Program of Action.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1591)Full Citation

167.

USA.1968.‘Interstate Transportation of Firearms.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1394)Full Citation

168.

USA.2007.‘Marking of All SALW at Time of Manufacture.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,17 July. (Q1593)Full Citation

169.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Marking and Tracing.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:UN Development Programme / UNDP, UN Institute for Disarmament Research / UNIDIR, UN Office for Disarmament Affairs / UNODA, Small Arms Survey,1 November. (Q1977)Full Citation

170.

USA.1968.‘Unlawful Acts - The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act: Background Check.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6828)Full Citation

171.

USA.2008.‘Sales or Deliveries of Firearms On and After November 30, 1998.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Chapter II, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,2 October. (Q6829)Full Citation

172.

USA.1968.‘Possession of Firearms and Dangerous Weapons in Federal Facilities.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q1395)Full Citation

173.

USA.1990.‘Unlawful Acts.’ The Gun Free School Zones Act of 1990, Public Law 101-647, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6785)Full Citation

174.

USA.1983.‘Weapons, Traps and Nets.’ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Chapter I, National Park Service, Department of the Interior.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,30 June. (Q6839)Full Citation

175.

GunPolicy.org. 2015. ‘Penalty for Unlawful Firearm Possession.’ Definition and Selection Criteria.
Sydney School of Public Health, 23 January.
(G93) Full Citation

176.

USA.1968.‘Penalties.’ Gun Control Act of 1968, Public Law 90-618, Title 18, United States Code - Firearms.Washington, DC:Congress of the United States,1 January. (Q6840)Full Citation

177.

Karp, Aaron.2008.‘Inconspicuous Disarmament: Introduction.’ Contemporary Security Policy: Inconspicuous disarmament: The politics of destroying surplus small arms and ammunition.Arlington, VA:Routledge / Taylor & Francis,1 April. (Q1990)Full Citation

178.

USA.2012.‘Destruction of Surplus, Confiscated, Seized and Collected SALW.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6780)Full Citation

179.

OAS / UNODA.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials / CIFTA.’ United Nations Programme of Action Implementation Support System: Regional Organisations.New York, NY:Organization of American States / United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,14 November. (Q3244)Full Citation

180.

OAS.1997.‘Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Explosives, Ammunition and Other Related Materials (CIFTA): Signatures and Ratifications.’ Organization of American States, Department of International Law.Washington, DC:Organization of American States,14 November. (Q3262)Full Citation

181.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

182.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

183.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

184.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

185.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York, NY:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

186.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Findings - Table 3: Reporting States by Rank and Score.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8752)Full Citation

187.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘What do the PoAIM Scores Represent? How Should the PoAIM Scores Be Interpreted?.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8753)Full Citation

188.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Point Allocation System.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8754)Full Citation

189.

Parker, Sarah and Katherine Green.2012.‘Introduction.’ The Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (Phase 1): Assessing Reported Progress.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 August. (Q8755)Full Citation

190.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

191.

UNODA.2015.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) - Implementation Support System.New York, NY:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,11 September. (Q1309)Full Citation

192.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York, NY:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

193.

UNODA.2011.‘National Reports on Small Arms Exports.’ United Nations Register of Conventional Arms - The Global Reported Arms Trade.New York, NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,21 October. (Q14)Full Citation

194.

UN.2013.‘Member States of the United Nations.’ UN.org Web Site.New York, NY:United Nations General Assembly,7 April. (Q290)Full Citation

195.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation