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Armed violence prevention, gun control laws and the small arms trade:

Sudan — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Number of Privately Owned Firearms

The estimated total number of guns (both licit and illicit) held by civilians in Sudan is 2,000,0001 2

Rate of Civilian Firearm Possession per 100 Population

The estimated rate of private gun ownership (both licit and illicit) in Sudan is 5.51 firearms per 100 people

Number of Privately Owned Firearms - World Ranking

In a comparison of the number of privately owned guns in 178 countries, Sudan ranked at No. 343

Rate of Privately Owned Firearms per 100 Population - World Ranking

In a comparison of the rate of private gun ownership in 178 countries, Sudan ranked at No. 931

Number of Registered Firearms

The number of registered guns in Sudan is reported to be 6,7241 to 10,0002

Rate of Registered Firearms per 100 Population

The rate of registered guns per 100 people in Sudan is 0.024

Estimated Number of Illicit Firearms

Unlawfully held guns cannot be counted, but in Sudan there are estimated to be 2.4 million5

Government Guns

Number of Military Firearms

The defence forces of Sudan are reported to have 329,0006 firearms

Number of Law Enforcement Firearms

Police in Sudan are reported to have 110,0007 firearms

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn Sudan, annual homicides by any means total

2012: 4,1598
2011: 1,2449
2008: 10,02810

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn Sudan, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2012: 11.28
2011: 3.59
2008: 24.210
2007: 3.7
2004: 28.6011
2002: 30.16

ProductionGun Industry

Regulation of Firearm Makers

In Sudan, the manufacture of small arms, ammunition and/or their components is permitted without a licence, but it can only be conducted in arsenals specified for the purpose by the Council of Ministers12 13

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Regulation of Firearm Exports

In Sudan, firearm and ammunition exports are limited by transfer control law14 15 16

Small Arms Exports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition exports from Sudan is reported by Customs to be US$217 (2009)

Regulation of Firearm Imports

In Sudan, firearm and ammunition imports are limited by transfer control law14 15 16

Small Arms Imports (US$) - Customs

The annual value of small arms and ammunition imports to Sudan is reported by Customs to be US$1,255,00417 (2011)

Smuggling Guns and Ammunition

Reports suggest that the level of firearm and ammunition smuggling in Sudan is moderate18 19

Regulation of Arms Brokers

In Sudan, the activities of arms brokers and transfer intermediaries are not specifically regulated by law15 20

End User Certificates

Customs regulations in Sudan do not include14 15 certification of the intended end user of any small arms or ammunition transfer, and/or a written declaration of its intended end use

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation - Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in Sudan is categorised as restrictive21

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in Sudan includes the Arms, Ammunition and Explosives Act, 1986 and the Arms, Ammunition and Explosives Regulations, 1993, incorporating Amendment No. 1 of 199722 23

Right to Possess Firearms

In Sudan, the right to private gun ownership is not guaranteed by law24 25

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In Sudan, private possession of fully automatic weapons is permitted under licence25 26 9

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In Sudan, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is permitted under licence25 26

Regulation of Handguns

In Sudan, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is permitted under licence, except for collection25 26 27 9

Law Regulates Long Guns

In Sudan, civilian possession of rifles and shotguns is regulated by law25 26 9

Gun Ownership and Possession

In Sudan, only licensed gun owners (for certain arms)28 25 27 9 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Applicants for a gun owner’s licence in Sudan are required to establish a genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example hunting, target shooting, collection, security27

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in Sudan is 30 years for a firearm and 25 years for an air weapon29

Gun Owner Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in Sudan must pass a background check which considers criminal and mental30 9 records

Firearm Safety Training

In Sudan, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required31 25 for a firearm licence

Gun Owner Licensing Period

In Sudan, gun owners must re-apply and re-qualify for their firearm licence every year32

Licensing Records

In Sudan, authorities maintain a record33 of individual civilians licensed to acquire, possess, sell or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Limit on Number of Guns

Licensed firearm owners in Sudan are permitted to possess two firearms per authorisation25

Limit on Quantity, Type of Ammunition

Licensed firearm owners in Sudan are permitted to possess a limited quantity of ammunition34 25

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In Sudan, the law requires33 35 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In Sudan, licensed firearm dealers are required36 37 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Manufacturer Record Keeping

In Sudan, licensed gun makers are not required33 38 39 to keep a record of each firearm produced, for inspection by a regulating authority

State-Owned Firearm Records

In Sudan, State agencies are required35 40 to maintain records of the storage and movement of all firearms and ammunition under their control

Gun Sales and Transfers

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In Sudan, the private sale and transfer of firearms is permitted with the approval of the licensing authority in specific circumstances41

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In Sudan, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful42 43

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Private

Firearm regulations in Sudan do not include25 44 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private firearms and ammunition by licensed gun owners

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations - Government

Government regulations in Sudan do not include45 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by state entities

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In Sudan, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law33 46 47 48 49

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In Sudan, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is regulated by law9

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In Sudan, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is allowed, subject to a valid permit28 50

Penalty for Illicit Firearm Possession

In Sudan, the maximum penalty for unlawful possession of a firearm51 is 7 years prison and a fine52 53

Collection, Amnesty and Destruction Programmes

Authorities in Sudan are known to have54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 implemented voluntary firearm surrender schemes, and/or weapon seizure programmes in order to reduce the number of illicit firearms in circulation

Surrendered in Gun Amnesty

In Sudan, the number of firearms voluntarily surrendered in recent arms amnesty and collection programmes is reported to be 9,44162 (2003)

Destruction and Disposal Policy

In Sudan, it is not state policy63 64 52 62 to destroy surplus, collected and seized firearms rather than return them to the secondary arms market

MeasuresInternational Controls

Regional Agreements

League of Arab States

As a member of the League of Arab States, Sudan adopted the Arab Model Law on Weapons, Ammunitions, Explosives and Hazardous Material in January 200265

African Union

In June 2006, as a member of the African Union, Sudan adopted an African Common Position to take to the Conference to Review the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA), held in June 200666

Regional Centre on Small Arms

In March 2000, as a member of the Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA), Sudan adopted the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, then on 21 April 2004 adopted the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States, a legally-binding multilateral protocol of which the RECSA is depository. The Nairobi Protocol has since been signed, and ratified67 68 by Sudan

United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The UNCCPCJ, a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council mandated to promote action to prevent national and transnational crime, lists69 Sudan as an elected member

Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development

The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, a diplomatic initiative aimed at addressing the interrelations between armed violence and development, was signed in 200770 by Sudan.

United Nations Arms Trade Treaty

The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has not been signed71 by Sudan

United Nations Firearms Protocol

The United Nations Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition has not been signed72 by Sudan

United Nations Small Arms Programme of Action UNPoA

UNPoA Commitment

On 21 July 2001, Sudan committed to a consensus decision of the United Nations to adopt, support and implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects73

UNPoA Implementation Monitor Score

In its UN small arms Programme of Action Implementation Monitor (PoAIM Phase 1), the Small Arms Survey scored Sudan against its commitments to the PoA, then ranked it at No. 13874 75 76 77 among 159 Member States

UNPoA National Reporting

Under the terms of its 2001 commitment to the United Nations small arms Programme of Action, Sudan has submitted one or more national reports78 79 on its implementation of the UNPoA

UNPoA National Point of Contact

In Sudan, a National Point of Contact to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated80 79

UNPoA National Coordinating Body

In Sudan, a National Coordinating Body to deal with issues relating to the UNPoA has been designated80

UNPoA Civil Society Involvement and Support

In National Reports of Sudan submitted to the UN, a history of substantive cooperation with civil society in support of UNPoA activities is apparent80 79

UNPoA International Assistance – Donor

Funds for UNPoA implementation have not been donated79 by Sudan to other UN Member States

UNPoA International Assistance – Recipient

Funds for UNPoA implementation have been provided79 to Sudan by other UN Member States

United Nations Small Arms Register

According to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, Sudan has not declared81 its small arms exports in one or more annual National Reports on Arms Exports.

United Nations Membership

In the UN List of Member States, Sudan has been a Member State of the United Nations since 195682

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls and Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies does not list83 Sudan as a Participating State

BackgroundCountry Profile

Conflict Profile

For a profile of conflict in Sudan, select the Link icon to open an external web page from the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia at Uppsala University

Global Peace Index

To see where Sudan ranks, select the Link icon to open an external web page at the Global Peace Index


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