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Turkey — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Turkey is 9,000,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Turkey is 12.51 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Rifles

In Turkey, the number of rifles in civilian possession is reported to be 11,4692

Number of Privately Owned Shotguns

In Turkey, the number of shotguns in civilian possession is reported to be 2,483,5022

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

There are reportedly 538,3992 handguns in civilian possession in Turkey

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Turkey ranked at No. 143

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Turkey ranked at No. 521

Rate of Licensed Firearm Owners per 100 Population

The rate of licensed firearm owners per 100 people in Turkey is 0.04

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Turkey is reported to be 3,000,0003

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Turkey are reported to have 2,500,0004 5 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Turkey are reported to have 530,0006 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, annual homicides by any means total

2008: 2,3207
2007: 2,540
2006: 3,1687 8
2005: 3,305
2004: 2,9147 9
2003: 2,837

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2008: 3.37 10
2007: 3.6
2006: 4.67 8
2005: 4.9
2004: 4.37 9
2003: 4.3

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Turkey, annual firearm homicides total

2006: 5358
2005: 491
2004: 5399
2003: 538

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Turkey, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2006: 0.728
2005: 0.67
2004: 0.779
2003: 0.76

Suicides (any method)

In Turkey, annual suicides by any means total 1996: 1,41511

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Turkey, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is 1996: 1.9811

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Turkey, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence2

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Turkey is ranked 'medium'12

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Turkey, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law13

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Turkey is reported by Customs to be US$108,582,90914 (2011)15 16

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Turkey is categorized as 'minor'17 16

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Turkey, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law13

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Turkey is reported by Customs to be US$36,168,94914 (2011)

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Turkey, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law13

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

In the most recent survey of state transparency in declaring firearm and ammunition exports among major small arms exporting nations, Turkey was ranked at No. 3518

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Turkey is categorised as restrictive19

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Turkey are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior2

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Turkey, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms and semi-automatic firearms20

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Turkey, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited20

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Turkey, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited20

Regulation of Handguns

In Turkey, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence20

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Turkey, only licensed gun owners21 22 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Turkey are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example, hunting, target shooting, collection, personal protection, security2

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Turkey is 21 years22

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Turkey must pass a background check which considers criminal, mental, domestic violence, medical, and addiction22 23 24 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Turkey stipulates2 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Turkey gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years25

Licensing Records

In Turkey, authorities maintains a record20 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Turkey, the law requires26 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Turkey, licensed firearm dealers are required20 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Turkey, licensed gun makers are required26 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Turkey, State agencies are required27 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Turkey do not include25 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Turkey include2 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Turkey, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law26 26

Firearm Tracing

In Turkey, state authorities carry out26 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Turkey, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit25

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Turkey, the maximum penalty for illicit firearm possession is 3 years prison and a fine25

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

At the resumption of the most recent session of the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (UNCCPCJ), a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, Turkey was listed as an elected member for a three-year term of office28

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was not signed29 by Turkey.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified30 by Turkey

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified31 by Turkey

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Turkey committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects32

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Turkey has submitted one or more national reports33 13 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Turkey, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated34 13

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Turkey submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent13

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated13 by Turkey to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Turkey has declared35 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Turkey has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194536

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists37 Turkey as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Turkey, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Turkey ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


Short References

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2.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

Karp, Aaron.2013.‘Table 4: Twenty Largest Military Small Arms Inventories.’ Armed Actors - Data Sources and the Estimation of Military-Owned Small Arms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 September. (Q8186)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

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Karp, Aaron.2012.‘Table 1 - Estimated Law Enforcement Firearms in 20 Selected Countries.’ Armed Actors - Estimating Law Enforcement Firearms.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,1 December. (Q6544)Full Citation

7.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Turkey.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6290)Full Citation

8.

UNODC.2008.‘Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed.’ Tenth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2005-2006).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q10)Full Citation

9.

UNODC.2006.‘Reported Overall Homicide Numbers and Rates per 100,000 Population for 64 Countries, 2003-04.’ Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2003 – 2004).Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,10 December. (Q9)Full Citation

10.

Petrini, Benjamin.2011.‘Europe and Central Asia, 1995-2008, Total Recorded Intentional Homicide, Completed, Rate per 100,000 Population.’ World Bank Homicide Rate Dataset 1995-2008.Washington DC:Social Development Department, World Bank,10 February. (Q3816)Full Citation

11.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

12.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

13.

UNODA.2009.‘PoA-ISS Country Profiles.’ UN small arms Programme of Action (UNPoA) – Implementation Support System.New York:United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs,29 October. (Q1309)Full Citation

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Marsh, Nicholas.2013.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,14 February. (Q16)Full Citation

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Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

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Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

17.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

18.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

19.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

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Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5375)Full Citation

21.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5387)Full Citation

22.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5426)Full Citation

23.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5382)Full Citation

24.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5383)Full Citation

25.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5448)Full Citation

26.

Turkey.2008.‘Marking, Record-keeping and Tracing of SALW.’ National Report of Turkey on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Turkey to the United Nations,1 April. (Q4689)Full Citation

27.

Turkey.2008.‘National Procedures for Stockpile Management and Security.’ National Report of Turkey on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of Turkey to the United Nations,1 April. (Q4690)Full Citation

28.

UNCCPCJ / UNODC.1991.‘Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.’ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Vienna:United Nations Economic and Social Council / United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,1 January. (Q3222)Full Citation

29.

GDAV.2006.‘Geneva Declaration.’ Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.Geneva:Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat,7 June. (Q7162)Full Citation

30.

UNODA.2013.‘Towards Entry Into Force.’ Arms Trade Treaty.New York NY:United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs,2 April. (Q7226)Full Citation

31.

UNGA.2001.‘United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.’ UN General Assembly Resolution 55/255.New York:UN General Assembly,31 May. (Q17)Full Citation

32.

UNGA.2001.‘Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.’ United Nations General Assembly.New York:UN General Assembly,20 July. (Q18)Full Citation

33.

Cattaneo, Silvia and Sarah Parker.2008.‘Reporting, NPCs and NCAs, 2002 to 2008.’ Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Analysis of the National Reports submitted by States from 2002 to 2008.Geneva:United Nations Development Programme,1 November. (Q20)Full Citation

34.

IANSA.2006.‘Reviewing Action on Small Arms 2006: Assessing the first five years of the UN Programme of Action.’ Biting the Bullet 'Red Book' 2006.New York:International Action Network on Small Arms and the Biting the Bullet project,26 June. (Q166)Full Citation

35.

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36.

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37.

Wassenaar Arrangement.1996.‘Introduction: Participating States.’ Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies.Vienna:Wassenaar Secretariat,12 July. (Q19)Full Citation