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Switzerland — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Switzerland is 3,400,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Switzerland is 45.71 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Switzerland ranked at No. 223

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Switzerland ranked at No. 31

Proportion of Households with Firearms

ChartIn Switzerland, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be

2004/05: 28.6%4
1999/2003: 35.7%
1995/98: 35.3%
1989: 32.8%

Proportion of Households with Rifles

In Switzerland, the percentage of households with one or more rifles is reported to be

2005: 76%5

Proportion of Households with Shotguns

In Switzerland, the percentage of households with one or more shotguns is reported to be

2005: 0%5

Proportion of Households with Handguns

ChartIn Switzerland, the percentage of households with one or more handguns is reported to be

2004/05: 10.3%4 5
1999/2003: 11.8%
1995/98: 13.8%
1989: 13.9%

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Switzerland are reported to have 324,4846 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Switzerland are reported to have 26,7757 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn Switzerland, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2013: 2418 9 10
2012: 220
2011: 23911
2010: 241
2009: 277
2008: 259
2007: 291
2006: 285
2005: 299
2004: 318
2003: 339
2002: 397
2001: 408
2000: 387
1999: 392
1998: 466
1997: 434
1996: 454
1995: 436

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 3.0112
2012: 2.78
2011: 3.04
2010: 3.10
2009: 3.60
2008: 3.40
2007: 3.86
2006: 3.81
2005: 4.01
2004: 4.29
2003: 4.59
2002: 5.40
2001: 5.58
2000: 5.32
1999: 5.41
1998: 6.46
1997: 6.03
1996: 6.32
1995: 6.09

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Switzerland, annual homicides by any means total

2013: 5813
2012: 4514 15
2011: 4614 16 17
2010: 5318 19 20 16 17
2009: 5121 22 20 16 17
2008: 5423 16 17
2007: 51
2006: 6024 16 17
2005: 75
2004: 7925 16 17
2003: 73
2002: 8626 16 17
2001: 8616 17
2000: 69
1999: 8917
1998: 76
1997: 87
1996: 83
1995: 82

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.7312
2012: 0.5712 15
2011: 0.5912 16 17
2010: 0.68
2009: 0.66
2008: 0.71
2007: 0.68
2006: 0.80
2005: 1.01
2004: 1.07
2003: 0.99
2002: 1.17
2001: 1.216 17
2000: 1.0
1999: 1.217
1998: 1.1
1997: 1.2
1996: 1.2
1995: 1.2
1994: 1.3227

Gun Homicides

ChartIn Switzerland, annual firearm homicides total

2013: 1828 8
2012: 13
2011: 2228 8 16
2010: 15
2009: 24
2008: 168
2007: 15
2006: 14
2005: 23
2004: 25
2003: 20
2002: 31
2001: 40
2000: 17
1999: 32
1998: 27
1997: 60
1996: 41
1995: 27

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.2312 8
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.28
2010: 0.19
2009: 0.31
2008: 0.218
2007: 0.20
2006: 0.19
2005: 0.31
2004: 0.47
2003: 0.27
2002: 0.42
2001: 0.55
2000: 0.24
1999: 0.45
1998: 0.38
1997: 0.85
1996: 0.58
1995: 0.38
1994: 0.5829

Proportion of Homicides Committed With a Gun

ChartIn Switzerland, the percentage of homicides committed with a firearm is reported to be

2012: 29%15
2011: 48%16
2010: 25%
2009: 47%
2004: 72.2%17
2003: 64.4%
2002: 79.1%
2001: 54.7%
2000: 58.0%
1999: 80.9%
1998: 86.8%

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn Switzerland, annual handgun homicides total

2013: 28
2012: 1
2011: 4
2010: 1
2008: 2
2007: 3
2006: 2
2005: 1
2004: 3
2002: 2
1997: 3
1996: 9

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.028
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.03
2007: 0.04
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.04
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.01
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.13

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn Switzerland, annual long gun homicides total

2013: 18
2011: 1
2009: 2
2003: 1
2002: 2
2001: 1
2000: 1
1999: 2
1998: 3
1997: 3
1996: 2
1995: 2

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.018
2011: 0.01
2009: 0.03
2003: 0.01
2002: 0.03
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.04
1997: 0.04
1996: 0.03
1995: 0.03

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn Switzerland, annual gun homicides (other) total

2013: 138
2012: 13
2011: 11
2010: 10
2009: 19
2008: 14
2007: 12
2006: 12
2005: 22
2004: 32
2003: 19
2002: 27
2001: 39
2000: 16
1999: 30
1998: 24
1997: 54
1996: 30
1995: 25

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of gun homicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.168
2012: 0.16
2011: 0.14
2010: 0.13
2009: 0.25
2008: 0.18
2007: 0.16
2006: 0.16
2005: 0.30
2004: 0.43
2003: 0.26
2002: 0.37
2001: 0.54
2000: 0.22
1999: 0.42
1998: 0.34
1997: 0.76
1996: 0.42
1995: 0.36

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn Switzerland, annual suicides by any means total

2011: 1,03430
2010: 1,004
2009: 1,105
2008: 1,313
2007: 1,368
2006: 1,31231
2005: 1,304
2004: 1,292
2003: 1,280
2002: 1,451
2001: 1,331
2000: 1,378
1999: 1,297
1998: 1,371
1997: 1,341
1996: 1,431
1995: 1,419

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2011: 13.1712
2010: 12.92
2009: 14.36
2008: 17.25
2007: 18.17
2006: 17.54
2005: 17.51
2004: 17.42
2003: 17.33
2002: 19.75
2001: 18.20
2000: 18.94
1999: 17.91
1998: 19.00
1997: 18.62
1996: 19.9112 32
1995: 19.8112
1994: 21.2833

Gun Suicides

ChartIn Switzerland, annual firearm suicides total

2013: 2229
2012: 205
2011: 21030 9
2010: 222
2009: 253
2008: 23931 9
2007: 264
2006: 259
2005: 262
2004: 271
2003: 300
2002: 351
2001: 349
2000: 351
1999: 346
1998: 413
1997: 358
1996: 397
1995: 392

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 2.749
2012: 2.56
2011: 2.6812 9
2010: 2.86
2009: 3.29
2008: 3.14
2007: 3.51
2006: 3.46
2005: 3.52
2004: 3.65
2003: 4.06
2002: 4.78
2001: 4.77
2000: 4.82
1999: 4.78
1998: 5.7212 9 32
1997: 4.9712 9
1996: 5.52
1995: 5.47
1994: 5.6134

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn Switzerland, annual handgun suicides total

2013: 309
2012: 34
2011: 40
2010: 30
2009: 25
2008: 44
2007: 34
2006: 29
2005: 25
2004: 19
2003: 22
2002: 32
2001: 28
2000: 15
1999: 26
1998: 40
1997: 22
1996: 44
1995: 39

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.379
2012: 0.43
2011: 0.51
2010: 0.38
2009: 0.32
2008: 0.58
2007: 0.45
2006: 0.39
2005: 0.34
2004: 0.26
2003: 0.30
2002: 0.44
2001: 0.39
2000: 0.21
1999: 0.36
1998: 0.56
1997: 0.31
1996: 0.62
1995: 0.55

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn Switzerland, the number of long gun suicides is

2013: 169
2012: 16
2011: 21
2010: 19
2009: 18
2008: 20
2007: 21
2006: 15
2005: 21
2004: 18
2003: 26
2002: 29
2001: 23
2000: 22
1999: 26
1998: 40
1997: 26
1996: 46
1995: 47

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.209
2012: 0.20
2011: 0.27
2010: 0.24
2009: 0.23
2008: 0.26
2007: 0.28
2006: 0.20
2005: 0.28
2004: 0.24
2003: 0.35
2002: 0.40
2001: 0.32
2000: 0.31
1999: 0.36
1998: 0.56
1997: 0.37
1996: 0.65
1995: 0.67

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn Switzerland, annual gun suicides (other) total

2013: 1769
2012: 155
2011: 149
2010: 173
2009: 210
2008: 175
2007: 209
2006: 215
2005: 216
2004: 234
2003: 252
2002: 290
2001: 299
2000: 315
1999: 294
1998: 332
1997: 310
1996: 307
1995: 306

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 2.189
2012: 1.94
2011: 1.88
2010: 2.21
2009: 2.71
2008: 2.29
2007: 2.77
2006: 2.87
2005: 2.90
2004: 3.17
2003: 3.43
2002: 3.97
2001: 4.12
2000: 4.37
1999: 4.10
1998: 4.66
1997: 4.37
1996: 4.34
1995: 4.35

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn Switzerland, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2013: 310
2012: 1
2011: 5
2010: 1
2009: 1
2008: 1
2007: 4
2006: 2
2005: 1
2004: 6
2003: 3
2002: 1
2001: 4
2000: 3
1999: 2
1998: 1010 32
1997: 6
1996: 7
1995: 10

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0410
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.06
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.05
2006: 0.03
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.04
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.06
2000: 0.04
1999: 0.03
1998: 0.1410 32
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.10
1994: 0.1410 35

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn Switzerland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2011: 110
2008: 1
2007: 2
2004: 1
2002: 1
2001: 1
2000: 1
1996: 1

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.0110
2008: 0.01
2007: 0.03
2004: 0.01
2002: 0.01
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.01
1996: 0.01

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn Switzerland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2013: 110
2007: 1
2006: 1
2004: 1
2001: 2
1999: 1
1995: 2

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0110
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2004: 0.01
2001: 0.03
1999: 0.01
1995: 0.03

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn Switzerland, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2013: 210
2012: 1
2011: 4
2010: 1
2009: 1
2007: 1
2006: 1
2005: 1
2004: 4
2003: 3
2001: 1
2000: 2
1999: 1
1998: 10
1997: 6
1996: 6
1995: 8

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0210
2012: 0.01
2011: 0.05
2010: 0.01
2009: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2006: 0.01
2005: 0.01
2004: 0.05
2003: 0.04
2001: 0.01
2000: 0.03
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.14
1997: 0.08
1996: 0.08
1995: 0.11

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Switzerland, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 736
2012: 2
2011: 8
2010: 7
2009: 2
2008: 3
2007: 8
2006: 10
2005: 13
2004: 6
2003: 16
2002: 14
2001: 15
2000: 16
1999: 12
1998: 16
1997: 10
1996: 9
1995: 7

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0936
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.10
2010: 0.09
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.11
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.17
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.22
2002: 0.19
2001: 0.21
2000: 0.22
1999: 0.17
1998: 0.22
1997: 0.14
1996: 0.13
1995: 0.10
1994: 0.0737

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Switzerland, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 136
2010: 1
2007: 1
2003: 1
1999: 1
1998: 2
1996: 1

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0136
2010: 0.01
2007: 0.01
2003: 0.01
1999: 0.01
1998: 0.03
1996: 0.01

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Switzerland, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2001: 136
1997: 1

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2001: 0.0136
1997: 0.01

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn Switzerland, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2013: 636
2012: 2
2011: 8
2010: 6
2009: 2
2008: 3
2007: 7
2006: 10
2005: 13
2004: 6
2003: 15
2002: 14
2001: 14
2000: 16
1999: 11
1998: 14
1997: 9
1996: 8
1995: 7

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2013: 0.0736
2012: 0.03
2011: 0.10
2010: 0.08
2009: 0.03
2008: 0.04
2007: 0.09
2006: 0.13
2005: 0.17
2004: 0.08
2003: 0.20
2002: 0.19
2001: 0.19
2000: 0.22
1999: 0.15
1998: 0.20
1997: 0.13
1996: 0.11
1995: 0.10

Non-fatal Gun Injuries

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual number of non-fatal firearm injuries is

2012: 1138
2011: 13
2010: 1039

Rate of Non-fatal Gun Injury per 100,000 People

ChartIn Switzerland, the annual rate of non-fatal firearm injury per 100,000 population is

2012: 0.1412
2011: 0.17
2010: 0.13

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Switzerland, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted only if the maker holds a valid licence40 41

Small Arms Manufacture - World Ranking

In a classification of the world's small, medium and major firearm manufacturers, Switzerland was ranked 'medium'42

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Switzerland, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law43 44

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Switzerland is reported by Customs to be US$255,181,25245 (2011)46 47 48 49 50

Small Arms Exports - World Ranking

In a comparison of the world's major/mid-level/minor/unknown small arms exporters, Switzerland was categorized as 'major'51 52 53 50 54

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Switzerland, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law55 56 43 57 58

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Switzerland is reported by Customs to be US$85,884,33645 (2011)59 60 61 62

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Switzerland is moderate63

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Switzerland, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are specifically regulated by law64

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Switzerland do not include65 66 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

Transparency of Small Arms Transfers

ChartIn its annual Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer, the Small Arms Survey compares public reporting among major arms exporting nations on a scale from strong to weak (25 to zero). In recent years, Switzerland scored

2016: 18.7567
2014: 20.0068
2013: 20.7569
2012: 21.0070
2011: 21.0071
2010: 21.0072
2009: 21.0073
2008: 14.0074
2007: 11.0075
2006: 11.0076
2005: 10.7577
2004: 10.2578

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Switzerland is categorised as restrictive79

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Switzerland includes the Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions 199780 and the Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions 200881

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in Switzerland are regulated by the Federal Legislative Authority63

Right to Possess Firearms

In Switzerland, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law82 83 80

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In Switzerland, civilians are not allowed to possess automatic firearms, some automatic firearms converted into semi-automatic firearms,84 incendiary or armour-piercing ammunition, and 'expansive projectiles for handguns'85

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Switzerland, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited84 86 15

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Switzerland, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence84 86

Regulation of Handguns

In Switzerland, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence87 86 15

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Switzerland, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law88 15

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Switzerland, some 'manual repetition rifles' for sport and hunting may be owned without a licence, but in other cases only licensed gun owners89 88 90 15 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Switzerland are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, self-defence, and collection89 91 92 93

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Switzerland is 18 years89

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Switzerland must pass a background check which considers mental health, criminal and domestic violence89 94 92 93 15 records

Reference Required for Firearm Licence

In Switzerland, third party character references for each gun licence applicant are not required63

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in Switzerland stipulates94 that a gun licence should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In Switzerland, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required for a permit to carry a hidden handgun, but is not required95 96 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Switzerland, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every five years (license to carry)97

Licensing Records

In Switzerland, authorities maintains a record86 98 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Switzerland are permitted to possess any number of firearms65 66

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Switzerland are permitted to possess any quantity of ammunition65 66

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Switzerland, the law requires99 87 86 98 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Switzerland, licensed firearm dealers are required99 86 98 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Switzerland, licensed gun makers are required98 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Switzerland, State agencies are required99 87 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Switzerland, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited100 101 102

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Switzerland, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful100 101 102

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in Switzerland is obliged90 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In Switzerland, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to one firearm per licence holder (up to three firearms allowed with special authorisation)103 104 and only persons authorised to acquire a firearm may purchase ammunition for that particular firearm105

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In Switzerland, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is undetermined65 66

Regulation of Gun Shows

In Switzerland, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated65 66 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Switzerland include106 107 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Dealer

Firearm regulations in Switzerland do not include65 66 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Switzerland include108 109 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in Switzerland include110 43 111 112 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Switzerland, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law113 114 115 116

Firearm Tracing

In Switzerland, state authorities carry out113 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Record of Firearms and Ammunition

In Switzerland, the ballistic characteristics of each civilian firearm and its ammunition are not65 66 recorded in a register

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Switzerland, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is allowed, often subject to a valid licence, depending on the type of firearm95 96 15

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Switzerland, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed only with proof of genuine need and tangible danger, following mental health, criminal record and good character background checks, and after passing a police examination in firearm law and handgun safety95 89 15

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Switzerland, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm117 is up to three years in prison118

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Switzerland are known to have119 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Small Arms Destroyed

In Switzerland, the number of firearms destroyed following amnesty, collection and seizure programmes is reported to be 19,270119

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Switzerland, it is state policy120 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists121 Switzerland as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 2006122 by Switzerland.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been signed and ratified123 by Switzerland

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has been signed and ratified124 by Switzerland

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Switzerland committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects125

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Switzerland against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 4126 127 128 129 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Switzerland has submitted one or more national reports130 131 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Switzerland, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated132 131

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Switzerland, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated132 133

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Switzerland submitted to the UN from 2001 to 2010, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities was apparent131 134

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been donated131 by Switzerland to other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Switzerland has declared135 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Switzerland has been a Member State of the United Nations since 2002136

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies lists137 Switzerland as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Global Peace Index

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Short References

1.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms - Annexe online.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q5)Full Citation

2.

Jessica Dacey. 2016. ‘A Surge in Gun Permits.’ SwissInfo. 1 April. (N471) Full Citation

3.

Karp, Aaron.2007.‘Completing the Count: Civilian firearms.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,27 August. (Q4)Full Citation

4.

van Dijk, Jan, John van Kesteren and Paul Smit.2007.‘Ownership of Firearms and Handguns in Countries and Main Cities (percentages): 1989-2005 ICVS and 2005 EU ICS.’ Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime / UNODC,1 January. (Q11819)Full Citation

5.

Duquet, Nils and Maarten Van Alstein.2015.‘Percentage of Types of Firearm Possessed [by Households] in European Countries, 2004-2005.’ Firearms and Violent Deaths in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis of the Linkages Between Gun Ownership, Firearms Legislation and Violent Death.Brussels:Flemish Peace Institute,25 June. (Q12045)Full Citation

6.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q6)Full Citation

7.

Karp, Aaron.2006.‘Trickle and Torrent: State stockpiles.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q7)Full Citation

8.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Homicide in Switzerland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 June. (Q12082)Full Citation

9.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Suicide in Switzerland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 June. (Q12083)Full Citation

10.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Unintentional Gun Deaths in Switzerland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 June. (Q12084)Full Citation

11.

Switzerland.2013.‘Firearm-related Deaths (Décès dus aux armes à feu) 1995-2011.’ Causes of Death Statistics (Statistique des causes de décès).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,1 July. (Q8371)Full Citation

12.

GunPolicy.org.2016.‘Calculated Rates - Switzerland.’ Historical Population Data - USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,25 July. (Q4826)Full Citation

13.

Switzerland.2014.‘Sections of the Criminal Code and Selected Offences: Elucidations and Evolution of Offences (Titres du Code Pénal et Sélection d'Infractions: Elucidations et Evolution des Infractions) 2012.’ Police Crime Statistics Annual Report 2013 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2013).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,24 March. (Q8456)Full Citation

14.

Switzerland.2013.‘Sections of the Criminal Code and Selected Offences: Elucidations and Evolution of Offences (Titres du Code Pénal et Sélection d'Infractions: Elucidations et Evolution des Infractions) 2012.’ Police Crime Statistics Annual Report 2012 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2012).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,25 March. (Q8373)Full Citation

15.

Butchart, Alexander, Christopher Mikton and Etienne Krug.2014.‘Country Profile: Switzerland.’ Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014.Geneva:World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),10 December. (Q9464)Full Citation

16.

UNODC.2014.‘Homicides and Gun Homicides in Switzerland.’ Global Study on Homicide 2013: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC),10 April. (Q10346)Full Citation

17.

UNODC.2013.‘Homicide in 207 Countries - Switzerland.’ Global Study on Homicide 2011: Trends, Context, Data.Vienna:United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,26 June. (Q6210)Full Citation

18.

Switzerland.2012.‘Sections of the Criminal Code and Selected Offences: Elucidations and Evolution of Offences (Titres du Code Pénal et Sélection d'Infractions: Elucidations et Evolution des Infractions) 2011.’ Police Crime Statistics Annual Report 2011 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2011).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,26 March. (Q8372)Full Citation

19.

Switzerland.2011.‘Violent Infractions (Infractions de Violence) 2010.’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel) 2010.Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique / Département Fédéral de l'Intérieur,1 January. (Q4817)Full Citation

20.

Switzerland.2011.‘Violent Infractions: Elucidations and Evolution of Infractions (Infractions de violence: Elucidations et Evolution des Infractions).’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report 2010 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2010).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique / Département Fédéral de l'Intérieur,1 January. (Q4824)Full Citation

21.

Switzerland.2011.‘Headings of the Penal Code and Selection of Infractions: Elucidations and Evolution of Infractions (Titres du Code Pénal et Sélection d'Infractions: Elucidations et Evolution des Infractions) 2010.’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report 2010 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2010).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique / Département Fédéral de l'Intérieur,1 January. (Q4819)Full Citation

22.

Switzerland.2010.‘Violent Infractions (Infractions de Violence) 2009.’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel) 2009.Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique / Département Fédéral de l'Intérieur,1 January. (Q4818)Full Citation

23.

Switzerland.2009.‘Intentional Homicides (Homicides Intentionnels) 2008.’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report 2008 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2008).Berne:Office fédéral de la police,1 July. (Q4820)Full Citation

24.

Switzerland.2007.‘Intentional Homicides (Homicides Intentionnels) 2006.’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report 2006 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2006).Berne:Office fédéral de la police,1 June. (Q4821)Full Citation

25.

Switzerland.2005.‘Intentional Homicides (Homicides Intentionnels) 2004.’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report 2004 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2004).Berne:Office fédéral de la police,1 June. (Q4822)Full Citation

26.

Switzerland.2004.‘Intentional Homicides (Homicides Intentionnels) 2003.’ Police Statistics on Crime Annual Report 2003 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2003).Berne:Office fédéral de la police,1 April. (Q4823)Full Citation

27.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1301)Full Citation

28.

Switzerland.2014.‘Homicides: Elucidations and Evolution of Offences, 2009-2013 (Homicides: élucidations et évolution des infractions, 2009-2013).’ Police Crime Statistics (Statistique policière de la criminalité).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,10 February. (Q8439)Full Citation

29.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1297)Full Citation

30.

Switzerland.2013.‘Methods of Suicide (Méthodes de Suicide) 1995-2011.’ Causes of Death Statistics (Statistique des causes de décès).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,1 July. (Q8370)Full Citation

31.

Switzerland.2010.‘Methods of Suicide (Méthodes de Suicide) 1995-2008.’ Data on the Initiative for the Protection against Firearms Violence (Données sur l'Initiative Pour la Protection face à la Violence des Armes).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,8 December. (Q4816)Full Citation

32.

Jackson, Thomas.2005.‘Global Gun Deaths.’ NISAT Firearm Mortality Database 2005.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,1 January. (Q12)Full Citation

33.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1302)Full Citation

34.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1298)Full Citation

35.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1299)Full Citation

36.

WHO.2016.‘Inter-country Comparison of Mortality for Selected Cause of Death - Gun Death from Undetermined Cause in Switzerland.’ European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB).Copenhagen:World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe,25 June. (Q12085)Full Citation

37.

Krug, E G, K E Powell and L L Dahlberg.1998.‘Firearm-Related Deaths in the United States and 35 Other High- and Upper-Middle-Income Countries.’ International Journal of Epidemiology.Atlanta:National Centre for Injury Prevention & Control, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention / CDC,16 April. (Q1300)Full Citation

38.

Switzerland.2013.‘Violent Offences: Elucidations and Evolution of Offences (Infractions de violence: Elucidations et Evolution des Infractions) 2012.’ Police Crime Statistics Annual Report 2012 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2012).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,25 March. (Q8374)Full Citation

39.

Switzerland.2012.‘Violent Offences: Elucidations and Evolution of Offences (Infractions de violence: Elucidations et Evolution des Infractions) 2011.’ Police Crime Statistics Annual Report 2011 (Statistique Policière de la Criminalité Rapport Annuel 2011).Neuchâtel:Office Fédéral de la Statistique,26 March. (Q8375)Full Citation

40.

Switzerland.1997.‘Manufacture and Repair in a Professional Capacity.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1544)Full Citation

41.

Switzerland.2009.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Production.’ National Report of Switzerland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations,31 December. (Q1616)Full Citation

42.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘Ranking of World's Small Arms Producers (By Sales).’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q103)Full Citation

43.

Switzerland.1997.‘Operations with Other Countries - Temporary transfer and transport.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1547)Full Citation

44.

Switzerland.2009.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Exports.’ National Report of Switzerland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations,31 December. (Q1617)Full Citation

45.

Marsh, Nicholas.2014.‘Database of Authorised Transfers of Small Arms and Light Weapons.’ NISAT Small Arms Trade Database.Oslo:Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers,22 December. (Q16)Full Citation

46.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Trends in Small Arms Exports per Top Exporter and for All Exporters, as Reported to UN Comtrade, 2001-2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11071)Full Citation

47.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11077)Full Citation

48.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.1: Major Exporters.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8485)Full Citation

49.

Berman, Eric.2011.‘Small Arms Transfers: Exporting States.’ Weapons and Markets.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,25 October. (Q5982)Full Citation

50.

Herron, Patrick, Jasna Lazarevic, Nic Marsh and Matt Schroeder.2011.‘Top Exporters and Importers of Small Arms in 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q5983)Full Citation

51.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11069)Full Citation

52.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Major Exporters and Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11036)Full Citation

53.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Exporters of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11037)Full Citation

54.

Small Arms Survey.2001.‘60 Known Legal Small Arms Exporting Countries, 2001.’ Small Arms Survey 2001: Profiling the Problem.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1 July. (Q867)Full Citation

55.

Switzerland.2009.‘National Laws, Regulations and Decrees - Import.’ National Report of Switzerland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations,31 December. (Q1618)Full Citation

56.

Switzerland.1997.‘Introduction into Swiss Territory in a Professional Capacity.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1546)Full Citation

57.

Switzerland.2008.‘Authorisation to Introduce into Swiss Territory in a Professional Capacity.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1566)Full Citation

58.

Switzerland.2008.‘Authorisation to Introduce into Swiss Territory in a Non-professional Capacity.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1567)Full Citation

59.

Holtom, Paul and Christelle Rigual.2015.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11070)Full Citation

60.

Rigual, Christelle.2015.‘Annexe 4.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2015: Weapons and the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 June. (Q11078)Full Citation

61.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Importers of Small Arms Based on UN Comtrade, 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q11041)Full Citation

62.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Annexes 8.2: Major Importers.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q8486)Full Citation

63.

United Nations.1999.‘Analysis of Country Responses.’ United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation.Vienna:UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division,30 August. (Q1)Full Citation

64.

Switzerland.2009.‘Brokering.’ National Report of Switzerland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations,31 December. (Q1620)Full Citation

65.

Switzerland.1997.‘General Provisions - Subject-Matter, Scope and Definitions.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q4160)Full Citation

66.

Switzerland.2008.‘Ordinance on Arms.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q4161)Full Citation

67.

Pavesi, Irene.2016.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2016.’ Trade Update 2016: Transfers and Transparency.Geneva:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 June. (Q12070)Full Citation

68.

Holtom, Paul, Irene Pavesi, and Christelle Rigual.2014.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2014.’ Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,16 June. (Q10547)Full Citation

69.

Pavesi, Irene and Christelle Rigual.2013.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2013.’ Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q6871)Full Citation

70.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2012.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2012.’ Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q6869)Full Citation

71.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2011.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2011.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,6 July. (Q10549)Full Citation

72.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2010.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2010.’ Small Arms Survey 2010: Gangs, Groups and Guns.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 June. (Q10550)Full Citation

73.

Lazarevic, Jasna.2009.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2009.’ Small Arms Survey 2009: Shadows of War.Cambridge:Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,9 July. (Q10551)Full Citation

74.

Close, Helen and Chris Stevenson.2008.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2008.’ Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,14 July. (Q10552)Full Citation

75.

Glatz, Anne-Kathrin and Lora Lumpe.2007.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2007.’ Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,27 August. (Q10553)Full Citation

76.

Khakee, Anna, Pablo Dreyfus and Anne-Kathrin Glatz.2006.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2006.’ Small Arms Survey 2006: Unfinished Business.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10554)Full Citation

77.

Khakee, Anna.2005.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2005.’ Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,11 July. (Q10555)Full Citation

78.

Khakee, Anna.2004.‘Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer 2004.’ Small Arms Survey 2004: Rights at Risk.Oxford:Oxford University Press and the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,1 July. (Q10556)Full Citation

79.

Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

80.

Switzerland.1997.‘General Provisions - Subject-Matter, Scope and Definitions.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1535)Full Citation

81.

Switzerland.2008.‘Ordinance on Arms.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1552)Full Citation

82.

Sherman, Amy and Tom Ginsburg.2014.‘Gun Rights in National Constitutions.’ Marco Rubio Says Second Amendment Is Unique in Speech to NRA.Miami, FL:Miami Herald (PolitiFact Florida),29 April. (Q8507)Full Citation

83.

Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton. 2013. ‘U.S. Gun Rights Truly Are American Exceptionalism.’ Bloomberg (USA). 7 March. (N422) Full Citation

84.

Switzerland.1997.‘Prohibitions and Restrictions of General Application.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1536)Full Citation

85.

Switzerland.2008.‘Prohibited Ammunitions.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1563)Full Citation

86.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5374)Full Citation

87.

Switzerland.2004.‘Management and Security of Stocks.’ National Report of Switzerland on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York, NY:Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations,30 April. (Q1640)Full Citation

88.

Switzerland.2008.‘Manual Repetition Rifles.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1562)Full Citation

89.

Switzerland.1997.‘Obligation to Hold a Licence to Acquire Arms.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1538)Full Citation

90.

Switzerland.1997.‘Verification by the Transferor.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1540)Full Citation

91.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5396)Full Citation

92.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5424)Full Citation

93.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5425)Full Citation

94.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5384)Full Citation

95.

Switzerland.1997.‘Carrying of Arms.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1549)Full Citation

96.

Switzerland.2008.‘Carrying of Arms.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1555)Full Citation

97.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5447)Full Citation

98.

Parker, Sarah.2011.‘Balancing Act: Regulation of Civilian Firearm Possession.’ Small Arms Survey 2011: States of Security.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,6 July. (Q5380)Full Citation

99.

Switzerland.1997.‘Written Contract.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1541)Full Citation

100.

Switzerland.1997.‘Trade in Arms.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1543)Full Citation

101.

Switzerland.1997.‘Prohibited Forms of Offering.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1537)Full Citation

102.

Switzerland.2008.‘Request for a Licence to Trade in Arms.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1553)Full Citation

103.

Switzerland.1997.‘Validity of the Licence to Acquire Arms.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1539)Full Citation

104.

Switzerland.2008.‘Exceptional Acquisition of Several Arms or Several Essential Components of Arms by Means of a Licence to Acquire Arms.’ Ordinance on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 2 July 2008 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Swiss Federal Council / Translation commissioned by the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva,2 July. (Q1561)Full Citation

105.

Switzerland.1997.‘Acquisition of Ammunitions and Components of Ammunitions.’ Federal Law on Arms, Arms Accessories and Ammunitions of 20 June 1997 (Status as on 12 December 2008).Geneva:Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation / Translation for the Small Arms Survey, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies,20 June. (Q1542)Full Citation

106.

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