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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Thailand — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Thailand is 10,000,0001

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) per 100 people in Thailand is 15.61

Number of Privately Owned Handguns

In Thailand, the number of handguns in civilian possession is reported to be 3,700,0002

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Thailand ranked at No. 113

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a 2007 comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Thailand ranked at No. 391

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Thailand is reported to be 6,200,0002 1

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Thailand is 9.194

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Thailand are reported to have 1,957,5005 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Thailand are reported to have 280,0006 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

In Thailand, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

1994: 2,4347

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

In Thailand, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

1994: 4.124

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, annual homicides by any means total

2011: 3,3078 9 10
2010: 3,6548 9
2009: 3,703
2008: 3,974
2007: 4,435
2006: 4,6878 9 11
2005: 4,806
2004: 4,2738 9
2003: 6,434
2002: 4,538
2001: 5,020
2000: 5,1428 9 12
1999: 5,0529 12
1998: 5,361
1997: 4,7879 13
1996: 4,474
1995: 4,542

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Thailand, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 5.08 9 10
2010: 5.58 9
2009: 5.6
2008: 6.08 9 14
2007: 6.7
2006: 7.18 9 11 14
2005: 7.3
2004: 6.68 9 14
2003: 10.0
2002: 7.1
2001: 8.0
2000: 8.28 9 12 14
1999: 8.19 12 14
1998: 8.7
1997: 7.99 13 14
1996: 7.4
1995: 7.6

Gun Homicides

In Thailand, annual firearm homicides total

1994: 2,1847

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

In Thailand, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

1994: 3.487

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

In Thailand, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2011: 66%10

Suicides (any method)

In Thailand, annual suicides by any means total

1994: 2,3337

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

In Thailand, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

1994: 3.717

Gun Suicides

In Thailand, annual firearm suicides total

1994: 1587

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

In Thailand, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

1994: 0.257

Unintentional Gun Deaths

In Thailand, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

1994: 847

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

In Thailand, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

1994: 0.137

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

In Thailand, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

1994: 87

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

In Thailand, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

1994: 0.017

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Thailand, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence15 16

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Thailand was ranked 'small'17

Home-made Guns

In Thailand, the prevalence of illicit craft, or 'home-made' firearm manufacture is reported to be moderate18

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Firearm Exports

In Thailand, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law19 20 21

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Thailand is reported by Customs to be US$472,85822 (2011)

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Thailand was categorized as 'minor'23

Firearm Imports

In Thailand, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law19 20 21

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Thailand is reported by Customs to be US$82,835,02422 (2011)24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Thailand is high31 32

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Thailand, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law33 21 34

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Thailand include19 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Thailand scored

2016: 10.2535
2014: 9.7536
2013: 9.7537
2012: 9.7538
2011: 9.7539
2010: 9.7540
2009: 9.7541
2008: 8.2542
2007: 9.2543
2006: 8.7544
2005: 9.7545
2004: 6.2546

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Thailand is categorised as restrictive47

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Thailand includes the Acts Controlling Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, Fireworks and Imitation of Firearms of 1947 and 1967,48 32 and the Private Arms Manufacture Act B.E.2550 of 200715

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Thailand are regulated by the Ministry of the Interior49

Right to Possess Firearms

In Thailand, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law50 51

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Thailand, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic and semi-automatic rifles52

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Thailand, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited52 10

Regulation of Handguns

In Thailand, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence53 54 10

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Thailand, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law53 10

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Thailand, only licensed gun owners55 10 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Thailand are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, sports shooting, collection, self-defence55 32

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Thailand is 20 years55 32

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Thailand must pass a background check which considers personal conduct, living condition, income and criminal56 32 57 10 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Thailand stipulates58 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Licensing Records

In Thailand, authorities maintain a record59 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Thailand, the law requires60 61 59 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Thailand, licensed gun makers are required15 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Thailand, State agencies are required62 63 59 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Thailand include62 64 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Thailand, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law65 60 15 49 66 59

Firearm Tracing

In Thailand, state authorities carry out67 59 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Carrying Guns

Law Regulates Firearms in Public

In Thailand, carrying a gun in a public place is regulated by law10

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Thailand, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm68 is one to 10 years in prison69

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Thailand are known to have32 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Firearms Surrendered and Seized

In Thailand, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered, bought back or seized by authorities is reported to be 1,99670 (May/June 2014), 1,62971 (July 2014), and 34,35072 (2000-2013)73

Small Arms Destroyed

In Thailand, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 34,35072 (2014)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Thailand, it is state policy62 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists74 Thailand as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200675 by Thailand.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed, but not yet ratified76 by Thailand

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed77 by Thailand

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Thailand committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects78

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Thailand against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 8979 80 81 82 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Thailand has submitted one or more national reports83 34 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Thailand, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated84 34

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Thailand, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated34

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Thailand submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent34

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated34 by Thailand to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided34 to Thailand by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Thailand has declared85 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Thailand has been a Member State of the United Nations since 194686

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list87 Thailand as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Thailand, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Thailand ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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